Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The proposition that entrepreneurs’ innovation is embedded in networking is refined. We distinguish between networking in the public sphere and networking in the private sphere, and hypothesize that innovation benefits from public sphere networking but suffers from private sphere networking. These hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 56,611 entrepreneurs in 61 countries surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, while overall networking benefits innovation, innovation is decreased by private sphere networking and increased by networking in the public sphere, especially in the professions and internationally. A further refinement is to consider entrepreneurs’ endeavors as embedded in society with its system of education for entrepreneurship. We hypothesize that the quality of a national system moderates the impacts of networks on innovation by adding value to networks. Analyses show that quality of national educational system adds innovation benefits to both public sphere networking and private sphere networking.
Ashourizadeh, S., & Schøtt, T. (forthcoming). Exporting embedded in culture and transnational networks around entrepreneurs. International Journal of Business and Globalization.
Ashourizadeh, S., Rezaei, S., Schøtt, T., & Vang, J. (2014). Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital: Direct and reinforcing benefits for export. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 21(2), 246–267.
Autio, E., & Acs, Z. (2010). Intellectual property protection and the formation of entrepreneurial growth aspirations. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 4, 234–251. CrossRef
Bahn, S., Greco, S. M., Farsi, J. Y., Rastrigina, O., & Schøtt, T. (2011). Entrepreneurs’ expected returns affected by their networks: A cross-national study using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 75–94.
Baptista, R., & Swann, P. (1998). Do firms in clusters innovate more? Research Policy, 27, 525–540. CrossRef
Belussi, F., Sammarra, A., & Sedita, S. R. (2010). Learning at the boundaries in an ‘Open Regional Innovation System’: A focus on firms’ innovation strategies in the Emilia Romagna life science industry. Research Policy, 39, 710–721. CrossRef
Burt, R. S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology, 110(2), 349–399. CrossRef
Burt, R. S., & Schott, T. (1985). Relation contents in multiple networks. Social Science Research, 14, 287–308. CrossRef
Carlsson, B., Braunerhjelm, P., McKelvey, M., Olofsson, C., Persson, L., & Ylinenpää, Y. (2013). The evolving domain of entrepreneurship research. Small Business Economics, 41, 913–930. CrossRef
Cheraghi, M., & Schøtt, T. (2014). Size, diversity and components in the network around an entrepreneur: Shaped by culture and shaping embeddedness of firm relations. In F. Polat, F. Can, & T. Özyer (Eds.), State of the art applications of social network analysis. Heidelberg: Springer.
Cheraghi, M., & Schøtt, T. (forthcoming). Conceived global: Entrepreneurs’ transnational networking, across phases and embedded in culture. International Journal of Business and Globalization.
Coduras, A., Levie, J. D., Kelley, D., Sæmundsson, R. J., & Schøtt, T. (2010). A global perspective on entrepreneurship education and training. GERA/GEM.
Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Dahl, M. S., & Pedersen, C. Ø. R. (2005). Social networks in the R & D process: The case of the wireless communication industry around Aalborg, Denmark. Journal of Engineering and Technological Management, 22, 75–92. CrossRef
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 301–331. CrossRef
Dutta, S. (ed.) (2012 ). The Global Innovation Index 2012: Stronger innovation linkages for economic growth. http://www.globalinnovationindex.org/gii/.
Edquist, C., Eriksson, M.-L., & Sjögren, H. (2000). Collaboration in product innovation in the East Gothia regional system of innovation. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 1(1), 37–56. CrossRef
Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. http://www.gemconsortium.org.
Grabher, G. (1993). The embedded firm. On the socioeconomics of interfirm relations. London: Routledge.
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481–510. CrossRef
Greene, P. G., & Rice, M. P. (2007). Entrepreneurship education. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Greve, A., & Salaff, J. W. (2003). Social networks and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(1), 1–22. CrossRef
Gronum, S., Verreynme, M.-L., & Kastelle, T. (2012). The role of networks in small and medium-sized enterprise innovation and performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 50, 257–282. CrossRef
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kelley, D., Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., & Litovsky, Y. (2011). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 women’s report. Babson Park: Babson College.
Kolvereid, L., Isaksen, E. J., & Ottósson, H. (2009). Advice to new business founders and subsequent venture performance. In C. G. Brush, L. Kolvereid, L. Ø. Widding, & R. Sørheim (Eds.), The life cycle of new ventures: Emergence, newness and growth (pp. 202–217). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Kwon, S.-W., & Arenius, P. (2010). Nations of entrepreneurs: A social capital perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 315–330. CrossRef
Levie, J. D., & Autio, E. (2008). A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 235–263. CrossRef
Levie, J., Autio, E., Acs, Z., & Hart, M. (2013). Global entrepreneurship and institutions: An introduction. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9516-6.
Lundvall, B.-Å. (1992). National systems of innovation: Toward a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Francis Pinter.
McGrath, C. A., Pate, L. E., Gray, E. R., & Vance, C. E. (2006). Getting wired for innovation: An analysis of the advice networks of software entrepreneurs. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 14(4), 317–330. CrossRef
Merton, R. K. (1938). Science, technology and society in seventeenth century England. Burges: Sainte Catherine Press.
Minniti, M. (Ed.). (2011). The dynamics of entrepreneurship: Evidence from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. New York: Oxford University Press.
Moulaert, F., & Nussbaumer, J. (2005). The social region: Beyond the territorial dynamics of the learning economy. European Urban and Regional Studies, 12, 45–64. CrossRef
OECD. (2010). The OECD innovation strategy: Getting a head start on tomorrow. Paris: OECD.
Oliver, A. L. (2009). Networks for learning and knowledge creation in biotechnology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Pittaway, L., Robertson, M., Munir, K., Denyer, D., & Neely, A. (2004). Networking and innovation: A systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5/6(3&4), 137–168. CrossRef
Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–145. CrossRef
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage.
Reynolds, P., Bosma, N. S., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., et al. (2005). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 205–231. CrossRef
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2008). Effectuation: Elements of entrepreneurial expertise. Northampton: Edward Elgar. CrossRef
Schott, T. (2009). Education, training and networking for entrepreneurship in Denmark 2008: Studied via Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Kolding: University of Southern Denmark.
Schott, T. (2011). Training and network organization in entrepreneurship in Denmark 2010: Studied via Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Kolding: University of Southern Denmark.
Schott, T. (2013). Evolution of embeddedness of a firm’s business network in its owner-manager’s personal network. In XXVIII Sunbelt Conference, Hamburg, May.
Schott, T. (2014). Components in the network around an actor. In R. Alhajj & J. Rokne (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social network analysis and mining. Heidelberg: Springer.
Schott, T., & Cheraghi, M. (2012). Entrepreneurs’ networks: Size, diversity and composition shaped by cultures of rationality and trust. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE/ACM international conference on advances in social network analysis and mining (pp. 220–226) August 2012, Istanbul. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society.
Schott, T., Hovne, A. S., & Hovne, B. S. (2012). Entrepreneurs’ innovation promoted by their education and training and by national policy and culture: A global study. In M. Muffatto & P. Giacon (Eds.), Entrepreneurial strategies and policies for economic growth (pp. 81–94). Padova: LibriaUniversitaria.it.
Shane, S. A. (1992). Why do some societies invent more than others? Journal of Business Venturing, 7(1), 29–46. CrossRef
Shane, S. A. (1993). Cultural influences on national rates of innovation. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(1), 59–73. CrossRef
Shane, S. A. (2003). A general theory of entrepreneurship: The individual-opportunity Nexus. Northampton: Edward Elgar. CrossRef
Urbano, D., & Alvarez, C. (2013). Institutional dimensions and entrepreneurial activity: An international study. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9523-7.
Weber, M. (1920). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.
Zhao, L., & Aram, J. (1995). Networking and growth of young technology-intensive ventures in China. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 349–370. CrossRef
- Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks and national educational systems
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia