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Über dieses Buch

The purpose of the book is to devise an alternative conceptual vocabulary for studying innovation by stressing the role of social, contextual and cultural perspectives. This vocabulary is drawn on a service and on sociological perspectives on innovation based on the ontological assumption that innovation is a value co-creation matter and that it takes place in a reality that is multiple, constructed and socially embedded. The aim is to tackle key issues such as social construction, service innovation, knowledge and learning processes, value (co) creation, innovating and innovation activities networking and collaborative innovation.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Innovation is one of the most hotly debated topics in contemporary research disciplines.
Tiziana Russo-Spena, Cristina Mele, Maaria Nuutinen

Perspectives: Conceptual Insights


Chapter 2. Schools of Innovation Thought

This chapter aims to start a debate about the underlying assumptions of innovation schools (research traditions) in which various frameworks and models have been developed. By identifying the social science research dimensions in innovation studies, we highlight three schools of innovation thought: (1) linear and planned, (2) iterative and interactive, and (3) practice based. A common perspective emerges within each school with regard to how scholars recognize themselves as a research community (sociological) and set meanings and purposes in focusing on social phenomena (teleological) according to specific beliefs about the nature and the structure of these phenomena (ontological) that in turn influence the knowledge scholars can obtain about them (epistemological). The overall process of grasping social reality is affected by researchers’ values and axiological skills (ethical). Our main claims are that we should be more aware of the epistemological and ontological assumptions of our research, and we should make those assumptions more explicit. In these ways, we cannot only recognize limitations but also be confident when various stances are working “well enough” for practical purposes. Such knowledge creates paths toward new innovation frameworks that reflect the complexity of innovation phenomena and create better conditions for innovation theorizing.
Cristina Mele, Tiziana Russo-Spena, Maaria Nuutinen, Katri Kallio

Chapter 3. Extending the Context of Innovation: The Co-creation and Institutionalization of Technology and Markets

This chapter extends traditional, as well as systemic, views of innovation, by advancing an ecosystems perspective on innovation that is based on value co-creation. We draw on a service-ecosystems view, which is grounded in service-dominant (S-D) logic, to integrate and extend prior views on innovation. In particular, we argue that both technologies and markets are shaped by value co-creation and the ongoing negotiation and recombination of overlapping and intersecting institutions. This points toward institutionalization—the development, maintenance, and change of institutions—as a central process by which multiple actors, in dynamic social systems, contribute to the development of new technologies and markets. This co-creative and institutional approach extends the context of innovation beyond firms’ activities and potentially provides a robust, parsimonious, and dynamic context for studying the underlying drivers of innovation. This systemic approach reveals important insights into how collaborative practices that drive the co-creation of value can guide innovation as well.
Melissa Archpru Akaka, Stephen L. Vargo, Heiko Wieland

Chapter 4. Market Innovation: Renewal of Traditional Industrial Networks

The study adopts a constructionist approach to markets, positing that markets are socially constructed human artifacts resulting from the actions and cognitive framing of the involved actors. The present research had three objectives: to develop a conceptual framework for categorizing managerial market definitions, to investigate empirically how practitioners frame novel markets, and to identify challenges associated with creating innovative market definitions in traditional industrial networks. The chapter draws on data collected within an extensive research program, carried out between March 2009 and December 2010. The program consisted of six academic research projects covering a wide range of theoretical backgrounds as well as interactions with 112 senior managers from ten major firms in a series of 52 workshops. The proposed conceptual framework supplements the current dominant product-based view of market definitions by positing that managers in industrial networks can also choose to define their markets based on (1) the firm’s resources and capabilities, (2) the network’s resources and capabilities, (3) the customers’ processes, and (4) the end-consumers’ practices. The results of the study additionally showed that current product-based theories of markets also influence managerial judgment: practitioners framed the vast majority of new market opportunities (73 %) around the product or service being sold.
Suvi Nenonen, Kristian Möller, Kaj Storbacka

Chapter 5. Practice-Based Approaches to Learning and Innovating

This chapter examines how practice-based learning perspectives allow to approach the broad, service-based view of innovation and its processes as a collaborative learning process of creating something new in a better way. We focus on studying three practice-based learning approaches through their key concepts. More specifically, we are interested in how these theories interpret the creation of new social structures, learning processes, practices and tools in the cultural-historic context for the creation of new knowledge and activity. The study brings new conceptual insights to the topical phenomena about various learning mechanisms in order to contribute especially to the processes of innovation and enhance as well as facilitate innovation activities within and between organisations in a purposeful manner. Thus, as our conclusion, we state that, by increasing the in-depth understanding of different mechanisms of learning in action and between actors, we can create better conditions for innovation to take place.
Katri Kallio, Tiziana Russo-Spena, Inka Lappalainen, Cristina Mele

Perspectives: A Practice-Based View


Chapter 6. Innovating as a Texture of Practices

This chapter focuses on the social ways of doing business innovation in actual conditions of complexity. By applying the concept of practical accomplishment, innovating is seen as “a texture of practices,” that is, a set of practices resting on other practices. We use the metaphor of texture to develop a fresh conceptualization of innovating. A texture is made up of a weft and a warp; the warp concerns the vertical threads that run along the length of the yardage and the weft refers to the horizontal threads that run from side to side. In innovating as a texture, the weft represents the practice of co-creating and the warp represents the practice of weaving. The multiple connections in actions that arise at the cross points of warp and weft allow the big picture to emerge. This conceptualization goes beyond the economic stance to emphasize the social–contextual nature of innovating, in which establishing relationships and giving them specific forms within a situated practice activate knowing. The focus shifts to the activities, actors, and resources involved in sociomaterial and cultural practices in which innovating occurs. In this realm, innovating emerges as a continuous process.
Cristina Mele, Tiziana Russo-Spena

Chapter 7. Innovating as an Interaction of Practices: The Case of Customers’ Use of a New Website

While innovation is the final outcome of a company-based process, ‘innovating’ is innovation in action, that is, it takes place within the normal consumer practices surrounding a new product or service. By engaging with a new product, consumers shape innovation. Thus, consumers provide the final, essential stage in a company’s innovation. This chapter will focus on the actual use of new web services by customers. Through a mixed method approach based on observation and introspection, we analysed the practices of Internet users that unfold when facing a website that is new to them and addressed the question of which practices customers adopt in order to allow an innovation to enter their daily practices. We argue that the use of a new service is an interaction between the consumer practices required by the design of the new service (such as pressing buttons, following a detailed sequence of options, etc.) and the regular daily practices of the customers (such as opening a link, putting keywords in a search engine, etc.). The success of this interaction determines the success of the innovation, while its failure requires an adjustment to the innovation design.
Stefano Pace, Antonella Carù, Bernard Cova

Chapter 8. Practices of Service Innovation Diffusion

Service innovation has often been conceptualized as a linear multistage development process within a main innovator system. In this logic, innovation is communicated through certain channels over time, and adopters play a key role in the process of innovation diffusion. This study moves away from this conceptualization and proposes service innovation diffusion (SID) as an emergent process of co-construction and sense-making by companies, customers and other partners. Such actors enact practices by interacting and integrating resources in a social, economic and cultural context. In particular, thanks to the analysis of ten case studies, we identify specific practices of SID in which actors make sense of and share meanings about innovation, both individually and collectively. These practices enable confidence in service innovation, creation of shared meanings among actors and leveraging of actors’ competencies. The study also highlights the dual role of users, who can simultaneously act as adopters and rejectors.
Daniela Corsaro, Roberta Sebastiani, Cristina Mele

Chapter 9. Innovation with Effectuation: An Opportunity for the Public Sector

This chapter focuses on new innovation models in the public sector. It analyses the specificities of the public sector—institutionalism and professionalism—as the context of innovation. On the other hand, it argues that entrepreneurial innovation processes combined with the perspectives of learning and networking are very well applicable—not only in the private companies but in public organizations as well. Based on this view, the effectual approach, closely linked to service-dominant logic (SDL), is examined as a theoretical construct and tested in practice. An ‘effectual-type’ process, in which a city administration collaborates with citizens groups to foster the mutual expansion of resources, is described as a case and the characteristics showing analytical generalizability are identified.
Kirsti Mäensivu, Marja Toivonen, Karo Tammela

Perspectives: Conceptual Merging


Chapter 10. Framing the New Social–Service Innovation Mindset

This chapter addresses a proposal for an integrated perspective on social–service innovation. In particular, research effort is devoted to developing a framework that captures the challenges of new social issues within the contemporary landscape of service innovation. The research interest is twofold: (1) to understand conceptually how social and service innovation perspectives can be combined into a more integrated approach and (2) to provide a social–service innovation framework within which to understand how social innovation can be built onto concepts and practices of service innovation logic. Building on insights and categories from the existing literature on social innovation and service innovation, the chapter identifies five issues that are integral to the proposed social–service innovation framework. The proposed framework aims to add to the efforts of scholars in developing new ideas, concepts and tools that more deeply explicate the complex and multifaceted nature, structure and processes of social innovation. By combining the main social and service dimensions, it addresses the opportunity for furthering research discussion and practical implications concerning a new social innovation mindset.
Tiziana Russo-Spena, Maria Colurcio, Monia Melia

Chapter 11. Conceptualizing Resource Integration to Advance Service Innovation

The chapter provides a literature review of the resource integration (RI) phenomenon through a bibliometric analysis including 1250 ISI listed journal articles. The main contribution of the study is an overview and analysis of how RI has been portrayed in marketing and management research and the six most important RI dimensions or themes. Furthermore, the analysis highlights two main research areas and approaches on RI: the traditional school of good-dominant logic (GD logic) and the recent school of service-dominant logic (SD logic).
Maria Colurcio, Angela Caridà, Bo Edvardsson

Chapter 12. Service Innovation and Smart Cities: Linking the Perspectives

Cities are innovating thanks to the transformations in smart cities taking place in recent years. Nowadays, cities are emerging as contexts in which different stakeholders merge their resources in activities, by defining and improving the way they focus on the support given to reach common aims. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly prevalent, but an investigation on how to frame it in the service innovation literature is still missing. We move from this gap to link smart cities and service innovation from a theoretical point of view; subsequently, an analysis is performed on documents provided by organisations carrying on smart projects all over the world. A content analysis is used to highlight how the interventions by smart service providers can be considered in service innovation literature and to show how different firms operate in connection with the key elements of service innovation provided by Lusch and Nambisan (MIS Quarterly, 39(1), 155–175, 2015). The results of the analysis are useful to describe, from a practical point of view, how service innovation is taking place in cities and how relevant the roles played by actors involved in smart services are, as these actors favour a better knowledge of the needs to be satisfied, carry resources and skills, evaluate services and provide data. Finally, data play a crucial role when referring to platforms, as the core of smart service provision, leading technology to act as a significant support for service innovation in the city context.
Francesco Bifulco, Marco Tregua

Experiences: Customer and Value


Chapter 13. Value Proposal Co-Creation in Online Community-Based Idea Contests

The purpose of this chapter is to examine why and how participants co-create value proposals in online community-based idea contests (OCBICs), following an open call by service organisations for participation. More specifically, we explore participant motivations, roles, and behaviours as they co-create service ideas that emerge as value proposals. We present a multiple case study of three OCBICs in the global automotive sector. All three OCBICs studied were developed by the same platform host but were otherwise distinct in design and implementation. The findings reveal three propositions in relation to value proposal co-creation in OCBICs: (1) participants are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to compete and collaborate to co-create value proposals in OCBICs, (2) participants iteratively adopt a number of diverse and overlapping roles when co-creating value proposals in OCBICs, and (3) participant behaviour in OCBICs involves complex negotiations of the contest rules enforced by the host organisation and the norms and values of the community. In order to optimise open service innovation, we conclude that service organisations need to provide participants in OCBICs with an appropriate combination of monetary and nonmonetary incentives and rewards, based on their motivation and expertise. This is one of the few studies to examine the co-creation of value proposals in the context of OCBICs in the global automotive sector.
Carol Kelleher, Aonghus Ó. Céilleachair, Anu Helkkula, Joe Peppard

Chapter 14. Customer-Centric Service Innovation in Public–Private Value Networks

This chapter aims to deepen the understanding of customer-centric service innovation in the value networks of public and private actors. In practice, this topical issue has attracted growing interest, though it has not been studied to any great extent within service innovation research. To narrow the gap, a conceptual framework is built, driven by recent studies on public service innovation and the service-dominant logic (S-D logic) perspective. The emphasis is on innovation as complex networked value co-creation by resource re-bundling, embedded in an everyday service exchange among different actors. Customers as beneficiaries are an active and necessary group of actors in co-innovation, for which reason a specific focus is placed on deepening the understanding of customer value in use. This focus enables the development of more extended service concepts and platforms, transparent value-creation processes, and the strategic management of novel resource integration at different levels of service ecosystems. The contribution of an external facilitator, as an intermediary of innovation activity in value chains and networks, is also examined. The framework is illustrated with two empirical case studies. The main findings contribute to the topical debate on the linkages between S-D logic and innovation and provide conceptual starting points for its further development. They also provide a tool for collaborative reflection among practitioners in the public–private interface.
Inka Lappalainen

Chapter 15. Business Model Design and Value Co-creation: Looking for a New Pattern

Innovation requires openness and collaboration and firms’ abilities to design business models that enable higher resource density for value creation. The framework depicts both the dimensions of a co-creative business model and how they interact to integrate resources for enhancing value creation and capture. It empirically contextualizes the framework, by illustrating the Formabilio case, to better demonstrate how it works in practice. The study provides a detailed and granular approach to co-creation design to sustain the competitiveness of small- and medium-sized enterprises in a complex and increasingly digital-based ecosystem. More specifically, it offers new knowledge about mechanisms and methods for aligning the contributions of different actors to better understand how value is co-created through actors’ resource-integrating efforts and captured by the lead company. It addresses relevant gaps in current knowledge on business model design and on resource integration and the value co-creation practice.
Angela Caridà, Monia Melia, Maria Colurcio

Experiences: Multi Actors and Context


Chapter 16. Seeking New Ways of Innovating in Industry-Research Collaboration Practice

This chapter sheds light on the dynamics of innovation activity and its prerequisites for industry-research collaboration practice. It focuses on a particular intentional attempt to change the prerequisites of innovations. This new kind of research programme aimed to improve the competitiveness of the Finnish metals and engineering industry through enhancing innovations and industrial renewal. Three theoretical lenses were used in reflecting collaboration practice and learning in the programme. Two examples of changes in collaboration activity were presented and analysed within the broader context of the programme. The findings present how the characteristics of the programme and its management practices seemed to construct favourable conditions for co-innovating. The interpretations were founded on the reflections made by the four persons in charge of leading the programme. The chapter is concluded by summing up the results in terms of insight gained, as well as a general framework that aims to support practical efforts to create better prerequisites and conditions for industry-research collaboration in innovation activity.
Maaria Nuutinen, Marko Seppänen, Anssi Smedlund, Eija Kaasinen

Chapter 17. Practice-Based ‘Inside-Out’ Innovation in Public Service: A Regional Child Welfare Agency

The aim of this chapter is to describe an inside-out, practice-based innovation process in the public sector. The innovation is concerned with the improvement of the quality of the internal vs. external and cross-disciplinary information/data transfer on foster youth in a regional child welfare agency in Italy. The process is an open one; it occurs at the third sector level of the public service agency. Different professional groupings are involved in the inter-institutional decision-making process on children; thus, local and role-specific knowledge is needed to resolve problems that arise at a more complex inter-institutional level, such as the joint evaluation of children’s behaviours. The practitioners’ need to reduce intra-team conflict rates turned out to be the activating influential factor of this innovation. The employee-driven innovation process developed through three steps: (1) in-service training led by psychologist, (2) staff assessment, and (3) development of a new tool for the systematic observation by residential youth workers of children’s behaviour. They can be referred to as ‘educators’, ‘front-line community educators’, ‘practitioners’ or youth workers. The new tool adopted reduced interpersonal and team conflicts at intra-service level, according equal dignity to both beginners and to experienced workers when reporting on children’s behaviour. Unintended and positive outcome of the development of the new tool emerged at the adoption/diffusion stage: the large number of observations of each child, available in real time, allowed youth workers to be effective both in intra-service and interservice information transfer. Comparative studies should be carried out in order to identify commonalities between social, health and educational services’ innovation influential factors and outcomes. According to De Vries et al. (2014), innovation’s outcomes are seldom analysed; we’ve contributed to fill this research gap.
Monica Pedrazza, Sabrina Berlanda

Chapter 18. Service Innovation in Translational Medicine

Innovation implies collaboration among business actors and is fundamental in value cocreation networks. A significant context is the healthcare, where Translational Medicine (T-MED) aims at decreasing barriers between clinical research and medical treatments. The Translational Medicine is the integration and optimization of inputs in basic research improving the patient care, advancing and speeding up the process of offering new protocols, therapies, and practices. This conceptual contribution analyzes the Service Innovation in Translational Medicine using the paradigms of the Service Science (SS), Complex Service Systems, and Viable Systems Approach (VSA). It aims to increase the comprehension of relationships and complexity reduction processes in Translational Medicine and in Service Innovation in healthcare and improving of understanding the constraints to the innovation supporting Translational Medicine approach, seeking strategic solutions with a holistic view of healthcare networks.
Sergio Barile, Francesco Polese, Marialuisa Saviano, Luca Carrubbo

Chapter 19. Stakeholder Engagement in Sustainability Innovation: Experiences in the Jewellery Business

The chapter aims to study engagement as the basis for innovative projects that respond to an objective of social and environmental sustainability and describes the multi-stakeholder committee as the ideal container for realizing such engagement. The chapter explores the experience of the Ethics Committee of Coloured Gemstones, by Assogemme, in Italy. The goal of the Committee is to define “a procedural code concerning the production and marketing of the coloured gemstones in accordance with the principles of ethical conduct”. The stakeholder engagement approach and the founding of a multi-stakeholder committee for the creation of ethical guidelines are widespread in the jewellery business, which presents many ethical problems: child labour, environmental havoc and social inequality. But the case analysed is the first experience in the coloured gemstone jewellery industry, which is characterized by a plurality of ethical aspects related to the variety of these gemstones. The study of this Committee, which is engaged in the challenge to create a sustainable innovation process, a managerial system for the traceability of jewellery products made with coloured gemstones, underlines opportunities and problems of the stakeholder engagement approach.
Alessandra De Chiara

Experiences: Tools


Chapter 20. Co-development and Retooling as New Roles for Applied Research

Knowledge creation dynamics is in transition in modern information-loaded society. We need to see a researcher’s role in a new way: not only as a constructor of scientific facts but as a co-developer of practical tools. We analyse how co-development occurs between researchers and practitioners as a learning process in the context of a multi-actor application-orientated project. The co-development of a practical tool for supporting co-innovation in the public sector was organised as a learning journey. The chapter explicates the researchers’ various methods for enhancing learning between actors and between practice contexts. The co-development unfolds as a temporary, fragile path through different artefacts in a knowledge creation process guided by the researchers. It may also be characterised as an interplay between local practice-specific and generalised knowledge, which enables retooling practitioners for their future.
Eveliina Saari, Mervi Hasu, Laura Honkaniemi, Katri Kallio, Tiina Tuominen, Mikko Lehtonen

Chapter 21. Inter-professional Collaboration: An Evaluation Study

Both conventional wisdom and some of the literature in this area tell us that public organizations and services find it hard to innovate. We present a case study on the impact of a third sector intra-service innovation on the interservices’ network of a regional child welfare agency. The innovation was implemented in 2010 and the follow-up presented in this chapter was completed in 2014. The innovation consisted of the introduction of a new tool for the direct, systematic observation of children’s behaviour and attitudes. Residential youth workers, an important part of the child welfare agency’s workforce, introduced the new tool in order to improve the quality of their contribution to the information flow on young people in residential care. The follow-up research allowed us to recognize that the introduction of a new tool, while improving team work performance and reducing interpersonal and team conflicts at the intra-service’s educative service level, highlighted an important asymmetry between service providers in the child welfare agency network with regard to the provision of information.
Monica Pedrazza, Riccardo Sartori, Sabrina Berlanda

Chapter 22. Investigating Elderly Care Contexts According to Stakeholders’ Needs

This chapter aims to present an innovative and participatory model for assessment, improvement of quality and innovation in residential facilities for fragile elderly people. Starting from a theoretical and practical reflection on the value of the care relationship in these organisations, this chapter focuses on innovating care practices in these organisations. In this model care is understood not only as a practice but as an attitude of the organisation: an approach to assistance which goes beyond the mere satisfaction of physical needs, looking at the person as a whole and working within a framework of constant promotion of their well-being. The chapter presents a method for innovating elderly care services through evaluation, self-evaluation and participatory planning. This method was developed through two case studies, the research design and tools of which are presented. The research is guided by an approach of Educational Evaluation [Scriven (The methodology of evaluation. Rand McNally, 1967; Evaluation thesaurus. Edge Press, 1981; Evaluation thesaurus. Sage, 1999)] and Action Research: the professionals are actively involved both during the definition of the quality standards and their relative evaluation. Some specific evaluation tools are developed, and the data gathered is constantly fed back to the professionals in order to stimulate their reflexive practice and foster innovation by improving the quality of care.
Elena Luppi
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