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2024 | Buch

Infrastructure and Built Environment for Sustainable and Resilient Societies

Proceedings of IBSR 2023

herausgegeben von: Arkopal Kishore Goswami, Bharath Haridas Aithal, Swati Maitra, Ankhi Banerjee

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Sustainable Civil Infrastructures


Über dieses Buch

This book presents the select proceedings of the Annual Conference on "Infrastructure and Built Environment: Towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies" (IBSR 2023). It covers the latest research and technologies in the area of smart and sustainable built environment for inclusive societies. Various topics covered in this volume are multimodal urban transport, spatial informatics in urban planning, urban morphology, sustainable transport infrastructure development and many more. This book will be useful for researchers and professionals working in the fields of urban mobility, affordable housing, road infrastructure, and spatial informatics.



Multimodal Urban Transport

Chapter 1. Transportation Hub as an Urban Magnet: A Case of Nagpur Metro
Public transportation networks have the potential to act as urban magnets, catalyzing growth and development inside cities. The paper investigates the Nagpur Metro in India and how it is drawing travelers, real estate investment, and urban renewal initiatives. First, an overview of how transportation hubs act as magnets that boost, employment opportunities, trade, and property values is given. The impact of the Nagpur Metro on connectivity, local economy, ecology, and real estate in Nagpur is then examined. Forecasts of metro ridership demonstrate the system's capacity to entice residents as well as visitors. Studies of two metro stations in Nagpur show clear effects on land value and land use, with property values rising by up to 50% as a result of the metro's construction. Additionally, the metro is reducing the city's traffic jams and pollutants from vehicles. The study analyzes these advantages as well as legislative considerations to ensure equitable transportation improvements. The Nagpur Metro serves as a concrete example of how strategic transportation investments can spur development. The paper adds a ground-level analysis of the growth and changes that can be directly linked to a metro system acting as an urban magnet.
Mrunalini Joshi, Manmohan Kapshe
Chapter 2. Identification of Indicators for Shared e-Mobility Plan in a Tier-Ii City: A Case of Bhopal
Electric Vehicle (EV) usage is being taken as one of the solutions for reducing the problem of emissions from the transport sector. In order to promote EV adoption, Governments (Govts.) all over the world are preparing several policies so as to incentivize more number of consumers to opt for EVs as their new choice of transport. Researchers and policymakers have also pointed out that the introduction of EVs in the public mode of transport can reduce such emissions to a high extent. In case of India, introduction of e-Buses in Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS) in Bhopal, Agra, etc. are some of the steps toward electrifying the public transport system. Similar to this, the Govt. has also proposed to introduce the shared e-mobility in Bhopal, under the smart city mission. This proposal calls for establishing several docking stations from where people can rent an e-moped and travel to any location where they can dock the vehicle and complete their trip. In most of the Western countries, such proposals are implemented by the business community. In this research paper, we have tried to identify some of the crucial indicators which impact the location of such docking stations and set up a methodology, which takes into consideration public preferences as priority for such allocations.
Pandey Satvik, Ahmed Seemi
Chapter 3. Identifying Potential for Non-motorized Transportation: A Case of Siliguri
Non-motorized transport (NMT) has the potential to offer an inclusive and environmentally friendly mode of transportation for urban areas in India. Nevertheless, the proportion of NMT mode usage has experienced a decrease from approximately 40–60% during the 1980s to a range of 10–30% now. The present study examines the feasibility of boosting NMT in Siliguri, India, through the utilization of mixed research methodologies. The literature study serves to provide the global context and elucidate the benefits of NMT. The examination of secondary data pertaining to the transport patterns in Siliguri indicates the presence of a high population density, a combination of different land uses, and a strategically advantageous location that is conducive to a focus on NMT. The results of the primary survey conducted among citizens reveal a significant underlying desire for the establishment of specialized infrastructure for cycling and pedestrian activities, with the aim of potentially decreasing the frequency of short vehicle journeys. Geographic mapping serves to identify deficiencies in current provisions. The evaluation of the built environment, transit connectivity, and socio-cultural elements involves an examination of both potential advantages and obstacles. The proposed integrated strategy encompasses the building of a NMT network, implementation of traffic calming measures, integration of transit systems, marketing of the strategy, and monitoring its effectiveness. The adoption of a coordinated implementation strategy has the potential to facilitate Siliguri in capitalizing on the advantages associated with increased NMT usage, including improved accessibility, environmental sustainability, economic prosperity, and enhanced public health. The utilization of multidimensional analysis offers a framework for the development of evidence-based planning for NMT in urban areas of India.
Nilanjan Paul, Rahul Tiwari
Chapter 4. Potential of Alternative Technology for Urban Freight—A Case of Dehradun
Urban freight is an essential component of modern cities’ economic and social fabric, but its environmental impact has increasingly become a significant concern. To address this challenge, research has been conducted to explore the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits of alternative fuels and technologies for urban freight. Dehradun city in Uttarakhand, a “Counter Magnet” of the National Capital Region undergoing significant development, was chosen for the case study to examine the impact of urban freight and explore feasible solutions to mitigate emissions by Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs). Having undertaken a meticulous review of the literature on alternative fuels, it was concluded that electric vehicles represent the most suitable option for LCVs to mitigate emissions and promote environmental sustainability. The current features of urban freight were analyzed by scrutinizing key transport routes and major logistics hubs to identify the main freight corridors and freight generation areas. Demand for LCV was assessed in urban areas based on the commodities such as perishable goods and tonnage carriefd by the vehicle which are generated mostly for intracity freight trips. The findings indicated a considerable decline in emissions within the city as a result of replacing conventional fuel-driven light commercial vehicles with battery-electric vehicles. For instance, the study reported a 33.3% reduction in Carbon emissions from the use of EVs for intracity freight trips.
Bhutani Supriya, Vaidya Karan, Prabakaran Dhivya, Kondapalli Anjana, Gupta Naina, Ghosh Solanki, Sesidhar Sai
Chapter 5. Assessing Non-motorized Mobility Planning: A Case of Indore City
Cities in India are economic engines, accounting for almost two-thirds of the country's GDP. Cities are currently swamped by growing personal vehicle use (at a rate of 12% per year over the last two decades) and a declining share of public transportation, resulting in severe traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality, road accidents, fatalities, and a slew of other mobility-related issues. The concept of a non-motorized transit system is not new, but previous towns were constructed with non-motorized transit in mind. It aids in the reduction of several traffic issues as well as the improvement of human physical health. In global cities, the distribution of road space among various types of transportation is a contentious subject. We need streets where automobiles are a part but not the main focus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the non-motorized transit systems and propose planning interventions for corridor level in Indore City. This research looked at both public mass transit and non-motorized transit systems, as well as the connections between them. The main goal of this study was to study the existing conditions of transit systems on a global and national level, analyze non-motorised transit and other transit modes the at corridor level in Indore City and propose non-motorised transit interventions and policy recommendations at the corridor level in Indore city. Through the study, it is concluded that non-motorized transit choices are urgently needed. Cities must plan their transit systems and non-motorized transit systems cohesively. Non-motorized transit systems provide advantages in terms of the environment, economy, social welfare, and personal health. To improve the city's overall accessibility, evaluation should be done at both the macro and micro levels to formulate non-motorized transit planning strategies and policies.
Jaiswal Neha, Surawar Meenal

Sustainable Transport Infrastructure Development

Chapter 6. Road Safety Assessment of Hill Roads: A Case Study of Dehradun, Mussoorie
India has consistently ranked high in terms of road accident fatality in the last three decades despite the efforts taken to reduce them which are curative and preventive in nature. Road safety assessment is a preventive approach that is practiced in several forms around the world; out of which, the road safety audit is the recommended assessment method in India by the Indian Road Congress. The audit format provided in IRC SP 88 is a checklist meant to ensure the presence of road safety features and the recommendations for safety improvements which heavily rely on the bias or the prior experience of the road safety auditor. Some common drawbacks of the road safety audit are that the checklist for post-opening of a road is provided commonly for all roads, be it urban or rural, plain terrain, or mountainous terrain. The checklist also does not provide any ways to evaluate or quantify the safety performance of the road which makes it difficult to measure the extent of the improvement in road conditions after the changes suggested by the road safety auditor have been implemented. This paper aims to address these drawbacks by introducing a scoring technique by improving upon the current road safety audit method. The Road Safety Performance (RSP) Score which is coined in this paper is obtained chainage wise by quantifying each of the checklist parameters in the IRC SP 88. The paper also recalculates the RSP score after the treatment measures are over, to demonstrate how the scoring method helps to measure the degree of improvement post-treatment and the efficacy of the treatment measures employed.
Sneha George, Vignesh Arunasalam, Dushala Verma, Navya Indupalli, Naina Gupta, Solanki Ghosh
Chapter 7. Why Pedestrians Do not Walk on Walkways?
Quality assessment of infrastructure often relies on performance and satisfaction analysis. Yet, pedestrians base their choices on previous experiences, perceptions, and infrastructure supportiveness, to which, traditional methods like Road Safety and Safety Performance Analysis fall short. Pedestrian decisions, influenced by ‘push factors’, determine whether they choose to walk or switch to other modes of transportation. Assigning numerical values to pedestrian experiences may lead to clustered responses due to personal biases. This paper employs a systems approach, applying Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis to understand the relationships between walkability factors and pedestrian behaviors. Further, the paper extracts important factors based on pedestrian behaviors: The paper identifies four groups of factors based on their importance in addressing pedestrian needs. It proposes a methodology for establishing hierarchies among qualitative factors, using different pedestrian behaviors as thresholds for different infrastructure conditions and experiences. Through the process, the paper identifies the absence of surface evenness, difficulty in accessing buses and IPT, and lack of cleanliness as the most important (linked factors) and common causes for various strategies ahead of the commencement of pedestrian journey. On the other side, inadequate night illumination, overcrowding, lack of continuity of walkways, presence of obstruction on walkways, lack of accessibility, and perception of an unsafe pedestrian environment as important factors that needs to be addressed as interventions to improve ‘on-arrival’ or on site experience of pedestrian supportiveness.
S. Dasgupta, Joy Sen
Chapter 8. Driver Skill Profiling Using Machine Learning
Road safety is a critical aspect of public safety, and driving skills are essential to ensuring safety on the road. An accurate understanding of one's driving abilities is crucial in promoting safe driving practices and reducing the risk of accidents. Overconfidence and underestimating road events can lead to a false sense of handling emergencies and may result in a higher risk of traffic offenses and accidents. Young and novice drivers are particularly susceptible to these issues and may overestimate their abilities, leading to a higher risk tolerance. Machine learning is a viable approach that can compare perceived and actual skills to measure subjective driving skills accurately. A scoring system based on machine learning algorithms can quantify driver skills effectively and improve self-awareness, ultimately contributing to increased road safety. The proposed scoring system can give drivers an accurate assessment of their abilities, helping them take necessary corrective actions to work on their weaknesses. Driving style, encompassing violations, errors, and lapses, and driving skills, including perceptual motor skills and safety skills, are the two main components of the human factor in driving. Training sessions may be conducted based on the proposed scoring system using machine learning that can help improve drivers' self-awareness and reduce the risk of accidents.
Nadeem Akhtar, Mithun Mohan
Chapter 9. Investigating Role of Range Anxiety in Electrification of Shared Mobility
This research paper examines the repercussions of rapid urbanization and population growth on transportation, emphasizing the escalating social costs of increased vehicle ownership, including pollution and accidents. Focusing on Noida, the study scrutinizes shared mobility, particularly electric rickshaws, within the city's context. The research analyzes national and state-level policies, assesses shared mobility usage through surveys, and highlights economic challenges faced by electric vehicle (EV) operators due to range anxiety. By tracking an e-rickshaw operator and quantifying range anxiety, the study identifies a critical distance threshold where charging infrastructure could enhance operator performance. Comparing EV charging stations and battery swapping, the research concludes that battery swapping is a more efficient solution for shared mobility, reducing waiting times and overall costs. The study advocates for a location-oriented strategy in charging infrastructure development to facilitate the seamless integration of EVs into shared transportation, addressing both user and operator perspectives.

Smart and Inclusive Habitat

Chapter 10. Holistic Age-Friendly Communities: A Comprehensive Literature Review on Factors Affecting the Elderly Experience in Built Environments
Creation of liveable environments that cater to the needs of people of all ages; especially in the contemporary scenario, where aging and urbanization determine liveability. The study underscores the need for planners to design communities that can accommodate the increasing number of elderly individuals, as their presence is integral to fostering a fulfilling aging experience. The review aims to identify the factors that influence the lives of the elderly within the built environment and the social spaces. The comparative studies on various programs for age-friendliness globally lead to the identification of indicators for selected factors. The analysis categorizes factors for an age-friendly community into social, physical, psychological, and economic. In spite of providing age-friendly environments, evidence of their impact remains scanty. Specific approaches to local contexts enhance the effectiveness of age-friendly communities in promoting active aging and quality life. Existing frameworks primarily focus on urban areas. However, implementation in rural areas requires special attention, so as to address the needs of all citizens. Necessity for context-specific considerations in developing age-friendly communities is established. The interconnectedness of various aspects of age-friendliness qualifies the need for a cohesive system analysis, rather than separate entities.
S. Sehrawat, A. George, B. G. Menon
Chapter 11. Spatial Distribution of Human Development Indicators Using Census Data: Case of Kolkata Urban Agglomeration
The relation between HDI and urbanization is not a direct one and is dependent more on how the urban areas are managed. Thus, urban areas provide both opportunities for enhancing human capabilities and also points of deprivation and inequality. On one hand, metropolitan areas do provide better access to educational and health services, employment opportunities, higher wages, and basic services so it may have a positive effect on human development which forms a good argument to explore this aspect further. On the other hand, are these opportunities equally accessible to all in urban areas? Firstly, the growth of a metropolis does not always lead to economic growth and secondly, higher GDP does not always mean higher HDI. So, to understand the nature of metropolitan development it is crucial that the spatial variations in human development of its population are explored which indicates the socio-economic condition of the metropolis and its urban footprint.
Mouli Majumdar, Joy Sen
Chapter 12. Are the Gated Mass High-Rise Housing Developments Liveable? A Case of Ahmedabad, India
The population of the world has increased rapidly. To house the ever-growing population and increase urban density, high-rise housing has been advocated as a compact, effective, and sustainable solution. Several advantages like higher energy efficiency, lesser resource consumption, better accessibility, more profit to developers, privacy, views, and noiselessness are associated with high-rise housing. With all these benefits, high-rise housing is still debatable due to its livability issues like ruining social relations, lack of safety and security, and mental and physical health problems. The livability issues have been believed to be a key reason for the decline of high-rise housing in developed nations. However, gated high-rise housing is still being constructed massively in developing nations like India. It has become the foremost housing form and has greatly changed urban settings and lifestyles. However, research on the livability performance of these housing projects is limited. To address this gap, the current study attempts to explore the livability potential of gated mass high-rise housings in the Indian context. The key objectives are to analyze the growth and evolution of gated mass high-rise housings in the Indian context; to document the features of such projects and examine the actual usage conditions; and to evaluate the livability potential for the residents in such projects and derive recommendations for the improvement of current and future projects. A case study with a mixed-method approach is adopted for the current research. It includes historical inquiry, qualitative study, and quantitative surveys in Ahmedabad city. The qualitative study includes site investigations, observations, and interviews and helps reveal the residents’ use and perception of livability. The quantitative surveys assist in understanding the importance and satisfaction of the overall housing environment and livability at the three spatial levels—apartment (dwelling), apartment building, and housing society by the Importance–Satisfaction Analysis. The research aims to identify practical implications of livability in gated mass high-rise housings in the Indian context.
Sunny Bansal, Vidhu Bansal, Nazish Abid
Chapter 13. Assessing Urban Morphology and Spatial Histories Through Space Syntax: Case of Varanasi, India
In an urban fabric, the physical manifestation of urban form, which is perceived on the ground, has manifold layers of evolutionary decisions behind it. These layers may include the conditions of the physical terrain, the social relationships of people, the cultural practices, the economic conditions, or the community’s position in the urban ecosystem. With the advent of globalization, the communities that have evolved through localized traditions that include the built environment get exposed. There is a massive diversity of urban forms within and among the different urban traditions of the historical and traditional cities. While investigating the case of traditional cities, it is necessary to take a deeper look at the urban form and associated contextual data to understand the various formal and informal logics that inform the city’s urban form. There are two conceptual ways to study it: Spatial histories and the history of places. Where narratives by indwelling communities can play a key role in understanding the history of places, the idea of understanding spatial histories is still under exploration. Here, the space syntax technique is useful for understanding the spatial evolution of the urban fabric over a significant period. The present study uses space syntax to understand the urban morphology of the built fabric and study it through two different sets of maps (1928 and 2018) to develop a morphological understanding of the city. The study correlates it with the narratives observed on the ground. Varanasi is explored as a case study in the present paper. The study concludes that the morphology of a place is like a history written in the urban grain itself and hence may provide a plethora of information that would otherwise be lost, altered, or completely skipped from the collective historical narratives.
Vidhu Bansal, Joy Sen

Spatial Informatics in Urban Planning

Chapter 14. Quantitative Assessment of Urban Road Network Hierarchy, Topology, and Walkable Access Using Open-Source GIS Tools
To support the road transportation system and improve the performance of vehicular traffic movement, the efficacy of the road networks is of utmost importance. This paper highlights a quantitative analysis of urban road network hierarchy, topology, and pedestrian accessibility by utilizing free and open-source GIS tools and OpenStreetMap (OSM). The topological pattern of the road network was assessed in terms of connectivity and coverage measures using graph theory. The study area was analyzed by computing selected topological measures across several square grids at varying scales. The results showed that the size of the grid influences the numerical values of topological measures differently. Two other measures such as AwaP (area-weighted average perimeter) and IC (interface catchment) were also explored to study walkable accessibility that enabled analysis of actual urban morphologies based on OSM urban footprint. Further, a hierarchy of road and street networks was generated using COINS (Continuity In Street Networks) and the results indicated that this algorithm could detect the skeletal structure of a city’s road network. The study suggested that improving road networks in underdeveloped regions could promote urban development and economic growth.
Rahisha Thottolil, Uttam Kumar, Yash Mittal
Infrastructure and Built Environment for Sustainable and Resilient Societies
herausgegeben von
Arkopal Kishore Goswami
Bharath Haridas Aithal
Swati Maitra
Ankhi Banerjee
Springer Nature Singapore
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