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Über dieses Buch

This book gathers the best articles presented by researchers and industrial experts at the International Conference on “Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering (I-DAD 2018)”. The papers discuss new design concepts, analysis and manufacturing technologies, with an emphasis on achieving improved performance by downsizing; improving the weight-to-strength ratio, fuel efficiency, and operational capability at room and elevated temperatures; reducing wear and tear; and addressing NVH aspects, while balancing the challenges of Euro IV/Barat Stage IV emission norms and beyond, greenhouse effects, and recyclable materials. The innovative methods discussed here offer valuable reference material for educational and research organizations, as well as industry, encouraging them to pursue challenging projects of mutual interest.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Modeling and Optimization of SIS Process Using Evolutionary Computational Approach

Due to the existence of diverse selective inhibition sintering (SIS) processing variables and intricate stochastic nature, arriving optimal processing conditions to enhance the product quality is extremely difficult. This paper concentrates on the development of SIS system model to predict the optimal SIS process variables to improve the dimensional accuracy. Response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to design the experiments and develop the mathematical models by considering various SIS process parameters. The developed regression models are further optimized by an evolutionary approach of genetic algorithm (GA) scheme. The proposed approach can be effectively utilized to predict the dimensional accuracy under various process conditions.

D. Rajamani, E. Balasubramanian, P. Arunkumar, M. Silambarasan, G. Bhuvaneshwaran, R. Manivannan

Computational Characterization of a CD Nozzle with Variable Geometry Translating Throat

Nozzles constitute the exhaust system of jet engines. They are designed to regulate the flow properties to provide the required thrust force for all flight conditions. In the present work, the simulation of a de Laval nozzle outfitted with a throat shifting mechanism is compassed. The mechanism adds a variation in the throat geometry during the translation of the throat. A convergent–divergent (CD) nozzle is designed for Mach 2 initially. The geometry of the throat is varied by keeping the settling chamber pressure constant. The scope of the effort was to investigate the characteristics over the range of geometries (throat diameters, 10, 9.5, 9, and 8.5 mm) and operating conditions. The simulation of the nozzle flow is carried out using ANSYS CFX. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence is used for the flow simulation. Grid-independent study is also performed for better mesh results. The simulation is carried out for chamber pressures of 8, 9.5, 11.5, and 14 bar. The Mach number, pressure, velocity, and temperature readings are taken along the nozzle axis and also the important cross sections of the nozzle for all cases. Thrust is calculated for all the cases and compared. Plot comparison of variations in the parameters was done, and optimum results were inferred.

S. Apoorva, Suresh Chandra Khandai

Synthesis and Characterization of Al2O3–Cr2O3-Based Ceramic Composites for Artificial Hip Joint

The purpose of the present research work is to study the structural, mechanical and wear properties of artificial hip ceramic composites with varying proportion of aluminum and chromium oxide. The ceramic composites containing fixed amount of zirconium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride with varying amount of aluminum and chromium oxide were fabricated by using spark plasma sintering process and subsequently evaluated for structural (XRD, X-ray diffraction), elemental (EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy), mechanical (fracture toughness, elastic modulus and hardness) and wear properties. The results showed that aluminum and chromium oxide contents have a significant influence on the mechanical and wear properties of the fabricated ceramic composites. In particular, the composites containing 1.5 wt% chromium oxide and 70.5 wt% of aluminum oxide showed better mechanical properties with improved wear resistance. This result clearly indicates that the proposed ceramic materials may be a better alternative for artificial hip material.

Chandramani Goswami, Amar Patnaik, I. K. Bhat, Tej Singh

Experimental Investigation on Tensile and Fracture Behaviour of Glass Fibre-Reinforced Nanoclay/Mg–Al LDH-Based Fibre Metal Laminates

Nano-sized particulate materials have been influencing their effect in the modern world. In this paper, morphological conduct is been decided by using the sandwich sheets of fibre-metal laminates (FMLs) containing nanoclay Cloisite 30B and Mg–Al layered double hydro-oxide (Mg–Al LDH). Atomic force microscope (AFM) is been utilized to discover the harshness of the nano-particles. Here, the tensile test for 3, 4 and 5 wt% of layered double hydroxide (LDH)/nanoclay added FML sheets was analysed. The EDAX is employed to discover the real structure of the chosen nano-powders along the identification of the chemical composition of the nanofiller. It results that the sandwich sheet with nanoclay had smooth surface for a similar molecule measure than the LDH. The fractured surface is analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) hence indicates ductile nature of fracture for modified epoxy and reinforced with glass fibre metal. Henceforth, nanoclay and LDH-based FMLs can be decided on applications in automotive applications.

K. Logesh, V. K. Bupesh Raja, M. Venkatasudhahar, Hitesh Kumar Rana

Experimental Study on Micro-deburring of Micro-grooves by Micro-EDM

Deburring of micro-structures is found to be a tedious job. But it is to be done during machining of micro-channels. This article describes the experiments conducted to remove top burrs in micro-channels produced by micro-milling. The correlation between burr size and feed rate is studied. The burr formation in the down-milling side always tends to be higher than that on the up-milled side. This is correlated with the so-called size effects in tool-based micro-machining. The bottom surfaces of the micro-channels are studied for surface quality. Moderate feed rate (1.25 µm/tooth) produces better surface quality and less top burrs. Micro-EDM is employed to remove the top burrs. Different energy levels were employed in a capacitance-based micro-EDM. It is found that the lesser the energy level better the deburred surface. High energy levels tend to damage the quality of the micro-channels.

Elumalai Boominathan, S. Gowri

Influences of Tool Pin Profiles on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welding Process of AA8011 Aluminum Alloy

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a grand new solid-state bonding process is an emerging surface engineering technology based on the principles of friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding is well-matched joining process for non-ferrous metals in the spacious range of various manufacturing applications for joining materials without material losses to get a top priority of defectless welded joints. In this article, a thickness of 5-mm AA8011 series aluminum alloy plate was coupled by butt joint using two dissimilar tool pin shapes of the straight cylindrical probe and taper pin probe with a consistent parameter of tool revolving speed, welding speed, and downward force of 1400 rpm, 35 mm/min, and 6 kN. The tool pin shapes are the important parameter of material joining process to fix the joint properties, characteristics, quality of weld, and joint strength. The friction stir welding effects are determined after completing the joining process under a various ASTM standard testing methods, such as stiffness distribution in the entire welded zone area and material properties as compared to the base metal with testing results. The crucial tool travel feed is achieved with excellence material joints and extraordinary welded joint properties when collating to a straight cylindrical tool probe. It is identified that the taper pin profile tool offers extensive result was obtained both hardness and tensile strength for to enhance productivity, has been discussed along with the future aspects included in the area of FSW process from this experimental investigation.

K. Giridharan, V. Jaiganesh, S. Padmanabhan

Numerical Investigation of the Behaviour of Thin-Walled Metal Tubes Under Axial Impact

Dynamic axial impact of metallic thin-walled tubes of square and circular hollow sections is performed and the impact responses of the lightweight thin tubes along with progressive deformations are simulated. Peak force, crushing modes and force dissipation ability of tubes are determined using a non-linear finite element tool Abaqus CAE. The effectiveness of Abaqus CAE as a tool to model thin tubes and to moderate experimental crash testing is presented. Study shows that concentrically arranged multiple tubes have higher energy absorption properties. Results reveal that for double tubes and steel–aluminium configuration highest energy absorption is recorded. Similarly, for three tubes and aluminium–steel–aluminium configuration highest energy absorption is recorded. Also simulations disclose that the inner tube influences the overall crush behaviour.

L. Prince Jeya Lal, S. Ramesh

Improving Process Performance with World-Class Manufacturing Technique: A Case in Tea Packaging Industry

There is no doubt that the world-class manufacturing offers a vast variety of economic development opportunities and plays a vital role in rapid economic changes, productivity improvement, and international competitiveness enhancement for developing countries. In this paper, a WCM methodology has been applied to tea packing process to minimize the defects occurred in the current process. It consists of various quality control tools such as Pareto analysis, 5W + 1H analysis, brainstorming, why-why analysis. After implementation of this methodology, a better control over the process has been obtained. Detailed analysis of root cause results into the permanent solution to the problem which reduces defects and improves profit of the company.

Vishal Naranje, Anand Naranje, Sachin Salunkhe

Tensile Testing and Evaluation of 3D-Printed PLA Specimens as per ASTM D638 Type IV Standard

Additive Manufacturing is playing a major role in the manufacturing of parts by providing an alternative to the existing processes. However, strength of such 3D-printed parts using specific materials is still an area of current research. Polylactic acid, a biodegradable material, is one of the compatible materials in fused deposition modelling-based 3D printing process. Researchers have primarily focused on testing of PLA material as per ASTM D638 Type I standard. In this research ASTM D638 type IV specimens printed on FDM printer using PLA material are subjected to tensile testing and then compared relatively with the simulated results. Process involves preparation of ASTM specimens in Solidworks software followed by printing using PLA material in a Makerbot 3D printer, conditioning the printed specimens and then subjecting it to tensile testing in AutoGraph AG 15 universal testing machine. CAD model of the test specimens is then subjected to tensile loads in ANSYS software to obtain simulated tensile strength and maximum deformation.

S. Anand Kumar, Yeole Shivraj Narayan

Design Optimization and Testing of Structure of a Single Door Refrigerator

With growing demand of refrigerators, more and more raw material is required which usually leads to natural resources exploitation and increased cost of manufacturing. For a manufacturing company to remain efficient, research and development becomes necessary to maintain the cost, quality, and features of the product. The aim of this work is to design optimization and testing for cost opportunity (material or process time reduction) and for increased ease of mass manufacturing which indirectly also benefits in reduction of carbon footprint. To achieve this, first the process knowledge was acquired so that the change in design could be met with the existing machinery. Next, the design study of the existing product was done to understand the purpose of the part and its structural features. Next, process involves brainstorming to generate ideas and design conceptualization, followed by design modeling and assembly in CREO/Solidworks. Design analysis of each concept generated was done in ANSYS to study them and compared with the existing design. Final design is chosen from the generated concepts on the basis of benefits it offers in terms of structural strength, cost, and ease of manufacturing.

Nishchay Anand, S. Sivarajan

Use of Low-Fidelity Codes for Teaching Aircraft Design

The concept of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance is acquiring lot of importance in military as well as public sectors. The use of rotary wing UAVs for surveillance has gained popularity due to the hovering capabilities. The endurance and range for the rotary wing are considerably less compared to fixed-wing UAVs. The range and time span of surveillance can be remarkably improved with use of fixed-wing UAVs for aerial surveillance. The present work concentrates on developing a conceptual design procedure for the fixed-wing UAVs using low-fidelity codes and applying the constraint diagram approach. The performance requirements of the proposed UAV were used, in current design procedure, to generate constraint diagram from which design drivers like power loading, wing loading and maximum lift coefficient were obtained. The procedure is applied for the design of a fixed-wing (wingspan < 3 m) conventional configuration UAV with electric propulsion system.

H. K. Narahari, Deepak Madhyastha

Drag Reduction for Flow Past a Square Cylinder Using Rotating Control Cylinders—A Numerical Simulation

This paper investigates the effect of two control cylinders of same circular cross section on reduction of drag caused by vortex shedding phenomenon at the downstream of the flow past a square cylinder. Numerical computations are performed for a Reynolds number of 100 as this is well below the transitional flow regime where the effect of vortex shedding phenomenon is more significant. Simulations are carried out using a Finite Volume CFD solver for five different positions along with three different rotational speeds (5, 10, 20 rad/s) and directions (clockwise, anticlockwise) of control cylinders. Validation of the base case (i.e., without any control cylinder) shows a good agreement with the available literature data. The transient variations of lift and drag coefficients are monitored for each case and compared with those of the base case. The vortex shedding phenomenon and the physics behind the drag reduction are explained with the help of streamlines and drag coefficient plots. The most effective case with 4% drag reduction is identified when xc = 0.65, yc = 0.45 with the top cylinder rotating in the clockwise direction and the bottom cylinder rotating in the anticlockwise direction with a rotational speed of 20 rad/s.

Ghosh Subhankar, S. Senthilkumar, S. Karthikeyan

Study the Effect of Mill Scale Filler on Mechanical Properties of Bidirectional Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composite

In this study, the effect of mill scale as the filler with different weight percentage in carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites is investigated. The composites are fabricated with 0, 5 and 10 wt% of mill scale, respectively, using hand lay-up method. The mechanical performance of the composites is evaluated by tensile test, flexural test, inter-laminar shear stress and micro-Vickers hardness test. It is observed that incorporation of mill scale in composite increases the tensile strength by 2.40% (5 wt%) and 4.73% (10 wt%); flexural strength by 35.34% (5 wt%) and by 17.78% (10 wt%); ILSS by 44.40% (5 wt%) and 41.45% (10 wt%); hardness by 14.70% (5 wt%) and by 25.49% (10 wt%). The results reveal that mill scale as filler in composite significantly affects the mechanical properties. This work may provide a meaningful way to modify the conventional manufacturing methods in various industrial applications of CFRPs.

Aman Soni, Amar Patnaik

Study on Carbon, Glass, and Flax Hybrid Composites Using Experimental and Computational Techniques

Composites have already proven their worth as weight-saving material; the present scenario is to make them cost-effective. Employment of natural fibers as reinforcement along with carbon and glass fibers is an effective method for achieving it. In this paper, various properties of artificial and natural fibers are discussed and the fibers are selected on the basis of static efficiency. Composite laminates were made using different combinations of carbon, glass, and flax using epoxy resin. The mechanical properties of these laminates were studied experimentally using tensile tests and three-point bending tests. The results from experimental tests are validated computationally using Ansys 16 software.

M. Dinesh, B. Rubanrajasekar, R. Asokan, S. Vignesh, S. Rajesh

Design Evaluation of a Mono-tube Magnetorheological (MR) Damper Valve

The primary purpose of this paper is to identify performance indices and evaluate a design of a mono-tube MR damper valve, as a result of which relations among performance indices and possible design approaches are explored. To achieve this, initial design of a mono-tube MR damper valve is considered. Common MR damper valve configuration is adopted to which initial design parameters are specified. Performance indices that need to be considered while evaluating the design of a mono-tube magnetorheological (MR) damper valve are identified, and mathematical models are developed. The performance indices of the damper valve depend upon the magnetic circuit design of the valve; hence, for the adopted MR damper valve configuration, finite element model is built to analyze and investigate the performance indices of a 2-D axisymmetric MR damper valve. All performance indices of the damper valve are simulated within given range of input current and number of turns of coil. The simulation results show that the design of the MR dampers is highly dependent on the performance indices, and hence, the MR damper design should be application oriented. The results obtained in this work provide an insight for designers to create more efficient and reliable MR dampers.

Solomon Seid, Sujatha Chandramohan, S. Sujatha

Characterization of Soot Microstructure for Diesel and Biodiesel Using Diesel Particulate Filter

Diesel fuel exhaust, produced in an internal combustion engine, also contains particulate matter. Its composition differs based on the type of fuel, its consumption rate, and the mode of engine operation. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogenic, inhaling which can cause lung cancer. A standard wall-flow filtration device like diesel particulate filter (DPF) is used to remove particulate matter or soot from diesel exhaust. With BS-VI emission norms, the emission standards have become stricter and thus an attempt is made to compare the microstructure and amount of soot produced by diesel and a biodiesel blend. The use of biodiesel is increasing continuously since it has lower net CO2 emission, and the EU demands the use of renewable sources in the transport sector. It has been found, by weighing the respective DPFs, that engine running with biodiesel blends is producing less soot. Size of soot particles affects its reactivity during filter regeneration. Soot trapped is analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe its structure and density. EDX analysis revealed the presence of zinc in low concentration in biodiesel soot. This also indicates uniform blending of biodiesel.

Indranil Sarkar, Ritwik Raman, K. Jayanth, Aatmesh Jain, K. C. Vora

Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Using Metal Foam Combined with Ceramic Honeycomb Substrate

Although diesel engines have higher thermal and volumetric efficiencies, sufficiently large amount of particulate matter (PM) including soot is emitted during its exhaust stage. Thus, a need is raised for implementation of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in diesel engines as it has become the customary technology for the control of soot aerosol emissions. An analytical study of the performance of a circular ceramic honeycomb substrate (cordierite) diesel particulate filter with and without the use of metal foam filter at both ends as well as variation in channel length of ceramic substrate is reported to observe the change in the amount of soot particles trapped and pressure drop along its axis. The drop in pressure and filtration process depends on the filter pore structure properties such as permeability, porosity (40%) as well as channel length (60 and 100 mm). For each case, the depositions of soot through the filter were calculated by weighing approach, optimum drop in pressure using water U-tube manometer, and permeability of material by adopting graphical approach. However, after certain time, it is observed that due to increase in the accumulation of soot inside the diesel particulate filter there is a rise in pressure loss.

Hardik Sarasavadiya, Manthan J. Shah, Indranil Sarkar, Aatmesh Jain

Dry Machining of Nimonic 263 Alloy Using PVD and CVD Inserts

Nickel-based alloys are used in critical components where superior mechanical strength, corrosion and oxidation resistance at high operating temperatures are a prerequisite. Of the nickel-based alloys, one that has excellent resistance to thermal fatigue and creep characteristics suitable for use in the combustion chamber of aircraft engines is Nimonic C-263. This is a difficult to turn material owing to its superior properties, and the proper selection of a cutting tool along with cutting parameters plays major role is required in order to enhance its machinability. This paper presents a comparative analysis of force, roughness and tool wear during the dry machining Nimonic 263 alloy using coated carbide inserts. Machinability experiments based on Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array are carried out. From the experimental results, the cutting force could not be improved, although a remarkable reduction in roughness and tool wear is observed for the AilTiN PVD coated insert under different cutting condition compared to TiN/Al2O3/TiCN.

K. Vetri Velmurugan, K. Venkatesan, S. Devendiran, Arun Tom Mathew

Investigation of Parameters for Machining a Difficult-to-Machine Superalloy: Inconel X-750 and Waspaloy

Nickel based super alloys has high mechanical strength, resistance to corrosion and oxidation and high temperature strength. Research work on Alloy X-750 and Waspaloy has been infrequent due to difficulties in machining. The present investigation aims to analyze the tool wear, turning forces, and roughness in dry turning of Inconel X-750 and Waspaloy. The experiments are designed using the following parameters: speed = 50, 75, 100 m/min; rate of feed = 0.05, 0.075, 0.125 mm/rev. The depth of cut was kept at a constant value of 0.5 mm. PVD-coated carbide inserts are used for the turning operation, and the coating material was AlTiN. The cutting forces and surface roughness were measured post the tool wore out. The microstructures and Vickers’ hardness of the superalloys were also studied. Finally, the range of cutting conditions is recommended for machining this alloy in an industrial environment.

K. Vetri Velmurugan, K. Venkatesan, S. Devendiran, Arun Tom Mathew

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Semi-spiroid Winglets at Subsonic Speed

In recent years, owing to the improving global socio-economic conditions, the number of air passengers grows rapidly. Despite the phenomenal increase in the passenger growth, the airline fuel cost continues to dominate with 27% of the total airline operating cost. Induced drag due to the pressure differential induced between the wings being the major contributor accounts for 25% of total drag at cruise to around 60% during take-off. With a view to overcome this, end plates were introduced in the 1980s to reduce the wingtip vortices. Several studies have been performed by researchers over various configurations and found that the angle at which the winglets are inclined greatly influences the strength of the wingtip vortices shed away from the winglets. In order to understand the effect of eccentricity on aerodynamic performance, a baseline swept wing with vertical winglets and seven different modified models featuring curved winglets with different eccentricities were computationally investigated for various angles of attack at Re = 4.0 × 106. Results reveal that the curved semi-spiroid winglet with eccentricity e (0.2) outperforms clean wing showing a 9.85% increment in the aerodynamic efficiency over the pre-stall regions.

Karthick Dhileep, S. Arunvinthan, S. Nadaraja Pillai

Vibrational Analysis of Self-aligning Rolling Contact Bearing Defects

Rolling contact bearings are widely used in various classes of machines and have a lifespan related to their specific use. The occurrence of small defects within the bearings can lead to failure of the bearings over time and may lead to a major breakdown requiring a significant maintenance period. Major causes of damage to a bearing are excessive load, false brinelling, true brinelling, overheating, failure due to fatigue, contamination, reverse loading, misalignment, loose or tight fits and corrosion, etc. A vibrational analysis technique is used in order to determine the various faults and the extent of any damage sustained. Vibrational analysis includes the use of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to convert time domain data to frequency domain data along with filtering techniques using the help of MATLAB software. In the current project, vibrational data was collected from self-aligning rolling contact bearings under six different fault conditions, namely a bearing with an inner race fault, a bearing with a cage fault, a bearing with one ball removed, a bearing with two balls removed, a bearing with three balls removed and a bearing with an outer race fault, i.e., a fault on the inner surface of the outer race of the bearing. In addition, healthy bearing conditions and a rotation at speed of 1100 rpm were applied. Methods like FFT and filtering techniques such as a Type 1 Chebyshev filter are proposed in this research for the analysis of faults. Furthermore, the classification of faults includes the use of an artificial neural network (ANN).

T. Narendiranath Babu, Abhinav Giri Goswami, Animesh Srivastava, Rishabh Kumar Tiwari

Fabrication and Characterization of Cu2−XZn1.3SnS4 Kesterite Thin Films Synthesized by Solvent Based Process Method for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Applications

Solar has become one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources. With the push towards sustainability, it is an excellent solution to resolve the issue of our diminishing finite resources. Alternative photovoltaic systems are of much importance to utilize solar energy efficiently. The Cu-chalcopyrite compounds CuInS2 and CuInSe2 and their alloys provide absorber material of high absorption coefficients of the order of 105 cm−1. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is more promising material for photovoltaic applications as Zn and Sn are abundant materials of earth’s crust. Further, the preparation of CZTS-ink facilitates the production of flexible solar cells. The device can be designed with Al doped ZnO as the front contact, n-type window layer (e.g. intrinsic ZnO); an n-type thin film buffer layer (e.g. CdS) and a p-type CZTS absorber layer with molybdenum (Mo) substrate as back contact. In this study, CZTS films were synthesized by a non-vacuum solvent based process technique from a molecular-ink using a non-toxic eco-friendly solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The deposited CZTS films were optimized and characterized by XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy and SEM.

B. Khadambari, S. S. Bhattacharya, M. S. Ramachandra Rao

Formula SAE Power Increment

In today’s world, every automobile enthusiast and someone who is passionate about motorsports can’t fulfill their dreams but with the introduction to this project every enthusiast can be a part of the motorsports world and experience it at budget cost. This Project helps to understand the designing of an air intake for a single-cylinder Kawasaki KX450F and improve the power-related factors for better performance and efficiency.

Jasjeev Singh, M. V. N. Sankaram, Vishal Naranje, Sachin Salunkhe

Temperature Behavior-Based Monitoring of Worm Gears Under Different Working Conditions

Worm gears have a wide range of applications. Monitoring the gears is highly essential to maintain sustainable operation. Vibration, wear and sound signal analysis have been implemented in several research studies. However, it is many a times difficult to implement these techniques in practical working environments. This research aims to address the analysis on worm gears under different loading and oil level conditions using temperature signals acquired during the experimental studies. An experimental setup was developed which consists of a worm gearbox coupled with a DC motor using flange coupling and rigidly mounted on test bed. Multiple experiments were conducted for varying speeds, loads and oil levels. Temperature signals were collected for the healthy and faulty gearbox setup using J-type thermocouple. The temperature variation observed has been presented for all experimental studies. The technique can further be applied for online fault detection of worm gearbox where incorporation of other techniques solely proves unbeneficial.

T. Narendiranath Babu, Dhavalkumar Patel, Devansh Tharnari, Akash Bhatt

Production and Comparison of Fuel Properties for Various Biodiesels

The improvement of an automobile industry, growth in population and development of the world causes energy demand. At the same time, depletion of fossil fuels and increased environmental issues like the greenhouse effect and emissions from automated vehicles create a major demand for the search of alternative fuels. So, it is important to select an alternative fuel that can be obtained from vegetable oils, biodiesel, alcohol, etc., as renewable resources. Production of biodiesel from edible oil is a very good alternate, but in future food, shortage problems may occur. Due to this, non-edible vegetable oils are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. Azadirachta indica (neem), cottonseed, Calophyllum inophyllum (polanga), Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Linum usitatissimum (linseed), Madhuca indica (mahua), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco) and Pongamia pinnata (karanja) are few non-edible oils. Thermophysical properties, production and characteristics of A. indica (neem), cottonseed and sesame oils are studied in detail in this paper. The real difficulty with an alternate fuel is that its higher viscosity value which increments concerning time, thus prompts cylinder staying, gum formation and fuel atomization issues. Mainly this problem is resolved with the help of transesterification process. So, initially, the basic properties are estimated and tabulated in this paper. From the three different fuels such as neem oil, cottonseed feedstock and sesame oil, properties are estimated, and it is found that the values are very close to base diesel fuel.

D. Ravichandra, Ravi Kumar Puli, V. P. Chandramohan

Experimental Determination of Fluid Flow Parameters to Study Permeation Process Inside a Porous Channel

Porous channels are actively used in the field of transpiration cooling and fuel cell applications. Therefore, it is important to study the fluid flow inside the porous channel and different factors affecting it. In this study, fluid flow analysis is performed using four different gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and helium. The effects of different inlet flowrates and feed pressures are investigated on the fluid properties. It is found that the viscous sublayer thickness is not the only parameter which governs the permeation inside the porous stainless steel tube. There are also some more parameters which should be taken into account while studying the permeation in a porous tube in addition to the boundary layer. These parameters are the velocity of the main flow, Vz (i.e., axial flow), momentum in the main flow, Mz (i.e., in axial direction), momentum in radial direction, My, density, ρ, and viscosity, µ.

Hussain Najmi, Eddy El-Tabach, Nicolas Gascoin, Khaled Chetehouna, François Falempin

Diesel Engine Cylinder Head Port Design for Armored Fighting Vehicles: Compromise and Design Features

The cylinder head of diesel engines for armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) should be compact and lightweight and has to operate under severe loading conditions. The cylinder head of a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine has to admit charge to the cylinder and expel the exhaust gas with minimum pumping losses, with required swirl and other properties of charge motion. It must also provide features like mounting of injector, sealing of combustion gases, and maintaining acceptable temperature of the components. The cylinder head is therefore a critical and a complex component in AFV diesel engines. This paper discusses the layout options of intake port and design features that can be applied to the cylinder head of four-stoke direct-injection diesel engines for AFVs. The head layouts followed here can provide more opportunities in positioning of ports and enhance other attributes of the design. The optimized configuration results in improved swirl characteristics, reduced volume and weight along with better cooling with the intake port-generating swirl in two modes, i.e., the directed mode and the helical mode.

Hari Viswanath, A. Kumarasamy, P. Sivakumar

Design Optimization of Advanced Multi-rotor Unmanned Aircraft System Using FSI

At the moment, multi-rotor MAV is being proposed for many critical applications so the engineer must provide an MAV, which have good specifications such as the high lifetime, high operational speed, more secure on-flight, and low maintenance cost in order to survive at critical applications. This work deals with the conceptual design and its optimization of the hybrid multi-rotor MAV for high-speed applications by using FSI simulation. The proposed MAV has characterized by the use of two counter-rotating propellers for vertical operation, and two propellers are located in the rear part of the MAV for forward force and yawing control. The airframe and propellers of the MAV are preferred to be of Kevlar composite, which allows for propeller flexibility without sacrificing durability. High lifetime and low probability of failures in terms of FSI analysis are to be achieved by the implementation of Kevlar composite, which has good impact load withstanding capability. The present work aims at performing a numerical simulation to be used for investigating the design behavior of the MAV by simulating the displacement and principal stress in order to withstand at high-speed operation. The design process entailed the overall system design, component selection, and placement in CATIA. FSI simulation of stress and displacement throughout the Kevlar MAV has been analyzed by Ansys 16.2, and thereby, the design optimization has been carried out in the MAV.

R. Vijayanandh, M. Senthil Kumar, K. Naveenkumar, G. Raj Kumar, R. Naveen Kumar

Studies on Carbon Materials-Based Antenna for Space Applications

Printing small antenna structures for space application would be highly challenging, and the materials to be used for the antenna fabrication would have major impact on the performance of the antenna system. Antennas are primely fabricated using copper as the material. In recent times, various materials are being explored for their applicability, reliability, durability, and scalability with respect to antenna applications. In lieu of the high thermal conductivity of copper, which could lead to thermal expansion on exposure to sun’s rays and thus decrease its efficacy as an antenna; graphene has been a better competitor and contender for space antennas. Taking cost of synthesis and capital investment into consideration, this paper aims to give a face-lift to the other allotropic forms of carbon, namely graphite, lampblack, and activated charcoal, which are comparatively far cheaper and extensively available and could be on a par with graphene as far as antenna application is concerned.

Prasanna Ram, Manoj Aravind Sankar, N. G. Renganathan

Progress and Issues Related to Designing and 3D Printing of Endodontic Guide

In the case of calcified pulp canal, a customized guide is used for the formation of access cavity to remove the infected pulp from pulp chamber; this guided approach of treatment is known as guided endodontic. The accuracy of guided endodontic treatment depends on design and fabrication of the guide. Guide path and support structure are the two essential part of the endodontic guide. The guide path is a hole of specific orientation and diameter, responsible for the orientation of file to follow the pre-decided drilling path during treatment while the support structure of guide will provide grip and placement on the teeth. If there is some deviation between the reference point of guide and teeth, then it will be the cause of the surgical error. So the intent is to fabricate optimally oriented guide path with the detailed negative impression of the tooth crown on the guide, which will be able to perfectly grip and place on the teeth. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the patient face is used to get anatomical details of the tooth to decide the orientation of guide path. Similarly, the architectural details of teeth captured by intraoral surface scan (SS) data are used to design support structure of guide. CBCT and intraoral SS data are merged to get the combined detail of teeth anatomy and architecture. This combined dataset exported from computational software (CAD software package) to design the endodontic guide. After that the STL model of the designed guide will send for fabrication on additive manufacturing (AM) machine. The endodontic guide comprises of freeform surfaces, negative impression of teeth, and guide path, so it is utterly essential to retain these features after fabrication. However, AM is the prevalent technology for fabrication of customized parts, but due to induced volumetric error, feature loss will occur which may lead drill path deviation and treatment failure. If guide designs for additive manufacturing by keeping some factors (triangulation, slicing, build orientation, nozzle/laser velocity) in mind, then feature loss can easily be controlled. The design and fabrication issues for additive manufacturing of endodontic guide along with the recent developments in guided endodontic discussed in this article.

Ankit Nayak, Prashant K. Jain, P. K. Kankar

Physical and Tribological Behaviour of Dual Particles Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been an active area of research and scientific investigation for past few years, but only in recent times, MMCs have become realistic engineering materials. In the present study, physical and tribological performance of graphite and alumina particulates reinforced AA6351 matrix composites were examined experimentally. These final composites are produced through liquid metallurgy process. To examine the worn surface morphology of the composite was evidently exposed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. The experimental results expose the tribological properties of composites increased with inclusion of filler reinforcements.

V. Mohanavel, K. Rajan, M. Ravichandran, S. Suresh Kumar, M. Balamurugan, C. Jayasekar

Parametric Optimization of Friction Welding Parameter of Ferritic Stainless Steel and Copper Material Using Taguchi Approach

Joining of dissimilar materials is increased rapidly in many industry sectors all over the worldwide. Friction welded joint not only gained its property related to mechanical strength but also with absence of defects in weld region. In this study, the weld behavior and its measurement of impact strength is analyzed using friction welding. Friction pressure, upset pressure, and rotational speed are varied using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array with constant burn-off length throughout the experiment. The dissimilar materials such as ferritic stainless steel and copper material are welded effectively under each condition. The response made from impact test is ranged from 24 to 46 J/cm2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the parameter involved under rotational speed is the most influencing factor in determining the impact strength followed by upset and friction pressure. The confirmation test is conducted to validate the optimal parameter and was found to be increase in impact strength with increase in 1.8% than the predicted welding parameter.

C. Shanjeevi, S. Velu, J. Thamilarasan, S. Satish Kumar

Experimental Investigation on the Thermal Performance of the Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Heat Sinks

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily growing lighting technology due to its reduced energy consumption, high light output and better lifetime as compared to incandescent lighting. However, the heat generated at LED chip during its operation, poses a considerable hurdle in its growth. In LEDs, about 70–85% of total energy is converted as heat, and only remaining 15–30% is harnessed as light energy. Excessive rise in the junction temperature (>95 °C) can cause failure of LEDs. The goal of this study is to experimentally investigate the heat transfer performance of the heat sinks using 16 W LED. The variation of case and junction temperature in LED for different configured heat sinks such as bare and finned heat sink was studied. It was observed that the case temperature (Tc) and junction temperature (Tj) reduced by 37.6 and 28.3%, respectively, for the finned heat sink as compared to the bare heat sink.

A. S. Praveen, Kaipa Sai Chaithanya, R. Jithin, K. Naveen Kumar

Numerical Modelling of Spiral Cyclone Flow Field and the Impact Analysis of a Vortex Finder

In most industries to remove gas–solid particle separation, cyclone separators are used. Though it plays a major role, the efficiency of the cyclone is not up to mark. In order to fulfil that with the help of CFD platform to investigate the flow field in Stairmand cyclone. For a numerical analysis 3D, grid independent Stairmand cyclone is performed by a Eulerian–Lagrangian model with Reynolds stress model (RSM) is chosen as a turbulence closure model and also grid convergence index study has been carried out. The numerical analysis is carried out with the coupled flow pressure field and two-way coupled particle tracking (stochastic tracking model) which were verified with experimental data. In Stairmand cyclone, the performance is affected by the collision between the circulating gas stream and the gas stream of fresh inlet charge at the junction of inlet duct results in flow short-circuiting (pressure drop). To avoid short-circuiting, spiral inlet is designed for cyclone separator and also study has been extended out numerically for the spiral cyclone separator (SCS) with different vortex finder diameter, length, eccentric position, convergent and divergent type vortex finder.

R. Vignesh, D. Balaji, M. Surya, A. Vishnu Pragash, R. Vishnu

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Double-Sided Deep Cavities at Low Reynolds Number

Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been created as an option computational technique conversely with conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) strategies. In the present work, the fluid flow of the two-dimensional low Reynolds number flow in a rectangular cavity with two opposite moving lids and different aspect ratios (depth-to-width ratios) is examined using LBM. The impacts of aspect ratio shifting from 1.2 to 10 on vortex structure in the cavity were watched. The streamline patterns were displayed in detail. As the perspective proportion is steadily expanded from 1.2, the stream structure creates the longitudinal way of the cavity and the quantity of vortices step by step increments with the expanding viewpoint proportion. The advancement of bigger external vortices is from the centre of the cavity and observed stream patterns were symmetric about the cavity centre at various proportion.

Balashankar Kesana, Vikas V. Shetty, D. Arumuga Perumal

A Study of Thermo-structural Behavior of Annular Fin

Adding an annular/radial fin to a heat exchanger increases the surface area in interaction with the surrounding fluid, thus increasing the convective heat transfer between the object and surrounding fluid. Since surface area increases as length from the object increases, an annular fin transfers more heat than a similar pin fin at any given length. The present work involves computation of temperature gradient followed by the determination of thermal stresses in radial and tangential direction, radial displacements, and strains of annular fins and compares the results for different aspect ratio (ratio of the inner radius to outer radius) by varying inner radius of the annular fin. A general second-order non-linear ordinary differential equation has been derived for all the parameters as the governing equation. The performance parameters of the annular fins for different aspect ratio have been calculated and plotted on graphs.

Rahul Sharma, Lakshman Sondhi, Vivek Kumar Gaba, Shubhankar Bhowmick

A New Design to Achieve Variable Compression Ratio in a Spark Ignition Engine

Spark ignition engines are known to have low part load efficiencies which contribute in increasing fuel consumptions. Compression ratio plays a significant role in deciding the performance of an engine at different load conditions. For this reason, the variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has, since long, been considered as an effective solution to the problems encountered while operating an engine at varying load conditions. There has been a significant amount of effort by researchers as well as OEMs for developing efficient and optimum designs of the VCR engine. The design makes use of a cylinder head which is equipped with a movable ram for varying the clearance volume. Actuators have been used to actuate the movement of the ram which facilitates to vary the compression ratio. The whole system has been designed keeping the potential challenges in mind and means have been sought to negate them. VCR engines give more flexibility to the user and at the same time, improve performance characteristics such as brake power, brake thermal efficiency, and torque while decreasing emissions and lowering specific fuel consumption.

Aditya Roy, Chetan Mishra, Sarthak Jain, Naveen Solanki

Experimental Investigation on Energy Saving due to Bubble Disturbance in Boiling Process

Boiling is the process through which a liquid is brought to a temperature at which it forms bubbles at solid-liquid interface and converts into vapour. The present work focuses on developing a system that involves less energy consumption for boiling of water. A thorough study of boiling process was made. The science behind the boiling curve of water is critically analysed. The four stages of boiling curve of water are studied, and a new theory called bubble disturbance theory is proposed. The transition region of the boiling curve shows decrease in heat flux pertained to poor heat conduction through bubbles formed at interface. A novel idea of disturbance of bubble at this stage to increase heat transfer rate was predicted. Experiments were conducted to observe the boiling of water with and without bubble disturbance. Results have shown that the proposed system with bubble disturbance will save energy up to 20%.

S. Santhosh Kumar, S. Balaguru

Highway Traffic Scenario-Based Lane Change Strategy for Autonomous Vehicle

In recent years, autonomous or unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) have become the prima focus of research in automotive industry and even in academic institutions. Advanced driver assistance systems technologies like lane keeping system (LKS), obstacle or collision avoidance system, lane departure warning system (LDW), automatic parking system have been thoroughly researched and are being practically implemented in most of the modern-day vehicles. According to recent report by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH), India, the number of accidents due to improper overtaking and jumping/changing lanes is a major concern, with manoeuvrability of the driver being the sole attribute. This paper focuses on control logic for safe navigation of vehicle before lane change manoeuvre is initiated in traffic environment. The simulations have been carried out to simulate the control logic and of subject vehicle merging into two vehicles (lead and lag) for a single lane change manoeuvre. The parameters such as position, speed and gap distance between the vehicles in the current and target lane are taken into consideration for controlling the vehicle manoeuvre to avoid collisions.

Gourish Hiremath, Kiran Wani, Sanjay Patil

Friction and Wear Analysis of PTFE Composite Materials

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a very important polymer-based engineering material. The PTFE material has many applications such as in aerospace, food and beverage industry, pharmaceuticals and telecoms. In this paper, investigate the effect of sliding distance, varying load, filler content in PTFE, sliding velocity experimentally by using a pin on disc test rig. A relative analysis of three different composites usually (PTFE + 30% carbon, PTFE + 30% bronze, and PTFE + 30% glass) are presented. Commercially, pure PTFE has high wear rate in order to reduce this wear rate the experimental investigation is carried out by using pin on disc test rig under constant sliding speed and constant time of 15 min. The results revealed that pure PTFE has high wear rate than the composite PTFE materials.

Sachin Salunkhe, Pavan Chandankar

Flow Analysis of Catalytic Converter—LCV BS III Applications for Optimising Pressure Drop

Recently, Indian government enforces stringent control standards for automotive emissions in order to minimise pollution and keep the environment green. To confirm these emission norms, new advanced technologies have been developed in the automotive emissions after treatment systems market. Diesel oxidation catalyst is one of the important contraptions which play a major role in reducing CO and unburned HC emissions. By employing CFD software, the flow properties of catalytic converter can be analysed. This helps to optimise the surface area of DOC, and the effective reaction area is utilised for oxidising the unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide of engine exhaust gases. In the present work, 0.8-litre DOC has been modelled in CATIA V5 software, and CFD analysis was executed by ANSYS CFX software. The pressure drop has been compared by varying the cell density and wall thickness. Finally, the results are compared and the parameters of substrate which give optimum pressure drop are established and concluded. The novelty of the present work is that wall thickness of the porous media substrate, which is in mill inch, has been considered to find out the pressure drop. Calculated pressure drop is verified with engine test bed pressure drop experimental data, before concluding the results.

C. P. Om Ariara Guhan, G. Arthanareeswaran

Step Toward Computer-Aided Integration of Sheet Metal Applications

Integration of sheet metal product design, simplification, and fabrication applications is one of the major titles in the sheet metal industry. The integration of sheet metal product design and production in a computer-aided environment is a challenge due to its complicated shapes and the possibility of applications which it needs. In this paper, step toward computer-aided integration of sheet metal applications based on central repository and information management is explained by describing the development of a generic architecture and basic operations required to build the central repository. This architecture is elaborated upon for the integration of sheet metal part model (design) with sheet metal applications in which sheet process planning is one of them. The architecture and the integrations are demonstrated using a case study.

Ravi Kumar Gupta, H. M. A. Hussein, S. S. Salunkhe, Mukur Gupta, S. Kumar

Thermodynamic Analysis of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Aqueous Nanofluid Blends

Thermodynamic analyses are performed on diesel engine with different types of nanofluid blend operations. Three best blends, i.e., D + 50ZN, D + 50AN, D + 50CN are chosen for exergy analysis. The effects of nanofluid on diesel are examined from the second law perspective. Availability equations are applied to both diesel and nanofluid blend modes at varying engine loads, and exergy terms such as brake work availability, exhaust gas availability, cooling water availability, and irreversibility are calculated and compared. There is an increase in exergy efficiency with an increase in load for all fuel blends tested. The nanofluid blend operations are favored thermodynamically at all loads. For diesel at full load, 26.88% of the fuel exergy is converted to brake power. At same load, nanofluid blend modes have resulted higher exergy efficiency of 28.22, 28.78, 29.16% for D + 50ZN, D + 50AN, D + 50CN, respectively, due to the higher brake work availability and decreased destruction availability.

S. P. Venkatesan, P. N. Kadiresh

Investigation of Twin Cylinder Direct Injection CI Engine Characteristics Using Calophyllum Inophyllum Biodiesel Blends

In the contemporary world, human consumption of energy in the form of fossil fuels is growing at an alarming rate and is a major concern for scientists as well as economists. In order to counter these phenomena, the study of biodiesel fuels is carried out by most researchers as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. In this present study, the effects of Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel blends on the engine performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were investigated. An experimental study was done on a twin cylinder diesel engine of direct injection type at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with Calophyllum Inophyllum methyl ester (CIME) biodiesel blends B5, B10, B20, and B100 by volume. Results showed that CIME blend B5 produced 3.28% lower BSFC and 4.8% higher BTE compared to pure diesel. Comparable combustion characteristics were observed for all biodiesel blends among which B5 showed the best results. B5 CIME blend depicted lower emission results with 12.29% and 9.57% decrease in HC and CO, respectively, as compared to conventional diesel. However, NOx emissions were found to be higher for all blend concentrations with respect to conventional diesel.

Pathikrit Bhowmick, Dhruv Malhotra, Pranjal Agarwal, Aatmesh Jain, K. C. Vora

A Novel Beetle-Inspired Fuel Injection System for Improved Combustion Efficiency

Flash evaporation technique inspired from bombardier beetle was investigated for diesel fuel injection system to improve the burning efficiency. The effect of flash evaporation on spray cone angle and spray penetration was investigated for two injection pressures with pintle type injector. Both the parameters were measured using a camera at a speed of 120 frames per second. The results of our pilot study suggest that wider cone angle and moderate penetration can be achieved even at low injection pressures which will eventually help to improve the combustion process and fuel efficiency and reduces carbon emission.

R. Kuppuraj, S. A. Pasupathy

Effect of Friction Stir Processing on the Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of AA6082-5TiB2 Composite

AA6082 alloy reinforced with TiB2 particles was synthesized through stir casting method to yield the AA6082-5(wt%)TiB2 metal matrix composite. Dry sliding wear behaviour was studied to understand the effect of friction stir processing (FSP) on the composite with the design of experiment software, which was used to plan the experiments and was conducted at 15–50 N applied load and 300–1200 rpm rotational speed. It was compared with the same set experiments performed on the sample without FSP. Experiments were conducted by preparing the samples according to specific dimensions on pin-on-disc tribometer at room temperature. Effect of applied load and rotational speed on the wear or mass loss was plotted. It was observed that the mass loss on both the composites is found to be different. Optical microscopy studies were conducted. Abrasive and adhesive wear mechanisms were observed due to the presence of hard TiB2 reinforcement particles.

Sreehari Peddavarapu, S. Raghuraman

Optimization of Sliding Wear Performance of Ti Metal Powder Reinforced Al 7075 Alloy Composite Using Taguchi Method

Al 7075 matrix composite reinforced with titanium metal powder was fabricated by stir casting method. Microstructure and wear properties of matrix alloy and developed composites have been evaluated. The composites with varying filler content from 0 to 2 wt% Ti were fabricated using high vacuum casting machine technique. Dry sliding friction and wear tests were performed on multi-specimen tribotester machine over a normal load range of 20–80 N and sliding velocities of range 0.25–1.25 m/s. The experiments were carried out using Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array, and the influence of working factors on wear rate was examined using ANOVA techniques. Results revealed that Al 7075 Ti alloy composite exhibited lower coefficient of friction and wear rate increased. Wear rate of composites increased with increased in load and sliding velocity. It is observed that the 2 wt.%Ti filled 7075 aluminium alloy composite is demonstrated minimum specific wear rate. Morphological studies on worn surface were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

A. Kumar, A. Patnaik, I. K. Bhat

A Comparative Study on Mechanical and Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Al 7075-T6 Welded Joints Fabricated by FSW, TIG and MIG

The development of the welding process has provided an alternative improved way of satisfactorily producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. The aim of the present work is focused on the comparative study on the mechanical and dry sliding wear (tribological property) behaviour of welding joint fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and metal inert gas (MIG) on 6 mm thick aluminium alloy 7075 T6. The samples were fabricated, and their testing was carried out as per the ASTM standards. The maximum tensile strength (242.3 MPa) and impact strength (12 J) and join efficiency (44%) were obtained for FSW joints, whereas these properties for TIG and MIG welded joints were on the lower side. The elongation at the break was found to be higher for FSW joint as compared to that of TIG and MIG joints. The minimum specific wear rate was obtained for FSW joint as compared to that of TIG and MIG joints. Microstructure results show that the smaller grain sizes were obtained in the weld centre of FSW, whereas grain growth was observed in TIG and MIG welds. FSW joints were better than TIG and MIG joints.

Lalta Prasad, Lalit Mohan, Himanshu Prasad Raturi, Virendra Kumar

Overview of Cryogens Production and Automation in Cryo-distribution at TIFR, Mumbai

Low temperature facility (LTF) of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, (TIFR) Mumbai, India has been operating and maintaining helium liquefiers, nitrogen generators for more than five decades. LTF is one of the largest cryogenic facilities in India under the R&D Sectors. Cryogens being produced and dispensed to about 45 research laboratories within TIFR including some critical cryogen-using setups, magnetometer facility, homemade setups, various departments such as Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Chemical Sciences, Biological Sciences too use cryogens in a large quantities. In order to fulfill the above large cryogens demand and to maintain the supply in an uninterrupted manner, LTF implemented various automation in terms of cryogen distribution, Dewar tracking, reporting, etc. The paper will present our experience, architecture, methodology adopted, and automation implemented in the cryo-distribution at TIFR along with the proposed work.

K. V. Srinivasan, A. Manimaran, K. A. Jaison, Vijay A. Arolkar

Analysis of Recast Layer, Wear Rate and Taper Angle in Micro-electrical Discharge Machining Over Ti–6Al–4V

In this paper, micro-electrical discharge machining of thin titanium alloy foil sheet (Ti–6Al–4V) is performed using 100-µm tungsten rod to study the output parameters such as recast layer thickness at entry and exit surfaces, material removal rate, linear wear rate and taper angle. The electrical input parameters considered in this research work are, namely, pulse on-time, current, pulse off-time and voltage. Further, SEM analysis reported is highly useful in calculating the output parameters originality for all input parameters combinations and additional value to the experimental observations. Grey relational analysis is employed to find the optimum machining parameter among the various combinations of electrical input parameters in micro-electrical discharge machining. The smaller hole is highly useful in fabrication of micro-products.

S. Rajamanickam, J. Prasanna

Evaluation of Critical Speed for Aluminum–Boron Carbide Metal Matrix Composite Shaft

This work deals with finding an alternative lightweight material over conventional materials for manufacturing drive shafts. Drive shafts are a key component for transmitting power from one end to the other. However, the conventional materials used for producing drive shafts pose several disadvantages especially concerning with their weight. Conventional drive shafts are susceptible to large vibration during high-speed traversing because of truncated strength-to-weight ratio. The work aims at improving the critical speed of the specimen by proposing a new composite material made of aluminum matrix reinforced with boron carbide (B4C) particles. Specimens with weight percentage 0, 3, 6, 9, 12% of reinforcement were manufactured through stir casting technique. The work has established a new lightweight material with enhanced critical speed which can be used for various high-speed applications. Other important mechanical properties like hardness and tensile strength were also analyzed. Modal analysis was carried on the specimens using ANSYS 15 Workbench.

Arun C. Dixit, B. K. Sridhara, M. V. Achutha

Smart System for Feature Recognition of Sheet Metal Parts: A Review

Sheet metal is one of the most frequently used primary manufacturing methods to produce different variety (shape and size) of components. The production of these sheet metal parts with a product (design) features is a major task in the sheet metal industries. Feature recognition is a primary activity for design of dies. Usually, this task is performed by experienced process planner in industries. The present review gives an overview of computer-aided smart system for feature recognition of sheet metal parts. The proposed system is capable to extract/recognize all design features of sheet metal parts automatically from 3D CAD model. The system has been implemented in AutoCAD using AutoLISP programming language.

Sachin Salunkhe, Soham Teraiya, H. M. A. Hussein, Shailendra Kumar

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