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Über dieses Buch

The book is a collection of best selected research papers presented at 6th International Conference on Innovations in Electronics and Communication Engineering at Guru Nanak Institutions Hyderabad, India. The book presents works from researchers, technocrats and experts about latest technologies in electronic and communication engineering. The book covers various streams of communication engineering like signal processing, VLSI design, embedded systems, wireless communications, and electronics and communications in general. The authors have discussed the latest cutting edge technology and the volume will serve as a reference for young researchers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Signal and Image Processing

Frontmatter

Development and Simulation Analysis of a Robust Face Recognition Based Smart Locking System

Face recognition based smart locking systems are susceptible to variation in ambient light conditions. This paper presents a robust face recognition based smart locking system. The novelty of our work is that the choice of the algorithm for face detection and recognition is based on the intensity of light at that time. This system uses basic principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and its variants for face detection and recognition. Access is granted to the user if their image matches one in a predefined database. In case the light intensity is so low that no algorithm gives a satisfactory result, our system will authenticate via a Bluetooth-based one-time passcode. MATLAB/Simulink was used to simulate this system which was subsequently prototyped. The developed prototype had 90% accuracy in low light conditions when larger training databases are used and 90% accuracy in normal light conditions when smaller training databases are used.

D. Sagar, Murthy K. R. Narasimha

An Efficient Speech Compression Technique in Time Domain with Nearly Constant Compression

Speech compression is a widely scoped field with multiple possibilities in the fields of digital communication and transmission of data. It is of particular importance in digital signal processing. There are many commercially available methods both in time and frequency domains to aid the same. Speech file has multiple frequent redundancies present in the raw data. Taking into account the possibility that the frequencies present can be effectively encoded without appreciable change in speech quality, this paper goes on to describe an efficient and new approach with a satisfactory compression ratio and PSNR value for a sampling rate.

Ayan Hore, Pratik Jain, Debashis Chakraborty

Unsharp Masking-Based Image Enhancement of Nanodispersed 10O.O6 Liquid Crystal Compound

The main motto of the image enhancement in image processing is to process an image with suitable technique and to provide better visibility for a specific application. Novel image processing techniques are required to identify key features like transition temperatures, clear phase identification in the liquid crystalline images. Characterization and mesomorphic behavior in pure and 1% ZnO nanodispersed liquid crystalline N–(p–n–decyloxybenzylidene)–p–n–hexyloxy anilines, 10O.O6 compounds, are carried out using a polarizing microscope and images are preserved for enhancement. Both the compounds exhibit NACIG phases, and the transition temperatures of the 1% ZnO nanodispersed 10O.O6 are reduced compared with pure 10O.O6. Further, in this work, a novel image enhancement technique of combined unsharp masking is proposed on pure and 1% ZnO nanodispersed 10O.O6 liquid crystalline compounds for better visibility of phases at transition temperatures. The proposed method is used to identify the uniform regions and to detect the defects which may not be clearly observed from polarizing microscope.

Y. Kumari, N. V. Seshagiri Rao, A. Ramesh, G. V. Ramanaiah

Active Contour Model Applied to Segmentation of Human Face

Active contours or snakes have been broadly used in image processing applications and computer vision system. Face contour represents relevant and useful information commonly implemented in biometric applications using human face information. For parametric deformable models, snakes are broadly applied in detection of boundary, modeling of shape, motion tracking, etc. In this paper, the segment of facial information using snake or active contour model has been applied. The import information is retrieved that is face image from given database image for identifying or verifying a human face purpose. The accurate snake contour of simulation results shows that it can be fitted for face detection.

Rangayya, Basavaraj Amrapur

Electroencephalograph (EEG) Based Emotion Recognition System: A Review

Brain–computer interfacing is recent technology through which we can communicate with the outside world using the brain signals. This technology plays an important role in the biomedical field. BCI can be used to identify various human emotions. These emotions play an important role in human psychology. Recognition of emotion is subject of interest for both psychologists and engineers. Many researchers are doing a lot of work in the same field. The objective of this paper is to present study of various stages involved in electroencephalography (EEG) signal analysis for human emotion detection. The review gives an explanation of each method like EEG signal acquisition, signal preprocessing, feature extraction, and signal classification.

Kalyani P. Wagh, K. Vasanth

A Brain Tumor: Localization Using Bounding Box and Classification Using SVM

The brain tumor is defined as the abnormal growth of unhealthy and unnecessary cells in the brain. The objective of the proposed method is to identify and locate the presence of tumor in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain images. The proposed method incorporates three phases to determine the presence of brain tumor, namely, preprocessing, identifying/locating the tumor region, and classifying the tumor region. The input image is filtered to reduce the noise in the preprocessing phase. In the second phase, Bounding Box (BB) is used to identify/locate the tumor region in the filtered image. Subsequently, in the third phase, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to classify the exact tumor location. Finally, the brain tumor is localized absolutely by the proposed tumor detection method. Moreover, the proposed method is evaluated with the publicly available standard dataset and compared with a contemporary method. The experimental results concluded that the proposed method has higher tumor detection accuracy than the existing method.

Sanjeeva Polepaka, Ch. Srinivasa Rao, M. Chandra Mohan

Improved Normalization Approach for Iris Image Classification Using SVM

With the rapid improvement of information technology, security and authentication of individuals have become a greater significance. Iris recognition is one of the best solutions in providing unique authentication for individuals based on their IRIS structure. Iris normalization is meant to extract the iris region and represent it in the spatial domain, Daugman’s rubber sheet model is so far a standard and efficient method of implementing this process. In this paper, a low complex, simpler and improved version of rubber sheet model is proposed. The main aim of this method is to minimize the complex computations that were involved in the conventional rubber sheet model and to provide an equivalent performing approach with very less computations. Classification performance is evaluated with CASIA and IIT Delhi IRIS databases using SVM classifier.

R. Obul Kondareddy, B. Abraham David

Performance Parameter Based Comparison of the Slantlet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for Steganography in Biomedical Signals

In this paper, we present patient’s information hiding using the Slantlet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). DCT transforms the signal from spatial domain to frequency domain. It can separate the image into high-, middle- and low-frequency components. In DCT-based technique, insertion of secret information in carrier depends on the DCT coefficients. The Slantlet Transform is known as Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT). It separates 1-D signal in two sub-bands, LL and HH. It divides 2-D signal into four sub-bands, HH, HL, LH and LL and the secret information is embedded in these sub-bands. At first, DCT is used for data hiding. For that, 1-D ECG signal and some biomedical images (2-D) are used as cover signal. The secret information is embedded in lower DCT coefficients. Similarly, Slantlet transform is used for hiding patient’s data in same biomedical signals ECG and biomedical images, respectively. Original signals and embedded signals are compared. To analyse the performance of the transforms used for data hiding, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Normalised Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are calculated. MSE between original and embedded signals is less.

Apurwa S. Jagtap, Revati Shriram

Q-Factor Based Modified Adaptable Vector Quantization Techniques for DCT-Based Image Compression and DSP Implementation

In the context of multimedia application, image compression is an integral part of image processing, which is a significant constituent in the present world of computation and communication. The work presented here focusses on the design and the selection of modified adaptive vector quantization techniques used in the image compression and its influence on the quality (Q-factor) of the reconstructed image. The proposal also considers and suggests the modifications to two existing methods by providing comparative evaluation. Both experiments have been tested on MATLAB framework and DSP TMS320C6713. The performance metrics used in the proposed designs are MSE, PSNR, CR, bpp, and percentage space saving with respect to variations in quantization levels, starting from 10 to 90. Such suggested implementations prove to provide better off-the-shelf solutions.

Mahendra M. Dixit, C. Vijaya

Bio-Signal System Design for Real-Time Ambulatory Patient Monitoring and Abnormalities Detection System

This paper aims to design and implement low-cost real-time patient vital sign monitoring in moving ambulance that provides patient’s clinical data to doctors well in advance so the doctors are well prepared on the arrival of patient and also do further research to protection of human life and to implement technology for social cause. The system is developed such that it will transmit the essential details of a person to the hospital personnel. Also, camera-aided interaction between the doctor and the patient provided by this system also provides important information about patient condition in ambulance; the doctor can also interact with the patient attendant in ambulance and other hospital staff, surgeons, and doctors in case of emergency and give them instructions on the required immediate treatment for the patient on his/her arrival at hospital. In addition to this, the algorithms are designed to detect abnormalities in patient conditions and to create alerts. This work is implemented at VNR VJIET, Hyderabad as a part of UGC funded Research project.

Akshay Naregalkar, G. Vamsi Krishna

Automated Heart Rate Measurement Using Wavelet Analysis of Face Video Sequences

To overcome the drawbacks of the conventional heart rate measurement method, a new approach is developed to measure cardiac pulse automatically using video imaging technique and wavelet analysis. In this paper, the color video images of the human face are used for detection of cardiac pulses. The specific region of interest (ROI) in face image is detected to obtain red, green, and blue intensity signals. Next normalized red, green, and blue intensity signals are decomposed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to obtain approximate and detail coefficients. Then, the specific frequency band from decomposed signal is obtained with the help of bandpass filter using Hamming window function. The cardiac pulse is measured with the help of pulse frequency in power density spectrum of filtered signal. The cardiac pulse measured with help of this system is compared with heart rate measured from reference ECG signal of the same object. This technique improves the accuracy from 73.14 to 89.86% if forehead of the subject is considered instead of face.

Amruta V. More, Asmita Wakankar, Jayanand P. Gawande

Enhancing the Quality of Failed Planetary Gear Regions Using Intensity Transformation

Component failure analysis is a challenging task in any industry, in particular; gears are complicated parts and are failed frequently. This is one of the important tasks analyzed to improve the reliability and life of the gear component. As per the failure analysis procedure, for evidence purpose, gears are carried out visual examination, photo documentation, and metallographic examination. With help of a still camera, the failure zone of gear is studied that is cut for further investigation like optical and scanning electron microscope. Unfortunately, the still images are not clear and identification of gear component are challenging issues. So, image processing techniques are employed to enhance the quality of image for its further analysis. The input image is subjected to sharpening which helps in obtaining the high-frequency component in the image. After sharpening the image, the intensity is distributed over the span of 0–255 pixels. The gamma correction is performed on the sharpened image before contrast adjustment. The intermediate intensity values of the histogram are selected for enhancing the quality of the images. The results prove that the Proposed techniques is identified the failed regions of planetary gear box.

K. Santhi, Dhanasekaran Rajagopal, Somasundaram Devaraj, Nirmala Madian

Embedded Systems

Frontmatter

Arduino-Based Smart Street Lamp Control System to Save Energy and Improve Lamp Life

Population growth and industrial development have led to increase in demand for energy in recent times. Because of which we can no longer afford to waste resources. Using resources effectively and efficiently has become a prime concern for us. In this paper, an intelligent street lamp controlling system is proposed. The proposed system helps to save huge amounts of energy and also helps increase lamp life. The design of the prototype of the proposed system is discussed in the paper.

K. Shruthi, G. Akhil

GPS Based Autonomous Ground Vehicle for Agricultural Utility

Farming is a tedious job when carried out manually. With the advent of technology, various researches are done in this field. The innovative idea is to automate the process of seed sowing, to reduce the human labour and to increase the speed with consistent quality. The unmanned mobile robots are employed to serve this purpose. The location of the Autonomous Ground Vehicle in a vast area can be tracked with the help of GPS, and its position can be monitored through a remote device. A prototype has been designed for precise seed sowing process. The inter-seed distance is maintained by the use of servomotor. The vehicle is controlled by ATMEGA328 microcontroller. The direction of the path to be followed is deduced by using a compass module. Speed and accuracy have been the areas of concern while designing the system.

S. Thenmozhi, V. Mahima, R. Maheswar

Systematic Method for Detection and Prevention of Fire Accidents in Rail Transport

Exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward a systematic method for preventing fire in a rail transport. The system includes a flame detector which detects fire at a critical fire point in compartments of a rail transport, a control unit which receives the detected fire information from the flame detector for transmitting digital signals, an alarm unit which notifies the detected fire information to the passengers through an alarm, a liquid-crystal display unit which displays a fire presence compartment number of the rail transport, a power activation and deactivation unit which deactivates a power of the rail transport and activates battery bulbs in the compartments of the rail transport, water sprinkling pipes which split the water in the fire presence compartments, a power relay unit which controls the speed of the rail transport, and emergency services alerting unit which transmits an information of detected fire information to the emergency services through a communication network [1].

B. Vanajakshi, N. Mounika

A Virtual Instrumentation-Based Data Acquisition System for Vibration Monitoring and Analysis

The proposed work aims at monitoring the vibration of the bridge in virtual instrumentation namely LabVIEW for finding the age of the bridge ensuring the safety. The vibration is measured by the vibration sensor and the output is monitored through the PC by virtual instrumentation method. Embedded Controller is programmed to read the sensor value. The vibration sensor is connected to the Analog-to-Digital Converter of the controller through the signal conditioning. Then, the output is transmitted to the PC through the wireless technology. The firmware for the microcontroller is done by embedded ‘C’ program. The LabVIEW software processes the data from serial port of the PC and takes the appropriate precautions and actions to prevent the bridge from further damage.

S. M. Shyni, K. Vasanth, C. Bhuvaneswari

Nighttime Vehicle Detection Using Computer Vision

Many accidents occur during the night due to the improper visibility of the road ahead. One of the main reasons is of the discomfort posed by the high beam light of the oncoming vehicle, glares our eyes while driving. This discomfort might result in a lapse of concentration thereby resulting in an accident. Our primary aim is to automatically detect the head light using tracking and segmenting the frames extracted from the video signals that are fed by a camera and automatically switch the lighting condition of our vehicle from low beam to high beam or vice versa to avoid discomfort to the driver of the oncoming vehicle. We use MATLAB to simulate the results of our algorithm. In MATLAB, we mainly use computer vision and image processing to make necessary alterations to the input to get the necessary output.

Sushruth Badri, Sri Soumya Somu, K. Vamsi Meghana, V. Aparna

Detection of Inadequate Growth of Early Childhood and Development of Adult Disease Alert via Embedded IoT Systems Using Cognitive Computing

The objective of the work is to bring the awareness of the childhood growth problems and the corresponding developmental adult diseases like CVD and Type 2 diabetes using IoT-embedded systems. Nowadays, there are a wide range of abnormalities found in the early growth of the child due to malnutrition and enteric infections which increase the risk for the metabolic syndrome. This leads to stunting (poor height growth) and obesity in the young generation. The medical record of the child from the infant stage to the age of 18 years is stored in the cloud database and is compared with the reference records and provides information about growth syndromes and guides to appropriate doctor and the hospital. Cognitive computing approach using support vector data description algorithm is applied in the outlier detection. The odd data which are likely to have stunting is marked using the outlier detection in the cloud dataset and an alert is sent to the parents about the stunting effect on the child. The proposed idea helps in building a young and energetic healthy nation.

S. J. Sugumar, Sirisha Madiraju, Tejash G. Chowhan, Thota Anurag, Syed Awais Ahmed

Design and Implementation of IoT-Based Monitoring and Control of a Strategic Telerobot

Strategic design and implementation of IoT-based monitoring and controlling of a telerobot using Raspberry Pi is presented. To control the telerobot a set of commands from cloud computing system (ThingSpeak) is communicated via Wi-Fi system. The cloud computing is a type of internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. Raspberry Pi owes its advances in integrated with ARM and Wi-Fi with less power consumption. The cloud-based control, which helps the operator at remote to maintain a frequent communication with the telerobot, and execute prognostic control actions. The accurate motion of the telerobot is guaranteed by the instantaneous control that runs perpetually. The telerobotics is tested in-house using the proposed strategic design with a different task, and its performance is verified with the benchmark test.

S. J. Sugumar, M. Sirisha, M. Srivani, N. Susmita, M. Krishna Teja

VLSI

Frontmatter

Design of Wallace Tree Multiplier Using Sparse Kogge-Stone and Brent–Kung Adders

In many digital signal processors and different applications, the massive role is played by the multiplier. In any VLSI design mainly power, area and speed play a massive role, by improving any of these parameters the overall performance will be improved. Array multipliers and Tree multipliers are various types of multipliers, among those Wallace tree multiplier belongs to Tree multiplier which is better than booth multiplier in terms of speed, area, design complexity. Different existing approaches had been developed for the reduction of partial products. One of the existing approaches uses full adders and half adders in Wallace tree multiplier, but by using this approach number of stages would be increased when higher order multiplication is considered. To overcome this, an approach is proposed which includes 4:2 compressors & parallel prefix adders in Wallace tree multiplier design.

M. Lokesh Chowdary, A. Mallaiah, A. Jaya Lakshmi

High Stability and Low-Power Dual Supply-Stacked CNTFET SRAM Cell

MOSFET is replaced by the best adaptable nanodevice, Carbon Nanotubes Field-Effect Transistor (CNTFET) for low-power, small area and delay-optimized VLSI circuit design [1, 2]. In this paper, a dual supply-stacked CNTFET SRAM cell is designed. The performance of 6T CNTFET SRAM cell, stack CNTFET SRAM cell and dual supply-stacked CNTFET SRAM cell is observed by calculating performance metrics of the memory cell such as static power and Static Noise Margin (SNM). From the simulation, it is observed that dual supply stack CNTFET SRAM cell static power is 15.8% lesser, SNM is 1.8% higher than stacked CNTFET SRAM. SNM improvement of 9.62% and static power reduction of 46.92% is obtained in dual supply-stacked CNTFET SRAM cell than 6T CNTFET SRAM cell. Simulation is carried out using Stanford University 32nm CNTFET model invoked in CADENCE EDA tool.

M. Elangovan, K. Gunavathi

Design of a New Subthreshold-Level Shifter Using Self-controlled Current Limiter

This brief presents new design of subthreshold-level shifter capable of converting an input signal from subthreshold voltage of 0.1 V to above threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Level shifter (LS) circuit makes use of a self-controlled current limiter (feedback loop) for shifting the signal by detecting the output error. In addition, the proposed design has ample process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variation tolerance. Simulation results of subthreshold LS design in 65-nm CMOS technology, shows that the circuit can shift the signal with limited delay, static power and energy consumption. Modified Wilson current mirror (MWCM) LS design (extension) is also implemented in 65-nm technology, which shows much improvement in terms of delay, power, and energy consumption compared to subthreshold LS design.

Sheereen Sulthana, K. Ragini

Heart Sound Signal Analysis and Its Implementation in VHDL

Cardiac auscultation is a primary diagnostic tool in the detection and management of cardiac disease. It is a noninvasive technique of listening to sounds produced by heart. In order to make the system reliable and proceed to make real-time operation, a new method is developed and evaluated. A novel framework for heart sound analysis based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition and its implementation in VHDL is presented in this paper. Autocorrelation of the average Shannon energy envelope is extracted as feature from the sub-band coefficients of the heart signal with the DWT. Simulation is done in both MATLAB and Xilinx ISE 12.1 with the help of ModelSim simulator. The proposed method is evaluated on publically available datasets published in the PASCAL Classifying Heart Sounds Challenge.

Anjali S. Patil, Jayanand P. Gawande, Ajinkya Bankar

Communication

Frontmatter

Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Over Rayleigh Fading Channel

Cooperation among secondary users improves the spectrum sensing performance by allowing local decisions measured over independent sensing channels. This reduces the miss detection and false alarm probabilities. Most of the works in cooperative spectrum sensing techniques assume perfect channels between the cooperating secondary users. In this paper, we considered the effect of imperfect channels. Total error rate and success probabilities are calculated for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and a Rayleigh fading channel. The optimal number of cooperative secondary users is estimated over nonfading and fading channels. Simulation results show the variation of success probability with respect to channel imperfection for different number of secondary users. This is useful for identifying the unutilized spectrum.

Chilakala Sudhamani, M. Satya Sai Ram

ICI Cancellation in OFDM Systems Under Stanford University Interim Channel Model

In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, it is observed that intercarrier interference (ICI) is the most pervasive effect. Due to the Doppler shift or phase noise, the intercarrier interference effect will occur. In this paper, to alleviate the ICI, a parallel cancellation algorithm and space frequency techniques are combined to form a new technique called space frequency parallel cancellation scheme. The performance of this space frequency parallel cancellation approach is evaluated under SUI (Stanford University Interim) channeling environment.

N. Mounika, M. Durga Rani, J. Lakshmi Narayana, M. Naga Lakshmi Kalyani

Analyzing Performance and QoS Parameter Estimation for VANET Using D2D

Intelligent transport systems (ITSs) are becoming an important part of our society, a wide variety of ITS applications need vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. LTE-assisted device-to-device communication (D2D) is considered for V2V communication. D2D communication overcomes the traditional routing techniques used for V2V communication and also provides a solution for dead ends (failure recovery) in V2V communication. In this paper, we analyze various quality of services (QoS) parameters such as throughput, packet delivery rate, bit error rate, delay, and packet loss rate. We also analyze the performance through D2D framework. The simulation results are presented to illustrate the QoS and performances for VANET through D2D communication.

K. P. Sharmila, C. Ramesh

DDTRCSTCT: Design of Doppler Tolerant Radar Code to Increase SNR Using Trellis Code Technique

In todays world the defense security system facing most important interesting issue for the doppler radar is the detection of multiple moving targets attacks. But the process of detection and ranging target fails because the shadow of fast-moving targets (noise) may hide the slow-moving targets, which may lead a serious damage in the battlefield environment. Hence, measurement of these parameters (i.e., range and resolution) of target is a challenging issue. Considering these challenges, current research trend concentrates on enhancement of Merit Factor (MF) as well as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the radar system. In this paper, a novel approach has been proposed, namely, trellis code generation using quad code sequence. This method improves the Merit Factor (MF) of the main lobe; on the other hand, it reduces the side spikes of the noise amplitude below 80 dB caused by fast-moving attacks during target detection process. Thus enhanced SNR acheived by creating multiple clear windows at different Doppler’s (frequency shift) with respect to target range. We have validated our approach using Matlab.

Rajkumar D. Bhure, K. Manjunath Chari, Syed Jalal Ahmad

Automated Security Intrusion Alert System for Wide Range of Applications

This work focuses on a novel system that actively detects motion and notifies the administrator with the GSM. This work aims at to create a responsive and affordable security system which can be installed at any place. The functions and processing is will be done using a simple prototyping board KL25Z provide by ARM and powered by the Cortex M0+ processor. The hardware is installed at college premises for testing and found working.

J. Lavanya, Padmakar Rao

An Iterative ICI Compensation-Based MIMO-OFDM Signal Detection

In this paper, an iterative intercarrier interference (ICI) cancellation-based MIMO-OFDM detection in the presence of frequency offset is proposed. This technique uses banded approximation of ICI terms in the channel matrix and achieves suboptimal performance with low complexity. We have considered the adjacent dominant ICI terms in the detection process which leads to improvement in BER performance of MIMO-OFDM.

B. Senthil

An Improved Frequency Diversity Scheme for OFDM Systems with Frequency Offset

In this paper, a modified symmetric symbol repetition (MSSR) scheme is presented for reducing the effect of intercarrier interference (ICI) due to the frequency offset. The proposed scheme improves the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) by reducing the ICI in the presence of frequency offset. The proposed MSSR exploits the frequency diversity over the frequency-fading channel and thereby achieves better BER performance compared with that of conventional intercarrier interference reduction techniques such as adjacent symbol repetition (ASR) and symmetric symbol repetition (SSR).

B. Senthil

Reducing Intercarrier Interference in High-Speed OFDM Systems in Presence of Jitter Noise

Carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) plays a vital role in the uplink/downlink process of OFDM. Due to frequency offset (FO) there might be loss of orthogonality in OFDM modulated symbol there by signal-to-noise ratio will be reduced, it also introduce a timing jitter which can be defined as the deviation of timing edges from its expected areas. Jitter causes serious hardware impairments due to the synchronization imbalance. Hence, we have implemented a typical jitter noise reduction method which also improves the CIR performance there by degrades the intercarrier interference (ICI). We execute ultra-sampling criteria in the OFDM correspondence framework, by adjusting over examining in the framework we get lessened jitter power which enhances CIR performance which results in mitigation of ICI factor.

A. H. Sharief, M. Satya Sai Ram

ESMBCRT: Enhance Security to MANETs Against Black Hole Attack Using MCR Technique

Ad-hoc network also called MANET refers to a self-motivated, structure less temporary network that can be developed by the group of moving nodes. In this type of network nodes can leave or enter at any instant of time within the network. Therefore prone to the security threat, a major and well-known security attack that occurs in MANETs is a black hole attack. Almost all existing approaches are securing this nature of attack either based on the energy of a node or by providing a key. However as the network is mobile, so key distribution is a challenging task. So simply we can assume that distribution of keys is not possible in this network. The presented approach is a novel security method which doesn’t require any key distribution called ESMBMCRT: Enhance Security to MANETs against Black hole Attack using modified CR Technique to provide the security. The presenting security method not only enhances the security to the network but also minimizes the energy consumed which is also the important concern of such networks. We authenticate our approach by using NS2.

Shaik Noor Mohammad, R. P. Singh, Abhijit Dey, Syed Jalal Ahmad

Modified Phase Sequence in Hybrid Pts Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

It is well known fact that high PAPR value degrades the performance of OFDM system. In this paper, PTS (Partial transmit sequence) based approach is opted for the reduction of PAPR and three major contributions are made to the traditional PTS scheme. First, the phase sequence that is to be multiplied is changed, second the system is extended with hybrid mechanism of SLM (selective mapping) and PTS scheme in which additional hybrid scheme is opted. Third the benefits of DHT (Discrete Hartley transform) are incorporated with this system. It is found from the experimental results that the proposed MSD (modified sequence DHT) based system able to decreases the PAPR at a considerate factor and also able to preserve the OBI (out of band interference).

Kakara Satyavathi, B. Rama Rao

Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Topology control is found to be a prominent strategy, to prolong the lifetime of WSNs. It helps to control the power consumption of the sensor nodes. In this paper, topology construction and topology maintenance are taken into account as a part of review of topology control. Topology construction algorithms encompass to frame the reduced form of topology. Topology maintenance helps in providing a reduced topology intermittently, as soon as the current topology becomes no longer optimum. Simulation results demonstrate that sensor node battery lifetime can be prolonged by the appropriate use of topology control.

Ranjan Kumar Mahapatra, N. S. V. Shet

Performance Analysis of Smart Grid Communication Network Architecture for WAMS

In recent years, wide area monitoring systems’ (WAMS) communication infrastructure plays a crucial role in the transformation to smart grid for real-time delivery of data with low latency. The advancement of WAMS has to be meticulously designed by optimizing the power systems and communication infrastructure. The performance of the communication infrastructure relies on the optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in the power system. In the modified IEEE 14 bus system the optimal PMU placement and its backbone communication network has been designed and analyzed. With optimum number of PMUs for complete observability and minimal distance between PMUs and control centers effective monitoring is achieved for the stable operation of the grid. The minimal path between the PMUs to the control centers were obtained by Dijkstra algorithm. Finally using opnet the communication network has been analyzed using different routing protocols. The simulation results are analyzed and it shows that Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) based PMU data transfer provides better performance.

S. Premkumar, M. Susithra, V. Saminadan

BER Analysis of LTE-4G Standard Rayleigh Flat Fading Channel with Adaptive Modulation

It is a challenging task to improve reliable and high-speed data communication between Transmitter and Receiver. Achieving high data rate using block codes and convolution codes is still questionable through a wireless channel. Turbo codes are a class of high performance forward error correction (FEC) codes with OFDM with adaptive Modulation for 4G and LTE applications. In this paper, BER analysis is carried out for TURBO-coded OFDM data with adaptive modulation mode switching using BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM. Adaptive modulation scheme is assisted by decision feedback equalizer (DFE) which controls modulation mode. Its output SNR is used as a switching metric. DFE is used to select modulation mode. It is observed that average spectral efficiency (bits per second/Hz) is much higher for adaptive modulation scheme. For higher modulation scheme average spectral efficiency is gradually increases up to 40 dB, that indicates its throughput is much higher in comparison with fixed modulation modes.

Rajeswara Rao Gangula, Sasibhushana Rao Gottapu

A Study on the Coverage of Millimeter Wave (MMW) Communication Link for Fifth Generation (5G) Mobile Networks

Millimeter wave (MMW) communication is a promising technology to cope up with the ever increasing demand for multi gigabit wireless applications and to alleviate the problems of spectrum scarcity for Fifth generation (5G) mobile communication applications. The coverage distance of the MMW communication system is severely affected due to the various losses such as free space loss, atmospheric loss, and foliage loss. However MMW communication allows the use of smaller antenna size which can facilitate the fabrication of large antenna arrays over small area like a postage stamp which can be used at both transmitter and receiver. This helps in efficient use of the Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) technology in MMW Communication systems which can improve the coverage distance as well as capacity of the system. In this paper, we perform the Mathematical analysis of the coverage distance of MMW communication link and study the effects of different parameters on its performance. A simulation study to examine the effect of the MIMO antenna system for improving the coverage distance of MMW communication links for specific data rates for Line of Sight (LOS) and Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) cases in a highly dense mobile network scenario has been done and results are presented in this paper.

Umar Farooq, Ghulam Mohammad Rather

BER Performance Analysis of Wireless Communication System in Flat Fading Environment

The performance of any wireless communication system mainly depends on the wireless channel environment. Because of huge demand and growth in mobile communication and Internet services the optimization of the wireless communication is critical. If we know the perfect channel characteristics we can easily develop a high bandwidth-efficient wireless communication system. The wireless channel mainly suffers from 3 different modes. They are Reflection, Diffraction, and Scattering. Combination of these three phenomena’s is called fading. Fading is fluctuations in the power levels of the signal. In this paper we find the Bit Error Rate (BER) of wireless communication system in Flat Fading environment. At the same time we evaluate the system performance of M-PSK modulation schemes using MATLAB.

O. Ravinder, M. Ravinder, K. Krishna Kumar

Miscellaneous

Frontmatter

The Implementation of Rule-Based Early Warning System in Snort Through Email

Snort is a network intrusion detection and prevention tool and is used to identify and prevent the different types of attacks on networks. The snort works on the basis of rules enabled or created by the network administrator time to time. In this paper attacks are identified with the help of alert mechanism in the rule set as defined in snort package. The alert notification on email is shown in the form of snapshots. It simply means to deliver the alert in the form of email which makes the flexibility to the administrator to roam anywhere without being taking pain of any missed information related to attacks.

Aaruni Goel, A. K. Vasistha

Robust Secure Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-3) is a next generation security standard used in the world of electronic communications where the digital messages are transformed into “message digest” for creating digital signatures. Any changes in the original message leads to a change in the message digest and it becomes easy to detect the modifications to the original message. Hash functions are used in message authentication. They are also used in routine software upgrades to make sure that the new software has not been tampered with. SHA-3 is a family of functions based on Keccak, some of them can be implemented with minimal additional circuitry on a chip and are very useful alternatives for providing security in small devices. SHA-3 is not a replacement for SHA-2 but it is offered as a backup. So far, there is no procedure that exists to crack the SHA-2 and still remains secure and viable. In this paper, HMAC-SHA-3 standard algorithms were used to address Data Integrity of the message being sent using AODV routing algorithm for MANETs. Message authentication, confidentiality, Integrity were addressed using secure routing. All possible attacks were addressed in AODV using SHA-3 algorithm and the tool used for simulation was Qualnet 7.4.

Ravilla Dilli, P. Chandra Sekhar Reddy

Derived Genetic Key Matching for Fast and Parallel Remote Patient Data Accessing from Multiple Data Grid Locations

In recent years, grid computing has made a fast growth in many scientific experiments and research centers in the area of medicine, scientific computation. Many research works in data grid using replication algorithm and scheduling strategies for managing large data were introduced. However, replication and scheduling strategies pose significant threat when applied in biomedical area due to parallel access limitation in grid. In this paper, Derived Genetic Key Matching (DGKM) technique is introduced for quick parallel accessing of data (heart disease patient data) available in multiple grid locations. The storage key of patient data in multiple grid locations is synchronized to improve data integrity for effective disease diagnosis. DGKM in distributed grid services allows parallel and integrated data accessing with minimal key matching time. Further, Vantage Point (VP) tree indexed Berkeley key model is designed to optimize (patients) data storage at different grid locations. The proposed technique is implemented by GridSim and is tested using Cleveland Clinic Foundation Heart disease dataset. The results showed better performance in improving data access speed by 17.04% and accuracy of integral patient data from corresponding grid location by 15.13% compared to state-of-the-art works.

K. Ashokkumar, P. Saravanan, Rusydi Umar

Enhance Multiple Moving Target Detection in Doppler-Tolerant Radar Using IRAESC Technique

Nowadays, nation’s power is gauged in terms of technology to keep an eye on the enemy movements in their vicinity. Hence, there is a need to work for the advancement of detection and tracking technology. For this purpose, the Doppler-tolerant radar fulfills the purpose of detection of multiple moving targets. So such systems needed to be strengthened in terms of precision in detection of multiple moving targets. The art of work of such radars focuses much toward stationary and slow moving targets. In this perspective, abundant work has been done to improve the figure of merit of autocorrelated signal in which transmitted and received signals are operated, thereby increasing the accuracy in detection of multiple moving targets. However, such systems fail to detect multiple moving targets under Doppler shift by suppression of reflection from small moving targets due to noise peaks of the autocorrelated signal. In this paper, we provide a digital coding technique to enhance the probability of target detection by the use of ASCII code to IR system called Indian Radar ASCII EX-OR System Code Technique (IRAESCT). This approach authenticates the position of the target and on the same time, it reduces the noise spikes below the threshold limit, which results in the creation of clear windows to help the multiple moving target detection with respect to desired Doppler. We validate our results using MATLAB.

Md. Aleem, R. P. Singh, Syed Jalal Ahmad

Prediction of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Subtypes Based on Artificial Neural Network and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Approaches

The proposed technique involves designing and implementing an acute myeloid leukemia sub-type prediction system based on artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system approaches. The dataset of 600 possible cases (patients) of acute myeloid leukemia is used. After training the system with 540 input–output dataset of patients having AML-M0, AML-M1, AML-M2, AML-M3, and AML-M4 types of leukemia, it is tasted with 60 data for validation. The method is implemented to predict these five types of acute myeloid leukemia based on the characteristics of four complete blood count (CBC) parameters, namely leukocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, and blasts of the patients. The neural network performed well than the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system when test data was considered, where the average mean squared error (MSE) for each system was 0.0433 and 0.2089, respectively. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system showed better performance than artificial neural network when training data was considered, where the mean squared error (MSE) for each system was 0.0017 and 0.0044, respectively.

Etee Kawna Roy, Subrata Kumar Aditya

Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease by Using Artificial Neural Networks and Gravitational Search Algorithm

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a universal health issue attacking around 10% of the populace worldwide. This disease can be detected using Artificial Neural Networks approach along with optimizing technique called as Gravitational Search Algorithm. These networks are periodically used as strong classifiers during the diagnosis of a disease. The data has been collected from the UCI Machine Learning Repository, which is an MR image. From the collected data, 80% of it is used for training the neural networks and 20% is used for the testing purpose. In this paper, the algorithms like Artificial Neural Network with Gravitational Search Algorithm (ANN+GSA), Artificial Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm (ANN+GA), and K-nearest neighbor are used. The intent of this paper is to compare the performance of these two algorithms on the basis of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

S. M. K. Chaitanya, P. Rajesh Kumar

Design and Placement of a Conformal Microstrip Antenna on a Vehicular Structure for SATCOM Applications

Various applications utilized in vehicles like GPS reception, GSM communication, AM, FM, automated tolling, television, keyless entry, etc., use different antennas, which need to be incorporated at different positions in the outer structure of the vehicles. Thus, finding the location in different positions and the placement of the antennas in these positions is a challenging task. The antenna placed should be functional in the given location as well as the position of these antennas should not affect the aesthetic of the vehicle design. Conforming the antenna over the vehicular structure is the best solution for the above task. The first step to achieve the solution for the above problem is to analyze the radiation characteristics of the antenna along with the vehicular platform. Designing of such an antenna requires a complex procedure and also requires more computational resources to determine the electromagnetic radiation surrounding the vehicular structure. In this research, a circularly polarized conformal microstrip patch antenna on a vehicular structure for SATCOM application in Ku band using both HFSS and FEKO tool is designed and simulated, and a comparative study is done with linearly polarized planar and conformal antenna used for vehicular communication.

B. Ebenezer Abishek, Arun Raaza, K. Leelaram, S. Jerritta, V. Rajendran

Statistical Analysis of Path Length in Optical Networks

Optical networks are the main traffic carriers of all the modern communications. All the core and regional networks are very much optical these days. Even in the metro and access area networks, we now have a lot of presence of optical fibers. With the growth of traffic, the complexities of management and control aspects of the optical networks increase. In optical networks, shortest path and the minimum hop paths are not the only choices when the network operates at its optimum capacity level. Rather, several other paths are chosen for routing and traffic management, which are neither the shortest nor minimum hop path lengths. So, there is a requirement to understand the statistics of these paths. In this paper, we analyze the path lengths of 35 real optical transport networks (OTNs). For this study, we used 65 different statistical distributions. We found that both Wakeby and Johnson SB distributions are very much suitable for the modeling of path lengths in OTNs. The validity of our statistical measurements was checked using Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic (KSS). For both Wakeby and Johnson SB distributions, all the KSS values obtained are valid at 95% confidence interval for all 35 networks.

Mihir Malladi, V. Mithun, K. B. N. Naveen, N. Punith, Jyoti M. Roogi, Mrinal J. Sarma, Sudhir K. Routray

A Survey on Conventional and Secure Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor networks are one of the emerging fields. This has been supported by advanced technologies and smart sensor nodes that are cost-effective and easily deployable. Our survey is concentrated on conventional routing techniques and security routing protocols in WSNs. The review provides the knowledge about different routing protocols in terms of energy efficiency, location awareness, and security. This paper aims to help the researchers entering into the field of wireless sensor networks by providing the complete understanding of the recent developments.

A. L. Sreenivasulu, P. Chenna Reddy

Neural-Based Hit-Count Feature Extraction Method for Telugu Script Optical Character Recognition

The recognition accuracy and efficiency of any OCR system greatly depend on the feature extraction methods. There are several feature extraction methods each has its own characteristics. These methods differ in terms of the number features that they extract and the complexity. With less number of features, the recognition accuracy may be low, and with more number of features, the recognize time may be more. The features are to be selected in such a way that they could distinguish one character from other with minimum comparisons and gives less false positives and false negatives. The accuracy of an OCR can be improved by changing the feature extraction methods. Telugu is called Italian of the east. But it is surprising that there are not many OCRs that could detect Telugu characters with fairly good accuracy. The accuracy of OCRs available in the market are either highly objectionable or the price is very high. To address this issue, we took up this project. Other problems include the segmentation of overlapped characters and right feature extraction. We tried to solve these issues, by taking a segmented character from a word and check to find a correct match for it or tell that the character does not exist so that the particular character can be re segmented. In this work, a hit-count-based feature extraction method with neural networks is used for the fast recognition even though the training time is more. The experimental results show that the proposed hit-count-based feature method greatly reduces the time by maintaining the recognition accuracy.

M. Swamy Das, Kovvur Ram Mohan Rao, P. Balaji

Oversampled PTM Sequencing for Sidelobe Suppression in Radar

Detecting fast moving targets by radar has become an issue due to Doppler shift in the frequency of the return signal. This issue attracted the research community to enhance the quality of detection in radar system. Current literature is mainly focusing to increase the power spectral density of the main lobe, which also minimizes the effect of sidelobes to some extent. However, the effect of sidelobes still exists, which makes detection very difficult at all Doppler shifts. Most of the existing research assumed Doppler filter bank followed by range gates to detect the range and speed of the targets. In this paper, we pay much attention to present oversampling PTM sequencing for sidelobe suppression which is a better solution than earlier methods to remove the effect of sidelobes over large extent by creating windows at regular Doppler frequencies to enhance detection. The detection of the targets will be done in range through the Doppler windows giving excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The transmission code may be oversampled to get the requested Doppler clearance.

Ravi Kishore Singh, D. Elezebeth Rani, Bandella Deepika Chowdary

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