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The use of plastic tooling in injection molding occurs within the field of Rapid Tooling (RT), which provides processes that are capable of producing injection mold tooling for low volume manufacturing at reduced costs and lead times. Such tooling allows the injection molding of parts in the end-use materials for functional prototype evaluation, short series production, and the validation of designs prior to hard tooling commitment. The term Rapid Tooling is somewhat ambiguous – its name suggests a tooling method that is simply produced quickly. However, the term is generically associated with a tooling method that in some form involves rapid prototyping technologies.
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Harris, R.A., 2001, Direct AIM Tooling Section, Wohlers Report 2001, Rapid Prototyping & Tooling State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report, Wohlers Associates Inc., USA, Part 3: Tooling, Page 61.
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Janyanthi, S., 1997, Stereolithography Injection Moulds for Direct Tooling, Proceedings of the 9th European Stereolithography Users Group Meeting, 2nd–3rd November, Florence, Italy.
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Jacobs, P., 1997, Recent Advances in Rapid Tooling from Stereolithography, 7th International Conference on RP, 31st March–3rd April, San Francisco, USA, pp 341–354.
Jacobs, P.F., 1996, Recent Advances in Rapid Tooling from Stereolithography, Proceedings of the 2nd National Conference on Rapid Prototyping and Tooling Research, 18th–19th November, Buckinghamshire College, UK, pp 135–152.
Harris, R.A. and Dickens, P.M., 2001, Mould Variables in Stereolithography Injection Moulds, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), CRC Press, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Rahmati, S. and Dickens, P.M., 1997, Stereolithography Injection Mould Tool Failure Analysis, Proceedings of Solid Freeform Fabrication symposium, 11th–13th August, Austin, USA, pp 295–306.
Jayanthi, S., Hokuf, B., McConnell, R., Speer, R.J., and Fussell, P.S., 1997, Stereolithography Injection Moulds for Direct Tooling, Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 11th–13th August, Austin, USA, pp 275–286.
Greaves, T. and Troy, M.I., 1997, Using Stereolithography to Directly Develop Rapid Injection Mold Tooling, TCT Conference, 29th–30th September, Gaydon, UK, pp 127–133.
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Palmer, A. and Colton, J., 1999, Design Rules for Stereolithography Injection Moulding Inserts, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), New York, USA, pp 4002–4006.
McDonald, J.A., Ryall, C.J., and Wimpenny, D.I., 2001, Rapid Prototyping Casebook, Professional Engineering Publishing, London.
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Jayanthi, S., 1998, Influence of Laser Systems on the Physical Properties of Parts Imaged Using Stereolithography, North American Stereolithography Users Group meeting, 1st–5th March, San Antonio, USA.
Schulthess, A., Steinmann, B., and Hofmann, M., 1996, Cibatool TM SL Epoxy Resins and Some New Applications, Proceedings of the 1996 North American Stereolithography Users Group Meeting, 10–14 March, San Diego, USA.
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Hopkinson, N., 1999, Investigation into Part Ejection and Heat Transfer in the Direct AIM TM Process, PhD thesis, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
Harris, R.A., 2002, The Injection Moulding of PEEK Using Stereolithography Moulds, RAPTIA Newsletter No.7, April 2002, Grafisk Profil, Denmark, pp 6–7.
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Dawson, K., 1998, The Effect of Rapid Tooling on Final Product Properties, Proceedings of North American Stereolithography Users Group Meeting, 1st–5th March, San Antonio, USA.
Damle, M., Mehta, S., Malloy, R., and McCarthy, S., 1998, Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of an Injection Molded part and a Stereolithography-Insert Molded Part, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), Atlanta, USA, pp 584–588.
Velarde, D.A. and Yeagley, M.J., 2000, Linear Shrinkage Differences in Injection Moulded Parts. Plastics Engineering, The Society of Plastics Engineers, December 2000, pp 60–64.
Gipson, P., Grelle, P., and Salamon, B., 1999, The effects of process conditions, nominal wall thickness, and flow length on the shrinkage characteristics of injection molded polypropylene, The Journal of Injection Molding Technology, vol. 3, no. 3. pp 117–125.
Patel, P., 1997, Effect of Processing Conditions on the Shrinkage and Crystallinity of Injection Moulded Parts, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), Toronto, Canada, pp 3632–3635.
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Pierick, D. and Noller, R., 1991, The Effect of Processing Conditions on Shrinkage, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), Montreal, Canada, pp 252–253.
Langen, M. and Michaeli, W., 1997, Temperature Distribution in Rapid Tooling Cavities – How Close are Injection Moulded Prototypes to Series Parts? Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC), Toronto, Canada, pp 939–945.
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Harris, R.A., Hague, R.J.M., and Dickens, P.M., 2003, Crystallinity Control in Parts Produced from Stereolithography Injection Mould Tooling, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L, Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, vol. 217, no. L4, pp 269–276.
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