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Über dieses Buch

Knowledge transfer between universities, business and the community is a topical subject of increasing importance. The first International Conference on 'Innovation through Knowledge Transfer: Research with Impact', InnovationKT'09, held in Kingston, London, UK, provided a rare and welcome opportunity to share some of the successes of knowledge transfer. The conference attracted 150 delegates and featured 42 oral presentations. This volume, representing the proceedings of the conference, contains 35 papers based on selected conference presentations. The papers are divided into seven sections entitled ‘Key Knowledge Transfer Perspectives’, ‘Knowledge Transfer Case Studies’, ‘Innovative Knowledge Transfer Techniques’, ‘Strategic and Organisational Approaches to Knowledge Transfer’, ‘Knowledge transfer in the Arts and the Community’, ‘Knowledge Transfer Methodology and Practice’ and ‘Innovation and Enterprise’. The first InnovationKT conference was unique in gathering such a tremendous range of knowledge transfer experience and expertise. This volume forms a valuable resource for all those who are involved in knowledge transfer, or wish to know more about it. University academics can read examples of ways in which research can be commercialised, increasing impact and improving relevance. Knowledge transfer practitioners can find out about best practice in their subject and read case studies. Companies can read about how universities can help find solutions to their problems. We recommend this volume as a statement of the benefits that knowledge transfer can bring to all those involved.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Perspectives on Knowledge Transfer

Knowledge Transfer between UK Universities and Business

In this paper, knowledge transfer between universities and business in the UK is examined at a number of different levels. The term ’knowledge transfer’ has different meanings in different contexts and so the meaning of the term from a UK perspective is discussed. As UK knowledge transfer is usually part of the innovation agenda, the meaning of ’innovation’ is also considered. A number of different activities, considered to be part of the third mission agenda, are often thought of as being capable of achieving knowledge transfer. The most common of these are described and the potential of each for actually achieving knowledge transfer is discussed. The UK government flagship knowledge transfer scheme, Knowledge Transfer Partnerships, is widely acknowledged to a very effective knowledge transfer paradigm. The Knowledge Transfer Partnerships methodology is described, and two case studies of projects that have been successfully carried out using this paradigm are presented. These case studies illustrate the point that while knowledge transfer was effectively achieved during the partnerships, innovation was also facilitated as a vital part in the process. The factors encouraging and supporting innovation during a knowledge transfer partnership are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that the knowledge transfer partnerships methodology forms a framework exhibiting a number of features that makes it more likely that innovation will arise, and that it is this combination of knowledge transfer and innovation that makes the scheme so effective and successful.

Robert James Howlett

Innovation and Knowledge Transfer the Role of the Individual

Innovation and knowledge transfer will be the keywords in the coming decade. There are several reasons for this; we will have to be innovative to combat the major challenges of climate change and the different aspects of security from terrorism and rogue states to pandemics. Poverty in some parts of the world remains a challenge and there is a need to create sustainable jobs as global competition intensifies. This paper dissects the key elements of innovation and knowledge transfer and emphasises the role that individuals play in both breakthrough technologies and innovation through continuous improvement. Trends in open innovation are included and the responses that are required of management and business models are outlined. The increased role of Universities in knowledge transfer is discussed as part of increased professionalism in higher education. Finally the role of the Institute of Knowledge Transfer, the recognised professional body for knowledge transfer professionals, is referred to as well as the requirements of a new profession.

Brian Fender

UK Higher Education Perspectives of Knowledge Transfer

This paper considers the route of the current knowledge transfer (KT) paradigm by examining some of the key policy documents on the development of university business engagement since 1925. It provides examples of successful mechanisms for effective knowledge transfer, and comments on some of the challenges facing Higher Education Institutions seeking to expand and further develop their knowledge transfer portfolios at a time of political uncertainty and economic austerity. The paper also seeks to show that the Higher Education sector is responding to change by developing its ability to communicate, share, exchange existing and create new knowledge through a wide variety of mechanisms resulting in a KT platform that supports and encourages open innovation and greater business interaction.

Deborah Lock

Knowledge Transfer Case Studies

Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Aid the Selection of Enterprise Resource Planning Software: A Case Study

BHC Ltd is a family owned SME which specialises in steel fabrication for the construction industry. Due to rapid growth over the past decade the company’s current business software has evolved from a collection of semi-integrated individual packages and Excel spreadsheets. To help the company become more efficient during the current financial downturn and to ensure they are capable of future growth, BHC Ltd initiated a project with the University of Strathclyde to select and implement an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution.

This paper will provide a case study of BHC’s ERP selection process. In particular it will discuss how steel specific business requirements and organisational culture led us to use multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) when making a final software selection. The MCDA process that was followed is further discussed and includes the success that was achieved by using this approach.

Ross Parkhill, Valerie Belton, Umit Bititci, Alan Roberts, Marisa Smith

Applying the Structural Complexity Management to Knowledge Transfer in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

Retention and transfer of personnel knowledge represents a fundamental competitive factor for small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). A major problem is that increasingly unavailable specialists remain at a company for less time, but generate more complex knowledge during their time of employment. A methodical knowledge transfer designed for this specific problem situation of SMEs has to meet the requirements of high transfer frequency and short time slots for transfers while still maintaining a high quality of transferred knowledge. Knowledge transfer must be easy to implement. In cooperation with Festo we created an approach to knowledge transfer using methods of Structural Complexity Management. Advantages of the approach include its uncomplicated application and limited resource needs. Resulting analyses and visualizations allowed employees to focus on relevant knowledge aspects to be transferred effectively.

Maik Maurer, Hermann Klinger, Alexander Benz

Establishing a Business Process Management System in a Telecoms Company

Gamma Telecom provides voice services and voice applications. But newer products are increasingly more complex and the largely manual processes involved in order fulfilment are unable to perform effectively enough. As a result Gamma and the University of the West of England (UWE), in a joint Knowledge Exchange Partnership (KTP) project, are investigating how to automate such product processes using Business Process Management System (BPMS) technology within a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) development framework. A number of product processes have been automated, and the resulting experience and knowledge has been incorporated into a “meta-process”, a process for capturing, modelling, analysing, improving, and providing IT support for Gamma’s new business product processes. It is suggested that a generalised form of this “meta-process” would benefit other companies wishing to pursue process automation.

S. Green, Ali Abughoush, Ian Beeson, Tim Hill, Justin Nwakacha

Critiquing Business Process Models to Facilitate the Identification and Selection of Optimal IT Systems

In common with many SMEs, Space Engineering Services Ltd supports a number of business process variants found in different parts of the organisation for achieving the same organisational goals using non-optimal IT. In order to address these problems, the capability to use role activity diagrams (RADs) for organisational process modelling was introduced by this Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) using three knowledge transfer mechanisms: a short course on RADs, expert feedback on initial RAD models, and feedback on initial process elicitation efforts. The resulting learning was adopted and adapted by the KTP team into a process that is being used to improve many of the company’s critical strategic processes, and also to identify optimal IT support for those processes. It is expected that this process would benefit many similar SMEs.

Stewart Green, Stephen Batty, Mike Back, Joe Jewell, Martin Webber

Outcomes and Benefits of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership in Chemical Science

Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) is a UK initiative to enable companies to benefit from the knowledge and skills within Universities. A recent chemically based KTP between Liverpool John Moores University and Salt Union Ltd provided a range of benefits to the University, Company and Associate. The transfer of knowledge to the Company has resulted in the development of a research capability, optimised products and an increase in profits. The Associate has gained commercial experience, enhanced qualifications and training, and at the culmination of the funded programme, was appointed within the Company at managerial level. The academic staff from the knowledge base partner have developed their research standing, gained commercial awareness and enhanced their teaching with industrial case studies and projects.

Ian J. Bradshaw, Linda Seton, Neil Rosenburgh

Integrated Care e-Pathways Using Formic Fusion for Patients Undergoing Elective Hip and Knee Replacements

The objective of this research is to re-engineer data capture and analyze process of orthopaedic patients, involving multidisciplinary & cross-departmental healthcare records towards a unified Integrated Care e-Pathway (eICP) information system. The project will introduce a homogeneous, consistent and efficient way of capturing and querying of orthopaedic surgical patients’ data across the relevant hospital departments and will complement other NHS (National Health Service)-wide initiatives on electronic health records. The chosen approach is a mix of intelligent re-designs of paper based pathways with an Optical-Character-Recognition (OCR) process via Formic Fusion Software, and a successive move towards routine electronic data capture which will be fully integrated with other hospital-based systems. Reports will be generated using Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools. So, it is a huge change management project involving culture change. A survey is conducted to study the attitude of clinical staff and service users towards implementing technology at the point of care (before and after implementing new technology). It also involves adopting lean principles which is termed as North East Transformation System (NETS). The research tracks the current status of National Program for IT (NPfIT), run by Connecting for Health (CfH).

Mohammed Rizwan, Eileen Scott, S. Maxwell

The Virtual Engineer

The complete implementation of the method presented in this text is filed in Patent 0921900.7. This paper proposes a novel approach to the motor fault diagnosis by applying a similar approach to engineer experts using feature fusion with the main aim of improving the performance and reliability of clustering and identification of the fault patterns. In addition, the significance of individual feature sets in specific fault scenarios, which is normally gained by engineers through experience, is investigated by using flexible Non-Gaussian modeling of the historical data. Furthermore the comparison is made by applying individual and fusion of feature sets to the probabilistic distributions of trained models using a Maximum a Priori (MAP) approach. To carry out the task, current waveforms are collected non-invasively from three-phase DC motors. Waveforms are then compressed into time, frequency and wavelet feature sets to form the input to the clustering algorithm. The result demonstrates the suitability of specific feature sets in different motor modes and the efficiency of fusion which is carried out with a Winner Takes All (WTA) approach.

Farshad Fahimi, David Brown

Store POINT: Revolutionising Art Work Production

This paper describes an innovative system to automate the workflow for translation of artwork text, developed through a KTP partnership between Kingston University and StorePOINT International Ltd, an artwork automation and localisation company situated in Hampton Wick. The ‘POINTandGo! Localise’ system is a web-based application available to managers, clients, artwork developers and translators for document and graphic artwork translation/trans-creation. It has already produced significant savings in cost and time through the automation of the workflow process and the use of translation memory whilst improving the quality of the final piece. But it is the use of contextual translation memory which is unique to this system that has the potential to revolutionise the way in which artwork produced in multiple languages is produced in the future. The project is an example of how vision and ideas from the business partner have come together with skills from the University and KTP Associate to create an interesting and unique product that will not only bring added value to the company but also to the whole area of artwork production.

Mark Alford, Mary E. Thomson, Richard Thompson, Rick Z. Xu

A Multidisciplinary Knowledge Transfer Partnership in Development of Lift Simulator

Lerch Bates Limited are consulting engineers specialising in short range transportation systems for moving people and materials. Projects include the Taipei 101 Financial Centre and the new Burj Dubai Tower, which is the world’s tallest tower, completed in 2008. As the building are becoming more and more complicated, so are the transportation systems in them. Lerch Bates decided to join forces with Kingston University to develop a computer simulation system for lift design. This system is strategic to the company, not only in terms of its reputation as the world-leading consultant in people transport systems, but also in terms of cost efficiencies realisable both to internal staff and the architect / developer of a given project.

This paper addresses the work done within the Knowledge Transfer Partnership for designing building passenger vertical transportation systems. This was a multidisciplinary project, requiring knowledge transfer in the areas of dynamics, control systems, development of dynamic simulation systems and computer graphics/ visualization. The design and specification of lift systems for large buildings is a very complicated process, with a wide range of variables that need to be evaluated in order to design a system that will deliver acceptable performance. Such evaluation is performed with the help of computer simulation software. The limited functionality of the currently existing programs for lift simulation however prompted the project to pursue the development of a new system, suitable for the demands posed by modern building designs and improved control algorithms. The project provided the calculation and simulation modules together with the generation of the visual simulation and building information model.

Adrian Godwin, A. Ordys, Jaroslaw Francik, Andrew Curley, Piotr Smolenski, Richard Burley

Using Information Systems to Drive Process Change: An Aerospace Industry Example from the Knowledge Transfer Partnership Scheme

This paper explores the growing role of shop floor systems in overall information systems strategy and how the Knowledge Transfer Partnership scheme was used to implement an integrated suite of shop floor systems in a major aerospace company. It also focuses on the significant process change that accompanied the introduction of new systems and the benefits this has brought to a company that has to meet large scale orders for aero engine components sometimes placed several years in advance. The paper also illustrates how shop floor engineering systems can be integrated with mainstream corporate systems.

Martin Wynn, Raul Brandao

SME Supplier Management: An Exercise in Change Management

The problems facing a manufacturing SME in the current UK economic climate are many and varied. This paper describes the experience of a Knowledge Transfer Project (KTP) Associate and her academic supervisor working for a customer- centric company in a dynamic manufacturing environment. With issues ranging from quality of the product itself, supplier relationships, a ‘no questions asked’ returns policy and a sometimes indifferent manufacturing workforce the paper sets out the problems encountered, the solutions offered and then implemented. Beyond the quick win solutions the real value of the project was a change in attitude which has allowed awkward questions to be asked, considered and not swept back under the carpet. Early indications are that the KTP project has been of major benefit to the company on a number of fronts.

Shilar Bryant, Russell Harbison

Information Management Process Sharing Knowledge at Worldwide Steel Company

This paper aims to present specific features concerning types of information management in the Continuous Improvement area of the Americas Long Carbon sector in ArcelorMittal, the largest steel company in the world. The aim is also learn what the informational resources (products and processes) related to continuous improvement in ArcelorMittal Americas are and describe how the process of managing information related to continuous improvement area actually happens. The methodologies adopted in this research were: a survey, a documentary research and a bibliography search as data collection techniques. The study has conducted a quantitative non-probability research with professionals involved with the processes, products and services improvement from Long Carbon Americas at different management levels. The study was based on theoretical models of Davenport (1998) and Choo (2006) and tried to understand how the efficient management of information can aid in decision making in organizations. The result of documentary research revealed the existence of initiatives throughout the different units in Americas and also revealed corporate tools for information management which could significantly help knowledge transfer. However, none of the corporate programs was presented in solid form in field research, as a recognized program for managing information. The results of field research indicate the need for a structured and formalized model of information management that responds to users in adequate time, while alert to the need for policies that encourage the sharing of information related to the improvement of processes, products and services.

Gabriela Alves, Jorge Neves

Using Multi-Agent System for Business Applications in Multilingual Ontologies

In e-business, ontology technology is used for e-commerce and e-services. The ontologies are specifications of syntax and semantics of information, which provide a shared vocabulary to facilitate online services. For some requests, multiple ontologies are required to solve a problem, like for e-tourism. However, there are problems with using several ontologies. For example, finding and using the ontologies depends on the language used in the ontologies, and matching techniques. The matching includes word correspondence to the users’ request and the equivalence between the ontologies. The matching is difficult due to differences between ontologies resulting from the lack of standards and development guidelines. This paper presents a multi-agent system wherein the agents use the users’ request to search for multilingual ontologies. From the search results, the system facilitates communication between the users input and the ontologies to accomplish the request, which can be booking a train ticket or an event. Meta-agents keep track of the agents and manage the user-system communication.

Anne Håkansson, Ronald Hartung, Jason J. Jung

Innovative Knowledge Transfer Techniques

Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Drive Innovation in SMEs

Small and medium sized companies (SMEs) need to be innovative in order to survive in or to integrate into the international market. Survival and integration depend on the deployment of their knowledge environments/bases, on the acquisition and creation of new knowledge, on learning abilities and the efficient use of new technologies to manage internal and external knowledge flows. In this paper we firstly present eLearning which has the potential to support knowledge sharing, creation and transfer of individual and organisational knowledge through interactive methods of on-line delivery of information, collaborative procedures, targeted training and through blending with other education methods. Secondly we briefly describe Communities of Practice (CoPs) as proper environments for groups aiming at creating and sharing knowledge and solving practice problems and which can be used to facilitate the informal transfer of knowledge that drives productivity and innovation. We give as an example a project where we use eLearning 2.0 and procedures based on Web 2.0 techniques, to support knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer and networking in CoPs.

Ileana Hamburg, Mihnea Marin

The Use of Open Source Software Licensing in Academia

Open Source Software (OSS) is computer software in which the source code is freely available and included as part of the software distribution. This paper considers the use of OSS licensing for university-originated software. It examines the advantages of OSS and the issues surrounding it from both the developer and the end user perspective, and also discusses how OSS can be used as a mechanism for knowledge transfer in academia.

Stephen J. Marshall

Using Emotional Intelligence and NLP Training to Promote and Sustain Relationships within KTPs

The School of Nursing and Caring Sciences at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) currently has 3 KTPs at various stages – one is completing year 2 of a 3 year project, another is just starting and one has experienced a delayed start because of initial problems with recruitment of an Associate. Participation in health KTPs is a new endeavour for UCLan because it only became possible to develop projects when eligibility criteria changed 3 years ago. It is also new for our partners.

Ruth Slater, Ailsa Brotherton, Christina Lyons, Karen Whittaker

Innovative Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms and the Potential Role for Theatric Methods in the Propagation of Good Data Handling Practice

This is a position paper that argues for the use of ‘theatric methods’ as an effective means of disseminating what to some might be regarded as complex and ‘ostensibly dull’ information, and in this case ‘good data handling practice’. Protection of data in an electronically-mediated economy is critical both for a firm’s trading integrity and for its competitive advantage. However standard training on data security is thought to be wanting given the complexity of the subject matter and the manner in which it is traditionally delivered. Additionally any system protecting data security should be tempered with the observation that its strength is ‘only as good as its weakest link’. Thus this paper seeks to proffer an alternative approach for the propagation of good data handling practices, one that exploits theatric methods in order to make critical learning memorable. Though the methods described here are designed to be deployed as a means of raising awareness of security issues, they could be applied equally as well with other objectives in mind where the imaginations of groups of individuals need to be harnessed such as ‘effective electronic collaboration across supply chains’ or ‘effective customer care in an electronic realm’.

Fintan Clear

Strategic and Organisational Approaches to Knowledge Transfer

Occurrence and Influencing Variables of Knowledge Barriers in Knowledge-Intense Domains

Especially innovation processes require in-depth knowledge and thus depend on the quality of knowledge transfer within these processes. Accomplishing a case study, the influencing variables and the occurrence of knowledge barriers in innovation projects of the German Armed Forces are analyzed with a special focus on cross-organisational and cross-functional knowledge transfer. Based on a conceptual study on the incidence of knowledge barriers in project work, data on knowledge barriers in seven departments of the German Armed Forces are gathered to empirically test the impact of theoretically derived influencing variables. The objective of the case study is a) to give statements about occurrence and characteristics of knowledge barriers in innovative and knowledge-intense domains and b) to deduce possible approaches to prevent knowledge barriers by identifying relevant influencing variables.

Carolin A. Fiechter, Christoph Kuderna, Eva-Maria Kern

Applied Imagination - Designing Innovative Knowledge Transfer Approaches

This paper describes a new approach to the creation of innovative knowledge transfer (KT) activities. This is achieved through the close collaboration of three business schools with a strong record of excellence in KT research and application (Lancaster University, Manchester University and Liverpool University) together with one of the UKs leading centers for design research (ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster University). Operating under the name of IDEAS (Innovation Design Entrepreneurship and Science) this collaboration is active in a wide range of innovation and KT activities. Here we describe how we have applied creative thinking research to the creation (design) of new KT activities and processes. This is achieved through the presentation of a conceptual model; two cases studies of the application of this model and a discussion of future projects and applications.

Leon Cruickshank, Alison Mather, Martyn Evans

Knowledge Transfer Partnerships at the University of the West of England

This paper outlines the range of Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs) undertaken by The University of the West of England and discusses two typical cases in detail. It presents the planned and unplanned benefits that have been identified and realized.

In addition to the organizational improvements we identify the value of KTPs to those employed by the programme in the form of formal qualifications and transferable skills.

Furthermore, we discuss the research opportunities that KTPs provide and the associated benefits for the university and organization involved, as well as other possible advantages for academics and university students.

We also identify the challenges that universities face in attracting and supporting future KTPs.

Gareth R. T. White, Xiaojun Wang, Ian Freeth

The Yorkshire Enterprise Fellowship Scheme

A much-favoured strategy to strengthen the UK economy is to exploit more of the world-class research being carried out in universities. This requires increased collaboration between universities and the industry sector and will benefit enormously from arming academic researchers with tools and knowledge necessary to commercialise their ideas.

Here we describe the operation and success of a recent initiative from one of the Regional Development Agencies, Yorkshire Forward, namely the Yorkshire Enterprise Fellowship. This Fellowship provides business and personal development training to academic and clinical researchers as well as continuous one-toone mentoring support and a financial contribution to progress commercialisation of the researcher’s idea.

The programme will accelerate the commercialisation of research from the participating universities and embed an entrepreneurial culture within the scientific community. This paper details several examples of best practice that can be used for similar schemes in other disciplines and in other geographical areas.

Lindsay J. Georgopoulos, Suzanne Emmett

Centre for Innovation and Technology Exploitation (CITE)

The Centre for Innovation & Technology Exploitation (CITE) is an innovative technology transfer unit that has been jointly established at the Nottingham Trent University (NTU) with the aid of funding from NTU, the East Midlands Regional Development Agency (

emda

) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Using a unique innovation ladder of support, the CITE has successfully engaged with several small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) throughout the East Midlands region with a view to facilitating the transfer of Intelligent Systems research knowledge from academics in the School of Computing & Technology at NTU to the participating SMEs.

Tony Allen

Knowledge Transfer and the National Physical Laboratory, UK

This paper describes the National Physical Laboratory’s distinctive position and role in the field of knowledge transfer. It reviews the literature on definitions of knowledge transfer and looks at work that has already been done in the area of knowledge transfer in US national laboratories. It describes the drivers for knowledge transfer at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) - one of the UK’s national laboratories – using a new framework for knowledge transfer activities. Finally it presents evidential case studies of successful knowledge transfer at NPL, chosen and contextualized by consideration to this framework.

Phil Cooper, Tim Jones, Francis Tuffy, Stuart Windsor

Knowledge Transfer in the Arts and Community

The Margins of Art Practice Bordering on Industrial Development

One popular view of artists, spread by the media over many years, is of aesthetes with no commercial acumen and a distinct lack of time management! I daresay this popular view has also found resonance with many who work in an industrial context. Examples of this are manifold, from Tony Hancock’s 1962 film the ‘Rebel’ to more recent commentary on Tracey Emin’s unmade bed. The truth about artists is actually much closer to one of self-motivated individuals with good self-discipline and a wide-ranging approach to problem solving. This preconception in itself is not the fault of industry; even when dealing with design, the 2005 DTI Paper on Creativity, Design and Business performance states: “Over half of UK firms say design has no role or only a limited role to play in their business”[ 1]. Why would they want to deal with artists?

So how does a Fine Art printmaking department qualify itself within the arena of developing industrial research projects? Partnerships forged between the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) and industry, now constitute approximately a third of the research work we undertake. These partnerships have grown over the last ten years as the reputation of the Centre has increased. I am specifically referring to collaboration between artists and industry, which develops either new industrial product, or a process that assists the creative development of new markets and profit. There currently exist many Arts and Business and Arts and Science initiatives, which tend to favour the artist and arts practice, what I would like to cover here is the other way round where there are benefits to both parties, (Knowledge Exchange), but weighted more to the industrial benefits and outcomes.

The CFPR specialises in the interface between arts and industry. Our experience of early printing technology and its 19th Century developments give us a fundamental overview of current print technologies and practises, allowing us to take a lateral approach that offers innovative solutions. For example we have run 4 successful KTP’s (Knowledge Transfer Partnerships) winning the best ‘transfer of technology’ award in 2003. Over the years we have undertaken a series of collaborations with big business as well as Small to Medium Enterprise’s (SME’s). For example with Hewlett Packard our collaborations extend from colour science, through wide format printing to dissemination of research projects with schools.

This paper will highlight this approach and explain how a creative background can offer direct benefits to industry.

Stephen Hoskins

The Manifesto of Possibilities: Commissioning Public Art in Urban Environments

The Manifesto of Possibilities

is a statement of beliefs, concerns and recommendations about the commissioning of public art in urban environments. It has been developed from research by Cameron Cartiere and Sophie Hope and is a knowledge transfer mechanism that aims to inspire reflection, discussion and cohesive action for all those involved in commissioning public art.

Cameron Cartiere

Knowledge Transfer Methodology and Practice

Exploring the Safety of Knowledge Transfer from University Hospital to “Real-Life” Doctor-Patient Treatment Environs

Knowledge transfer (KT) is widespread across most university interfaces particularly between university and industry and increasingly with hospitals and other medical/patient environs. As KT becomes more varied and diverse, safety implications become more abundant and more diverse. There is a responsibility and an increasing importance for examining the qualifications and experience of the end-user and the extent of possible misuse or dangers of the commercial product. The question over whether a product successfully transfers from academia to industry or “real-life” application is no longer key; rather, whether or not essential knowledge successfully transfers with the product.

Simon B. N. Thompson

Knowledge Transfer for Supporting the Organizational Evolution of SMEs: A Case Study

This article describes the research project MAEOS that has been launched six months ago for a three year duration. The goal of this project is the modelling of the support of the evolution of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The developed models will constitute the foundations of a knowledge based system that will permit consultants to improve the effectiveness of their missions thanks to the implementation of theoretical and practical domain knowledge.

Dominique Renaud, Philippe Bouché, Nathalie Gartiser, Cecilia Zanni-Merk, Henri-Pierre Michaud

Knowledge-Based New Product Development through Knowledge Transfer and Knowledge Innovation

This paper develops and presents the concept of knowledge-based new product development in an effort to explain the role of knowledge in new product development and the process of innovation management. Due to advances in science and technology and the rapid changes in the market, a product’s life cycle has become much shorter than it was before. A new product strategy is an important activity that helps enterprise to survive and make continuous improvements. Most enterprises have placed great emphasis on shortening the time for a new product coming into the market.

The aim of this paper provides the integration of knowledge management value and innovation management to introduces a strategic management approach towards knowledge innovation as a source of sustainable competitive advantage.

Ming-Chang Lee

Cross-Functional Collaboration, Knowledge Transfer and Product Innovativeness: Contingency Effects of Social Context

A contingency perspective is used to examine how social capital influences the relationship between cross-functional collaboration and product innovativeness. Three dimensions of organizations’ internal social context (social interaction, trust, and goal congruence) conducive to high-quality knowledge transfer are argued to increase firms’ ability to convert cross-functional collaboration into product innovativeness. Several research hypotheses are tested based on a sample of 232 firms. It is found that the relationship between cross-functional collaboration and product innovativeness is amplified at higher levels of the three social capital dimensions. The study’s implications for the role of knowledge transfer and social capital in exchange relationships are discussed.

Dirk De Clercq, Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl, Dimo Dimov

Innovation and Enterprise

Integral Conceptual Design Workshop: Innovation by Knowledge Transfer and Knowledge Creation

Innovation in the Building Industry is necessary to meet the new demands of society. In order to enhance team design in the most crucial phase for innovation, the conceptual design phase, a design method is proposed: Integral Design. This design method uses morphological charts which are transformed to a morphological overview as a framework for reflection on the design process itself by the design team and their stakeholders (project managers, clients). This design method supports creation of innovative building design concepts by design knowledge transfer and knowledge creation based on the ‘concept space’ and ‘knowledge space’ of the Concept-Knowledge (C-K) theory of Hatchuel and Weil. To reach for organizational/cultural innovation as well as product and process innovation, the design method was developed in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Architects, BNA, and the Dutch society of consulting engineers, ONRI. One of the main results achieved is the inclusion of the method in workshops for the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects’ permanent professional development program. Already more than 200 professional participated in these workshops.

Wim Zeiler, Perica Savanovic

An Evaluative Inquiry of University Innovation Mentor Facilitation of Service Innovation

This study highlights how knowledge transfer can operate through a process consultation approach. Key issues in developing university innovation mentors and supporting their activities in facilitating service innovation are discussed. Significant impact of the approach upon client organisation performance and capability was identified. The value of adopting an evaluative inquiry process to capture and address the emergent challenges of this form of knowledge transfer is highlighted.

John Sparrow, Krystyna Tarkowski, Michele Mooney

Knowledge Transfer Aspects of Project Portfolio Management

Knowledge transfer has a particular relevance for enterprises with large research and development (R&D) departments. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is a discipline often applied to structure and align R&D activities. Typical functions of such standardized process are project data repository, project assessment, selection, reporting, and portfolio reevaluation. In this work we discuss how PPM can benefit from knowledge transfer activities and suggest some specific knowledge transfer tasks within the PPM process. This enhancement is based on a knowledge and learning strategy and process in the context of PPM. We also evaluate the applicability of these extensions at different stages of the PPM process.

Vladimir Stantchev, Marc Roman Franke, Andreas Discher

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