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Über dieses Buch

Processes that meet the objectives of green chemistry and chemical engineering minimize waste and energy use, and eliminate toxic by-products. Given the ubiquitous nature of products from chemical processes in our lives, green chemistry and chemical engineering are vital components of any sustainable future. Gathering together ten peer-reviewed articles from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Innovations in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering provides a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art in this key area of sustainability research. Worldwide experts present the latest developments on topics ranging from organic batteries and green catalytic transformations to green nanoscience and nanotoxicology. An essential, one-stop reference for professionals in research and industry, this book also fills the need for an authoritative course text in environmental and green chemistry and chemical engineering at the upper-division undergraduate and graduate levels.



Chapter 1. Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Introduction

The goal of Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is to minimize waste, totally eliminate the toxicity of waste, minimize energy use, and utilize green energy (solar thermal, solar electric, wind, geothermal, etc.) – that is, non fossil fuel. Clearly, fossil fuels have their own waste and toxicity problems even though usually remote from the site of chemical production.
Robert A. Meyers, Paul T. Anastas, Julie B. Zimmerman

Chapter 2. Gas Expanded Liquids for Sustainable Catalysis

The modern-day chemical industry relies mostly on fossil fuel (such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal)–based feedstock. There are several megaton industrial catalytic processes that produce essential commodities for everyday life but present challenges with respect to reducing environmental footprints and enhancing sustainability.
Bala Subramaniam

Chapter 3. Green Catalytic Transformations

With ever-increasing demand of chemical products on a global scale, as well as poor public image in recent years, there has been increasing pressure for chemistry industry to become more efficient and sustainable.
James H. Clark, James W. Comerford, D. J. Macquarrie

Chapter 4. Green Chemistry Metrics: Material Efficiency and Strategic Synthesis Design

Over the last 2 decades, the topic of “green metrics” has grown rapidly in conjunction with the field of green chemistry. Green metrics promise to provide a rigorous, thorough, and quantitative understanding of material, energy, and cost efficiencies or individual chemical reactions and synthesis plans.
John Andraos

Chapter 5. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products [1]. This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendly chemical processes that prevent pollution “at source” rather than cleaning up “end-of-the-pipe” by-products and pollutants generated by traditional synthesis.
Rajender S. Varma

Chapter 6. Nanotoxicology in Green Nanoscience

Nanotechnology holds great promise for future economical and technological advances, yet health and safety concerns regarding nanomaterials persist. As an emerging technology, nanotechnology is in the unique position to proactively address health and safety concerns throughout the product life cycle. Green chemistry aims to create benign compounds in a way that prevents pollution and reduces waste throughout every stage of production. Through green nanoscience, the principles of green chemistry can be applied toward making high performance, yet inherently safe nanomaterials. Successful application of green chemistry principles to assess nanomaterial health and safety requires efficient, predictive, high-throughput nanotoxicity testing. With these approaches, designers and manufacturers of nanomaterials can assess nanotoxicity early in production to redesign or replace hazardous nanomaterials.
Leah Wehmas, Robert L. Tanguay

Chapter 7. New Polymers, Renewables as Raw Materials

Recent advances in genetic engineering, composite science, and natural fiber development offer significant opportunities for developing new, improved materials from renewable resources that can biodegrade or be recycled, enhancing global sustainability. A wide range of high-performance, low-cost materials can be made using plant oils, natural fibers, and lignin. By selecting the fatty acid distribution function of plant oils via computer simulation and the molecular connectivity, chemical functionalization and molecular architecture can be controlled to produce linear, branched, or cross-linked polymers. These materials can be used as pressure-sensitive adhesives, elastomers, rubbers, foams, and composite resins. This entry describes the chemical pathways that were used to modify plant oils and allow them to react with each other and various comonomers to form materials with useful properties.
Richard P. Wool

Chapter 8. Organic Batteries

Batteries are composed of cathode- and anode-active materials, a separator to separate the two electrode-active materials, an electrolyte layer, and current collectors. The cathode- and anode-active materials of conventional primary and secondary batteries are usually metal oxides, such as manganese, silver, lead, nickel, and vanadium oxides, and metals, such as zinc, lead, cadmium, and lithium. All the electrodes of conventional batteries are composed of metals and metal oxides (except oxygen and carbon that are used for the air battery cathode and the lithium battery anode, respectively), many of which come from limited resources.
Hiroyuki Nishide, Kenichi Oyaizu

Chapter 9. Oxidation Catalysts for Green Chemistry

The term “green catalyst” has no single definition. Currently, it is most commonly associated with catalysts that are recoverable or prepared from readily available starting materials. A truer definition, although circular, is that a green oxidation catalyst, or any catalyst for that matter, is one that conforms to green chemistry and green engineering principles. Creating a green oxidation catalyst a priori is a complex task because every aspect of the catalyst needs examination and to be of practical value it must provide a cost benefit to the end-user. Here, some general guidelines for what a green oxidation catalyst might be are presented.
Colin P. Horwitz

Chapter 10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as Green Solvent

A substance is called as a supercritical fluid (SCF) when the temperature and pressure are higher than its critical values.
Tianbin Wu, Buxing Han


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