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Über dieses Buch

This book aims to meet the needs of education and training in modern techniques of innovation and entrepreneurship, and focuses on the detailed presentation of successful business practices. As today's global economic landscape is changing rapidly, the ability of businesses to introduce new products and services to the market faster than their competitors is perhaps their most distinct competitive advantage. This becomes obvious by the significant market share that the most innovative companies gain while increasing profitability. Extensive research in this field has demonstrated that companies that are constantly innovating normally double their profits compared to others. Moreover, establishing successful practices and policies of innovation management, through which ideas evolve from conception through evaluation to implementation and commercialization, become the basis for economic growth at the firm, industry, national, regional, and global levels.

Taking Greece as an example, this volume identifies systemic weaknesses in development of new products, risk capital, patenting, broadband penetration, lifelong training, investment in research on the part of firms, high-tech exports, and employment in medium-high-technology manufacturing that place the country at the bottom of the European Union in economic performance and threaten its potential to achieve sustainable growth. To address these weaknesses in Greece and similar countries around the world, the authors present a comprehensive overview of the principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, with particular respect to their relationships to knowledge, learning, and creativity. Drawing from a strong theoretical foundation, and illustrated through in-depth case studies and examples from both private and public sectors, the authors present a framework for innovation management that integrates research, education, practical application, and policy. Specific topics include technology transfer, intellectual property rights management, the practice of knowledge management intellectual capital investment, business incubators, and Cooperation Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Technological Innovation

Abstract
At present, the life cycle of products, i.e. the time span from a product launch in the market until it becomes mature, is constantly shrinking. In fact, in some sectors, such as personal computers, the technological ageing of products takes place within just a few months. Therefore, the capacity to introduce new products in the market anticipating their competitors, earning in this way significant shares of sales, constitutes a big competitive advantage for companies. Companies, hence, should be in a position to constantly ‘innovate’ in order to preserve and improve their market position. Many would define innovation as ‘something new, an invention, a new idea’. In reality though, innovation does not only constitute the birth of a new product or process-related idea; it does include all stages, from the design and the evaluation of the way this idea is translated into action effectively. An innovation takes effect with the first commercial transaction regarding a new or improved accessory, product, process or system. On the contrary, the invention is an idea, a design or a model of an improved or new accessory that in most of the times does not result in any commercial transaction, although it could lead to a patent. Many researches have shown that innovative enterprises, namely the ones that constantly innovate, present on average double profit compared to the rest. However, innovation management is particularly difficult, hence the failure of many new ideas to result in successful new products or services. For this reason, various innovation management models have been developed.
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 2. Introduction to Innovation Management

Abstract
Many authors have dwelled on the idea that innovation can become object of ‘management’. For example, Burns and Stalker (1961) authored the book ‘Management of Innovation’ partly based on a previous study of a research and development laboratory of a local company.
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 3. Innovation and Competitiveness: Case Study

Abstract
The foregoing analysis in the previous chapters of the book demonstrated that innovation constitutes the foundation and driver of competitiveness worldwide. Starting from its definition and based on a broad raft of experiences and results, innovation allows the addition of higher added value in a way that materially prevails constituting probably exclusivity (disruptive and discontinuous innovations).
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 4. Innovation as a Management Process

Abstract
The management of innovation is a highly interactive process. It is the result of an ongoing transfer of knowledge among various points-entities where the participation of every team member could influence the final outcome (Heinz Endowments 1999; Cooke et al. 1998).
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 5. Innovation Systems

Abstract
Systems engineers define the term system as a set of interrelated components working towards a common goal. Systems consist of elements, relationships and attributes.
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 6. Introduction to Technological Entrepreneurship

Abstract
Adam Smith (1776) defined Land, Labor and Capital as the key input factors of the eighteenth century economy. Joseph Schumpeter (1934) added Technology and Entrepreneurship as two more key input factors in the early twentieth century. The role and dynamic nature of technological change and innovation, as well as their interdependencies, were thus acknowledged as main factors shaping the world economy’s future. The static approach of the Neoclassical Economic Theory was eventually abandoned.
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Chapter 7. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Practices

Abstract
Technology and Technology Transfer are concepts that have a high degree of complexity surrounding them, so it would be quite difficult to establish a precise definition for these terms. Technology Generation and Diffusion are processes deeply dependent on the socio-economic structure. In fact, technology may take various forms, ranging from non-embodied technology (patents, licenses, ideas, know-how, etc.) to technologies embedded into mechanical systems, machines, or even into the human body. Technology Transfer Mechanisms vary even more, since different forms of technology can be transferred through different channels. Consequently, the variety of technology types along with the complexity of their transfer processes creates serious problems concerning the quantification and study of the results and effects of technology, on society in general or on the industry sector, in particular.
Elias G. Carayannis, Elpida T. Samara, Yannis L. Bakouros

Backmatter

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