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Über dieses Buch

This book gathers selected research articles from the International Conference on Innovative Product Design and Intelligent Manufacturing System (ICIPDIMS 2019), held at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India. The book discusses latest methods and advanced tools from different areas of design and manufacturing technology. The main topics covered include design methodologies, industry 4.0, smart manufacturing, and advances in robotics among others. The contents of this book are useful for academics as well as professionals working in industrial design, mechatronics, robotics, and automation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Design in Aesthetics, Ergonomics, CAD and UX/UI

Frontmatter

A Strategy for Ergonomic Design of Amphibian Vehicle

Amphibian Vehicle (AV) is a vehicle that can run on land as well as in the water. Several attempts have been made to construct various models of these vehicles in the past. Because of the need for such a vehicle, it had gained popularity. Most of the models did not run for a long time because of the high cost and few operational problems. Attempts have been made in this paper, to look at the design aspects of AV and to develop a framework considering ergonomic and styling aspects of design. This framework can represent the AV design process in a better way considering ergonomics and styling aspects. This framework will help to customize AV for different areas of applications like military application, flood rescue operation, etc. This framework is useful to improve aesthetics, styling and ergonomics (comfort and safety) of AV, apart from engineering.

Debashis Majumder, Anirban Chowdhury

Sustainable Design of Sprocket Through CAD and CAE: A Case Study

During the recent days, product development practices are to be incorporated with sustainability principles for minimization of environment impacts. This paper presents the sustainable product design of a sprocket. The existing design of sprocket is modelled using computer-aided design (CAD). The existing design is subjected to analysis using computer-aided engineering (CAE) and the weight has been reduced to derive two modified designs. The existing and modified designs are subjected to environmental impact analysis using sustainability analysis module. The environmental impacts are assessed under four categories. Based on the study, it has been found that weight of the sprocket got reduced by 14% and carbon-based impact got reduced by 2%.

Anju Mathew, Arjun Santhosh, S. Vinodh, P. Ramesh

Redesign of the Walking Stick for the Elderly Using Design Thinking in the Indian Context

This paper addresses the walking stick issues with the target demographic being Indian elderly. The study includes an understanding of the various types of walking aids, the requirements of the target demographic, and the duration of usage of pertaining walking aid by them. Methodologies both existing and constructed were deployed to further understand the root level needs and reform of current designs. Ideas were generated using Indian anthropometric dimensions and requirements.

Shivangi Pande, Akshay Kenjale, Aditya Mathur, P. Daniel Akhil Kumar, Biswajeet Mukherjee

Human-Guided Following Trolley Mechanism and Integrated Shopping Mechanism Using RFID

A supermarket is actually a place where varieties of goods are available. The objective of these supermarkets is to provide all the products available and also to save the time of customers. But these customers get very frustrated waiting at the billing counters and randomly changing queues, get confused while comparing price. In this era of e-commerce shopping, the demand for these types of system is corroding day by day. To eliminate these problems, a trolley is designed that actually does not make customers wait for queues. These supermarkets can use this technique as a strategy to increase their customers and it included a human-guided following system that makes trolley to floor the user. This concept is a smaller prototype of automatic self-checkout system which makes customers do their payment for items they want to purchase before leaving the store. This is to release pressure at the counters during peak hours and increase malls efficiency.

M. L. N. Vital, V. Hari Vamsi, T. Purnachandra Rao, K. Srikanth

Design Optimization of Innovative Foldable Iron Box

A foldable iron box is an optimized design concept unique from any current existing iron boxes in the world. This design focuses on the surface area of the base plate (sole plate) of the iron box. The alteration of the surface area of the sole plate is not available with current iron boxes. Hence, the same surface area is used to iron all types of clothing. This design focuses on alteration of the surface area of the sole plate depending on the field of cloth to be ironed. The new model has provision for the supply of heat to the required surface area, in turn, will deliver a cost-effective and energy-efficient solution. This design is built with the usage of surface modeling software CATIA. This new design mainly focuses on the industrial design of the iron box. The ergonomics and aesthetic are given at most consideration in this design.

Alok R. Shivappagoudar, Amit S. Gali, Anirudh V. Kuber, Sadashivu I. Giraddi, Arshad N. Havaldar, Arun Y. Patil, Basavaraj B. Kotturshettar, R. Keshavamurthy

Microcontroller-Based Office Digitization

The office Digitization system is an application of information technology. This system has been developed in order to minimize wasting time in a particular task. Usually, employees take long time to complete one task where it requires searching of paper, documents, and files. The main objective is to make paperless work environment where it will greatly eliminate paper usage. This will benefit employees to work efficiently, better, and quicker. This computer-based system ensures to perform functions in aspects like storing all inventory details, managing business documents in digital form, updating work order status, alerting with notification in mobile with latest notice, and many more. It stores scanned documents. Using an Arduino UNO interfaced with OV7670 camera module can capture the image of order number, convert it into text, and save it with accurate date and time. Computer processing becomes quite accurate if the task to be performed is properly prepared. So, office Digitization ensures better accuracy. Chances of error will be eliminated.

Vijitaa Das, Sharmistha B. Pandey

Design and Evaluation of User Interface of a Mobile Application for Aiding Entrepreneurship

Business incubators (BIs) are helping to grow start-up businesses, and thus, registration in BI is beneficial for budding entrepreneurs to make their carrier in the business world. Preferably, space for office, business mentoring support, technological support, design support, legal and IPR support, etc., are functions of a BI. However, synchronized support by BI for these functions is limited in current business incubation scenarios. The objectives of this study are (1) to design user interface (UI) of a mobile app and (2) human factors centric validation of it. In the current study, a design concept of a mobile app for BI is developed, and its prototype was created. Then, the heuristics evaluation of the prototype was conducted. Nielsen’s ten heuristic principles were applied to assess the prototype of the mobile app. It was observed that the user interface of the mobile app is quiet promising to solve the synchronized management of BI activities as the flow of the app is good and users can access all important information in a single platform. The prototype of the mobile app also satisfied most of the heuristics. It can be concluded that the planned mobile app might be beneficial to provide a synchronized BI support to the budding entrepreneurs to pursue their business.

Anirban Chowdhury

Novel Dexterity Kit Concept Based on a Review of Hand Dexterity Literature

Dexterity is commonly defined by the quality of fine, voluntary movements used to manipulate objects during a specific task involving the movement of wrist, hands, arm, and fingers. Dexterity assessment kits are used to determine a person’s skilled task abilities through performance parameters such as speed, accuracy, and precision. This study proposes that one parameter that is as critical as the traditionally measured parameters is finger strength which could be measured as the amount of force or effort that a human hand exerts during object manipulation through fingers. In this paper, a detailed literature review was conducted of the traditional dexterity assessment methods and their kits used in the past. Thereafter, a novel dexterity kit has been proposed which incorporates measurement of finger strength data in addition to the traditional dexterity parameters during hand dexterity assessment. An experiment suggested that a significantly greater finger force is required for peg manipulation in the new test kit than in the traditional one.

Gaurav Saraf, Dhananjay Singh Bisht

Allocentric and Egocentric Behaviour of People While Wayfinding

Wayfinding is a daily task which is associated with efficient manoeuvrability within given space and time. Factors affecting wayfinding can be categorised as external and internal. Current study has been done to understand allocentric and egocentric behaviour of people while wayfinding. The study was conducted in two different phases on the participants of age group 25–45 years old. In the first phase, 180 participants were taken into consideration for asking a face-to-face questionnaire on wayfinding. A real-time experiment was conducted in Pune on another eight participants in the second phase. The area chosen for the experiment was unfamiliar to the participants. Results showed that ability to remember the landmarks differs significantly with the age and does not affect with the gender. Significant correlation found out between individual characteristics of a person and different wayfinding factors. The identified dominant factors which affect wayfinding were—modes of wayfinding, spatial anxiety and environmental factors.

Pranjali Pachpute, Shubham Johari, Wricha Mishra

Design for Cost and Sustainability

Frontmatter

Dynamic Stability Analysis of an Asymmetric Sandwich Beam on a Sinusoidal Pasternak Foundation

The dynamic stability of an asymmetric sandwich beam with viscoelastic core resting on a sinusoidal varying Pasternak foundation subjected to parametric vibration is observed. The effects of different parameters such as temperature gradient of each elastic layer, the ratio of modulus of the shear layer of Pasternak foundation to Young’s modulus of the elastic layer, core loss factor, stiffness of Pasternak foundation and elastic foundation parameter on the dynamic stability are investigated. Hamilton’s principle, generalized Galerkin’s method and Hill’s equations are utilized, followed by Saito–Otomi conditions to obtain the results.

Dipesh Kumar Nayak, Madhusmita Pradhan, Prabir Kumar Jena, Pusparaj Dash

A Parametric Study of Functionally Graded Variable Thickness Longitudinal Fin Under Fully Wet Condition

Thermal analysis and comparison of the functionally graded longitudinal fin, having a different profile with an insulated tip in fully wet condition, are reported in the present work. In many air-conditioning and refrigeration equipments, the performance of the cooling coil is affected due to vapor condensation on its surface. In this work, the thermal conductivity of the longitudinal fin is varied with exponential law. For analysis and comparison of a fin having different profiles, their weight is assumed to be constant. With the help of the psychometric chart, a nonlinear cubic polynomial relationship is established between specific humidity and corresponding fin surface temperature. Considering a volume element of fin under steady state, energy balance concept is used to derive nonlinear differential heat transfer equation. This differential equation is solved using bvp4c command in MATLAB®. This technique is very useful to solve boundary value problems by collocation method. Further for a different combination of grading parameters, geometry parameters, and relative humidity, a differential equation is solved and results are shown in graphical form. The formulation is verified with standard results, and relative error obtained between these two results is negligible. These results give a better understanding of the thermal performance of functionally graded longitudinal wet fin, and generated data can be used for design purpose.

Upendra Bajpai, Vivek Kumar Gaba, Shubhankar Bhowmick

A DEMATEL Approach to Evaluate the Enablers for Effective Implementation of Ecodesign in Sustainable Product Development: A Case of MSMEs

Increasing pressure of producing environmentally friendly products and services has forced companies to adopt ecodesign practices in their production process, especially in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). These practices help the designers to mitigate the environmental issues such as climate change and depleting natural resources by designing sustainable products. There are certain enablers that need to be realized by companies for effective implementation of eco-friendly practices. The main focus of this research is to identify and evaluate the key enablers for sustainable product development. A Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach is used in this study to evaluate the identified enablers. A case study based on an Indian manufacturing MSME is carried out to present the real-life applicability of the proposed study. The findings of this study show that training of designers to use various available ecodesign methods and tools is the most important enabler that can have a significant effect in the implementation of ecodesign practices for sustainable product development.

Singh Prashant Kumar, Sarkar Prabir

Experimental Investigation of Paddy Grain Drying Mechanism

The main purpose of this paper is to solve the problems that occur during reaping of rice grains from paddy fields and it involves high labor cost. The traditional way of drying grains takes a time of 40–50 h when the grains kept on the paddy field but with grain drying mechanism lot of time can be saved. For the drying process, the semi-dried grains having 22–25% of moisture content are taken off from the paddy fields for the drying to happen manually for 40 h in sunlight. But this process has some drawbacks which can make the grains wet again by untimely rains, causes fungal infections, pest, and it increases the labor costs. To avoid the problems of drying associated with mechanical dryers, a drying mechanism is proposed where we can bring down the level of moisture to a safe level of 5–6% from 25% moisture content in the semi-dried grains.

Mummina Vinod, M. Raghuraman, V. Mahesh Chakravarthi

Analytic Hierarchy Process for Prioritization of Design Requirements for Domestic Plumbing Services

Sustainable trends of servitization have progressively increased over the last couple of decades. So developing product–service–system design is important for academic researchers and leading manufacturers. Design principles and customer needs typically cast the requirements at the early stages of design development. The prime objective of this study is to prioritize design requirements for domestic plumbing services. Design requirements of domestic plumbing are taken as an example to demonstrate the application of the analytic hierarchy process and rough group. We conducted in-depth interviews including exploratory surveys. We applied the analytic hierarchy process and rough group method to prioritize the design requirements and product–service components of plumbing. Altogether 34 design requirements were identified from previous studies and interactions with stakeholders for domestic plumbing. These design requirements are categorized into a hierarchical structure of product, service, and system. The results show that the most important product-related design requirements are efficiency and flexibility. Service-related design requirements are response/delivery and availability. System-related design requirements are skills and communication of plumber. The study provides a design management insight for PSS implementation in plumbing services in the domestic sector. This study includes ranking and prioritization of design requirements, which may help design managers and designers to make effective and efficient decisions on the design of product–service systems.

Sachin Shivaji Jadhav, Pratul Ch. Kalita, Amarendra Kumar Das

Issues with Indian SMEs: A Sustainability-Oriented Approach for Finding Potential Barriers

Manufacturing had never been more focused on environmental issues as of today. The path toward sustainability is not deprived of barriers for the successful realization of economic, environmental and social goals of manufacturing. Sustainability has become a major issue today for the better life of our future generations. The large industries are continually equipping themselves with increasing green manufacturing practices. But in practice, the scenario is quite different for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). SMEs in developing countries like India face a different set of challenges in the post-globalization era, such as stiff competition and reduced market domination from their multi-national counterparts, mainly due to their failure to embrace modernization and innovation. The present work tries to fill the gap by identifying the potential barriers for successful implementation of sustainability for Indian SMEs, after analyzing the issues faced by the manufacturing sector since 1991, till date, i.e., the post-globalization period in the Indian manufacturing industry.

Sudeep Kumar Singh, A. M. Mohanty

Design and Development of Technology-Enabled Biomass Stoves

The gradual depletion of fossil fuels leads to gaining prominence on biomass fuels in rural and urban sectors. Biomass is a carbon-neutral fuel, and utilization of wood waste ensures sustainability. In today’s scenario, biomass is the most efficient cooking fuel for rural households to attain sustainable development by reducing the usage of firewood. Improved version of biomass cooking stoves can reduce greenhouse emissions through enhancing the combustion process by providing means of sufficient air for combustion. The present work concentrates mainly on the design and development of biomass stoves with automation by using technology-enabled tools for controlling and operating the stove for better performance and also discusses various features of the designed and developed models.

Bogala Konda Reddy, Korla Mohanakrishna Chowdary, Chintalapudi Pallavi

Damage Assessment of Beam Structure Using Dynamic Parameters

The occurrences of damages in the engineering structures are very common in practicality. In the current eve of time of emergence of composite materials, they are used widely. Hence, it is very important to study the reliability and in crack mechanical properties. So, damage diagnosis becomes crucial and necessary in dynamic members. This work depicts the dynamic behavior of epoxy–glass fibers composite beams taking the effect of bending and torsion coupling to consideration in 1-D model. A Timoshenko beam is assumed for the purpose that includes shear force and rotatory inertia. For the study, cracked beams are modeled as two beams attached by a massless spring with one end fixed boundary condition by FEA. The bending natural frequency is calculated and compared with the natural frequency of the uncracked beam and expressed by its non-dimensional form as relative natural frequency. The effect of depth of crack and location on the dynamic characteristics of the beams was studied and presented.

Basna Bidisha Bal, Sarada P. Parida, Pankaj C. Jena

Bending Stress Analysis of PM Composite Beam

In the present work, the stress behavior of laminated composite plate under compressive loading using a four-node element with six degrees of freedom at each node and translations in the x and y directions is done. In the present study, the modeling is done in Abaqus. Investigations were carried on plates starting with three layers of the top location of 0° angle-ply laminated composite plates at clamped boundary condition. Similarly, with three layers of top location, 0°, 30° and −45° angle ply are laminated. By changing the location of ply orientations the bending stress may be improved. The effect of changing the ply orientation is to increase or decrease the stresses. The composite plate has been analyzed for various orientations and their effects on stresses so as to find the optimized conditions.

Ch. Siva Ramakrishna, K. V. Subbarao, Saineelkamal Arji, B. Harisankar

An Intelligent Drone for Agriculture Applications with the Aid of the MAVlink Protocol

In the present, agriculture fields in India are facing the problems not only with their wages, but also with labor because of the change in climate and crop product losses due to the pests. This could challenge the additional requirements in precision agriculture technologies. The electronic and mechanic fields are made a revolution in monitoring the agriculture fields introducing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The proposed work introduces a multi-rotor drone system which comes with a solution that can exterminate the perilous situations faced by our farmers. The current study, introduced a low cost, lightweight drone system which can operate at low altitude operating conditions during the flight over the crop field. This drone system has combined the implementation of various mechatronic components like flight controller (FC), brushless motors (BLDC), electronic speed control (ESC), global positioning system (GPS), telemetry radio link, and radio-controlled transmitter and receiver. The motion of the drone system is done over the crop filed as per the one planned path using “APM Planner” application. It is controlled with the help of a MAVlink protocol which is an open-source, point-to-point networking protocol which carries telemetry. The communication between multi-rotor and ground control station (GCS) is done using MAVLink networking protocol. The drone can be controlled remotely by sending and receiving data through the MAVlink protocol to the drone control modules: flight controller (ATmega2560 processor) autopilot and the APM Planner application. With the availability of above mentioned new technologies, it is possible to observe the water stress management, crop management, crop harvesting, and crop protection. These drones have great potential due to its flexibility in handling to increase crop productivity. This model developed that brings technological and economic support to small farmers.

Umamaheswara Rao Mogili, BBVL. Deepak

Development of Novel Cost-Effective Automatic Packing System for Small-Scale Industries

The paper mainly deals with novel design and fabrication of an automated packing system which incorporates boxes of a different shape for getting custom shaped boxes for small-scale industries. Fully automated packing systems are being used in large-scale industries extensively. As large packaging systems are unaffordable and space-consuming, small industries tend to do their packaging manually which led to low production. The aim of the project is to design and fabricate automated packing system which will be incorporating boxes of different shapes for getting custom shaped boxes for small-scale industries. The kinematic modeling and dynamic analysis of subassemblies are done. The static structural analysis is done for the critical part of the mechanism for analyzing stress and deformation in the system. All subsystems are fabricated and assembled together. Coordination between all the subsystems is tested, and the whole mechanism is also tested for the packing operation.

Vaibhav Gaunkar, A. P. Sudheer

Comparison of Mechanical Behavior for Cow- and Goat-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

These days’ researchers are fascinated to develop environment-friendly materials. Natural fiber composites are environment-friendly, renewable, and biodegradable materials. These organic composites have more advantages like low cost, lower density, and easily available in nature than inorganic fibers. Manufacturing of the natural fiber composite is easy compared to the conventional methods. Also, environmental awareness and growing concern with the greenhouse effect have initiated by various industries to pay attention to eco-friendly materials for replacing the hazardous materials. Epoxy-based composites are prepared by using animal fibers, and short fiber is obtained from the animals (goat and cow). These fibers are treated with the chemicals. Groundnut shells ash is used as the filler material. Mechanical properties such as impact strength, compressive strength, surface roughness, and hardness numbers are measured. It is found that interfacial bonding between the two phases enhances the mechanical behavior of the composites. Among all, C3 composites exhibit better mechanical behavior than other composites. The microstructure of the composites is observed by the scanning electron microscopy. It is exposed that incorporation of groundnut shells ash acts as filler material, which enhances the interfacial bonding inside the composite.

K. Ch Sekhar, Srinivas Kona, V. V. Rama Reddy, A. Lakshumu Naidu

A Systematic Approach to Identify the Critical Parameters of Two-Wheeler E-Vehicles

A developing country like India is facing increasing challenges to make urban transportation sustainable and to manage the continuously growing air pollution. As in India, most people using the conventional vehicle, it is better to use an electric vehicle for saving our environment. Based on data publicly available from the official Web site of several well-known manufacturers, this paper aims at presenting a statistical analysis of standard specification and finding the critical parameter that will influence the customer to switch to EV. For detecting the critical parameter while purchasing an e-motorbike/e-scooter, a small survey was conducted. It will help the designer while designing an electric vehicle to improve critical parameters and make electric vehicle more practical to market.

Deepak Singh, Golak Bihari Mahanta, BBVL. Deepak

Design for Creativity and Optimization

Frontmatter

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Interconnected Anti-roll Suspension System in Automobile Application

This research work extends on vehicles with dynamic interconnected anti-roll suspension (DIAS) systems. A hydraulic anti-roll system for a vehicle includes a hydraulic actuator, an anti-roll control module, and an anti-roll bypass valve. The first hydraulic actuator is adapted to be connected between the suspension and frame of the vehicle on the one side and the second hydraulic actuators adapted to be connected between the suspension and frame of the vehicle on its other side. The anti-roll control module stiffens the compress the first hydraulic actuator relative to the expansion take in the second hydraulic actuator and stiffens the compress the second hydraulic actuator relative to the expansion take in first hydraulic actuator. The anti-roll bypass valve is adapted to operate the stiffening of the anti-roll control module. Anti-roll bar as part of a vehicle suspension system is a high standard configuration widely used in vehicles to arrange the essential roll stiffness to enhance vehicle handling and safety during fast cornering. However, the defect of the anti-roll bar is apparent that they restraint the wheels travel on the uneven road surface and weaken the wheel/ground holding ability, particularly in articulation mode. Roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system, as a potential replacement of anti-roll bar, could effectively increase vehicle roll stiffness without compromising vehicle’s flexibility in articulation mode.

S. Deepankumar, B. Saravanan, R. Gobinath, B. Balaji, K. Siva Suriya, V. Nitheesh

Design and Modeling of Waste Container Package Considering Impact and Remote Handling Operation

In a radioactive waste management facility, solid waste is stored in stainless steel (SS) containers. Drop analysis of the container was performed to ensure the integrity of the container in case of the drop during the handling process. The simulation of drop test of the container from a height of 1.5 m with different orientations on a rigid base was carried out with the help of explicit dynamic method, and the results of stress and strain were analyzed based on which the dimensions and CAD modeling of the container were finalized. The design analysis and modeling of a radioactive waste SS container are done with the help of CAD tool. The container was designed in the square shape for the ease of handling it in every orientation with trunnions provided on each face for remote handling of the container which is operated by a remote handling crane.

Sunny Brar, Jaideep Gupta, Binu Kumar, K. M. Singh

Effect of Attack Angle on Lift and Drag of a Bio-Inspired Corrugated Aerofoil

Bio-inspired corrugated aerofoil has better flow physics compared to traditional aerofoil in addition to less wear and high strength. For identifying the aerodynamics characteristics, lift and drag, a study has been done by varying angle of attack (AOA). Both low and high AOAs are analyzed for identifying the optimal flapping condition at constant Reynold number. CFD analysis is performed using ANSYS Fluent. 2D analysis is performed using k-ε model, and sphere of influence is utilized to capture the flow field and to reduce the computational cost. Results report that low AOA performs better due to high lift-drag ratio and less flow separation.

Ashwini Biradar, Ashutosh Chandraker, Royal Madan, Shubhashis Sanyal, Shubhankar Bhowmick

Design Optimization of Slag Pot Transfer Car

A majority of the steel production industries rely on machinery or equipment for effective operation thereby avoiding or minimizing the accidents due to inevitable human errors. One such problem has been identified where the high temperature slag is damaging the power cables used to run the slag pot transfer car due to leakage or spillage. In order to overcome this, a new generation slag pot transfer car has been developed by incorporating modifications in the mast of the slag pot transfer car. A number of components such as canopy, mast, reeling drum, columns, and rollers are designed by assuming the dimensions based on existing industry requirements. The assembled components are then subjected to testing at full load conditions using a finite element analysis package where a suitable design or modification has been suggested taking factor of safety into consideration. This work is focused on indigenously designed and developed solutions for effective working of the industry.

V. Naga Sudha, K. S. Raghuram, V. Savitri, A. Shanthi Swaroopini

Design and Fabrication of DLP 3D Printer

Digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used to produce parts via photopolymerization process in which resin is cured by UV light. Vat photopolymerization is a form of AM. It has a liquid bath of a polymeric resin which is cured layer by layer through precise control with help of stepper motor and projection of a light source of DLP projector. Printing time, layer thickness, and lumens of the projector play an important role in the printing process. A series of specimens was designed, printed, and tested. Total printing time, layer thickness, and layer exposure time were analyzed. We used 365 nm wavelength photopolymer resin, BENQ MP515 projector having 2500 ANSI lumens. This paper shows the design and fabrication of DLP 3D printer with low cost and good accuracy.

Jaydev Gohil, Rajveersinh Gohil, Romil Gundaraniya, Mihir Prajapati, Savan Fefar

Design Evaluation of Cars Taillights in India Based on Novelty and Typicality

This paper presents a design research methodology to examine user perceptions about novelty and typicality in product design. This work approaches the concepts of novelty and typicality in product design through two different case studies. The first case study is a preliminary case study to explore and collect the descriptors related to novelty and typicality in car taillight designs in India using primary research. Using a survey, inputs from 72 design students were also collected regarding the most novel and most typical designs from among 100 taillight models. The second case study was conducted to assess the subjective perceptions about the five most novel and five most typical car models using descriptors of novelty and typicality found from the first case study. Nissan Leaf car taillights were found to be the most novel, and Chevrolet SRV car taillights were found to be most typical.

Adireddi Balaji, Dhananjay Singh Bisht

Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Automatic Stamping Machine

Stamping is one of the important processes that are to be performed in the packaging of industrial products. Stamping is the process used to print the text or symbol or trademark of companies’ products on the paper or packaging boxes. As stamping is a manual process from its beginning till now, it takes more time and labor charges, we thought to automate the stamping process to reduce the time taken for the stamping process and to reduce the cost involved in labor. This leads to the invention of the automatic stamping machine. This works on the principle of rack and pinion mechanism and worm and worm wheel drive mechanism. The present work deals with the automatic stamping machine combined with the indexing table which automatically feeds the jobs for stamping. The main objective of this work is to help small-scale packaging industries which in turn reduce the time taken for stamping, reduce machinery cost, and increase productivity.

R. Sundara Ramam, B. Harisankar

Smart Manufacturing, Precision Engineering, Metrology

Frontmatter

Application of Fuzzy Controller for Multi-area Automatic Load Frequency Control System

This present work deals with the performance of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for a multi-area automatic load frequency control system. At the start, thermal, hydro, and gas units in each area are considered in a three areas’ nine-unit power system and appropriate area participation factors are assumed for each unit. After that, fuzzy logic controllers having triangular member functions are incorporated as a secondary controller to attain a better performance of the system. The effectiveness of the FLC is observed while compared with a classical PID controller. In addition, the capability of considered FLC controller is also exhibited by considering random step load disturbance.

Manmadha Kumar Boddepalli, Prema Kumar Navuri

Process Capability Improvement Using Internally Cooled Cutting Tool Insert in Cryogenic Machining of Super Duplex Stainless Steel 2507

The present work deals with the influence of cryogenic coolants LN2 delivered through holes made on flank surface and rake surface of tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts in turning of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) using in-house developed cryogenic setup. Experiments were conducted with the cryogenically treated tool, cryogenically treated tool with tempering and cryogenic coolant directly passed through a modified cutting tool insert. Results are compared with dry cutting conditions. The cutting conditions are low feed rate/high depth of cut, medium feed rate/medium depth of cut, and high feed rate/low depth of cut. The material removal rate and cutting speed is kept constant under all three cutting conditions. Microstructural study of the tool as received and cryogenically treated is examined using SEM. The population of harder tungsten carbide phase (gamma phase) is found to be more in the cryogenically treated tool. Due to tempering, the hardness of insert is improved by 8% which in turn increased tool life. By direct supply of LN2 through modified cutting tool increased tool life by 23%, more than the cryogenically tempered tool. There are no appreciable changes in the temperature of the cutting tool under dry cutting and cryogenically treated inserts. However, there is a large difference observed in temperature of cutting tool when LN2 is supplied through a modified insert directly, which in turn yielded high tool life.

D. Narayanan, T. Jagadeesha

Experimental Investigation for Finding Defects on Epoxy-Coated Cantilever Beam Using Optical Method

This research paper is concentrated mainly on finding the defects in epoxy-coated cantilever beam surface using an optical method. The work primarily focuses on the application of the non-destructive method on a material which is non-reflective in nature and stainless steel material is chosen for the study. Identification of defects either a void or an inclusion in the epoxy resin coating applied on the cantilever beam can be identified using the grating lines on the specimen when it is kept under the illumination of He–Ne laser light and the application of lateral load on it.

M. Raghuraman, I. Ramu

Dynamic Analysis of Cracked FGM Cantilever Beam

The development and presence of crack in engineering structures is a natural phenomenon. Now a day’s, FGMS being a modern class of material. Due to its physical and mechanical properties varying through a particular geometrical regions, it is utilized in many of the structural applications. These structures like other metallic and composites are exposed to dynamic conditions. Hence, an FGM structure with initial cracks when subjected to dynamic environment, the performance of the structure is remarkably affected. So the study of the performance of the structures with cracks has been kept as a great area of interest. In this work, the effect of initial cracks at different positions with variable severity on dynamic property as a function of natural frequency is determined. For the purpose, a FGM cantilever beam of size 500 × 20 × 20 mm made of SUS304 and Si3N4 is simulated for free vibration in finite element method using.

Sarada Prasad Parida, Pankaj C. Jena

Influences and Applications of Aluminum Addition on the Mechanical Properties of Pure Magnesium

Magnesium alloys are known for their high strength and lightweight that made them as a potential candidate to be used in different industrial components. Magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) are two highly important lightweight metals that are used to improve the overall efficiency. However, the reactive nature of magnesium near its melting point makes it very difficult to produce alloys. This paper aims at the production of Mg–Al alloys of various concentrations using the die-casting methodology. The objective of the paper is to identify the optimum configuration of the magnesium–aluminum alloy to assure the highest productivity. For this, a different configuration of the alloys was produced at various concentrations of magnesium and aluminum. Further, various mechanical tests (such as, ultimate tensile test (UTS), hardness test, and impact test) are conducted to decide the optimum concentration of the alloy system that produced better mechanical properties.

Sagnik Sarma Choudhury, Neelabh Jyoti Saharia, Suvan Dev Choudhury, B. Surekha

Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Sand Cast B4C Particulate Reinforced AA5052 Metal Matrix Composite

In the present work, particulate reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite has been developed by stir-casting processing technique in which AA5052 is reinforced with 5 wt% B4C-p of 63 µm particles size. The density and abrasive wear of B4C-p reinforced AA5052 MMC were investigated and compared with that of the AA5052 alloy. Abrasive wear test was carried out by pin-on-disc wear test method at different applied loads (5–15 N). The worn out surfaces are analysed by using optical microscopy. The results show that at all applied load, B4C-p reinforced AA5052 MMC gives good tribological properties as well as lower density as compared to the unreinforced AA5052.

Murlidhar Patel, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Sushanta Kumar Sahu

Experimental Investigation and Empirical Modeling of FDM Process for Tensile Strength Improvement

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a layer-by-layer manufacturing technology with the potential to create complex parts from thermoplastic materials. In order to avoid the failure of these parts under tensile loading, it is imperative to study the tensile test behavior of FDM parts. The quality of FDM parts mainly depends upon the accurate selection of process parameters. Thus, the identification of the FDM process parameters which significantly influence the quality of FDM processed parts is important. The present work focuses on experimental analysis to understand the effect of important parameters such as layer thickness, part build orientation, and infill density on the tensile strength of polycarbonate–acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC-ABS) material test specimen. This investigation provides insight into the dependency of tensile strength on process parameters and also develops a statistical predictive equation between input and output parameters. A full factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of process parameters on the tensile properties of the specimens.

Shrikrishna Pawar, Dhananjay Dolas

Tensile Properties of Bamboo Fiber Filled with Rock Dust Filler Reinforced Hybrid Composites

The field of material science turned out to be very well known and even minded with a colossal desire for composite materials that display the positive attributes of both the parts. Worldwide there has been a lot of interest to tailor the structure and composites of materials on sizes of micrometer scale. Hence, a systematic review on the preparation, properties, and applications of composites is extremely important. So here, we took bamboo fiber from natural fiber and carbon fiber from artificial fiber and prepared fiber-reinforced composites with the help of resin polyester. The fiber-reinforced composites with rock dust as filler material have also prepared. By using hand lay-up process, we prepared these composites. The thus formed polymer matrix is tested under various mechanical properties like a tensile test, bending test. Then the properties of fiber composites are compared for natural and artificial fibers, and also, the properties of composites are calculated in which filler materials are added. Being environmentally friendly, applications of composites offer new technology and business opportunities for several sectors of the aerospace, automotive, electronics, and biotechnology industries.

T. Venkateswara Rao, V. Sankara Rao, K. V. Viswanadh

Effect of Eggshell Particulate Reinforcement on Tensile Behavior of Eggshell–Epoxy Composite

This work examines the prospects of eggshells as a reinforcing agent in polymer composite. Initially, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done on the eggshell particles for morphology analysis. The 4, 8 and 12 wt% of eggshell particulate epoxy composite samples were fabricated using hand lay-up technique. The tensile behavior of the eggshell reinforced epoxy composite was investigated according to ASTM standards. The results of the tensile behavior of eggshells reinforced epoxy composite show affirmative results when compared with bare epoxy. The 4 wt% eggshell particulate addition is found to be the optimum percentage for tensile strength and the tensile modulus.

Manoj Panchal, G. Raghavendra, M. Omprakash, S. Ojha, B. Vasavi

Influence of Laser-Machined Micro-geometrical Features on the Surface Wettability of Stainless Steel 304

Recently, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic natural surfaces have attained great attention due to their diverse properties. It was found that micro-geometrical features on these natural surfaces have a great influence on generating hydrophobicity. Butterfly and Cicada wings are commonly studied natural hydrophobic surfaces for bio-mimicking and their microstructures are simplified into micro-grooves and micro-pillars, respectively. In the present study, a nanosecond fiber laser is used to produce these micro-geometries on stainless steel AISI 304 surface and its effect on surface wettability is investigated. Experimental results show that fabricated micro-geometries have a wetting transition from hydrophilic to the hydrophobic state over time. In this study, a good hydrophobic surface with a large apparent contact angle of 120° is obtained with 150, 200 µm step size micro-groove geometry on day-29 and micro-pillar geometry with 200 µm step size attained the highest contact angle of 118° on day-4. The contact angle of the non-textured parent material surface is 75°.

Chilaparapu Venkata Vamsi, Vimal Thomas, M. Govindaraju

Generation of Slip Line Fields Incorporating BUE and Shear Zone to Model Machining Using MATLAB

Slip line field theory for modeling of machining process provides an analytical method where unknown slip lines are first generated assuming an initial base slip line and then are later evaluated considering different cutting and boundary conditions. All the slip lines are inter-dependent on each other and the curvature of these slip lines is altered with a slight change in the condition of cutting. This enables an inclusive and robust model to develop which can take into account the curling of the chip, frictional condition at the tool rake face and elastic condition at the upper end of the shear zone. In the current paper, an attempt to construct the slip lines using MATLAB has been presented based on the model given by Fang and Dewhurst and incorporating an additional shear zone into it. This model can detect buildup edge (BUE) of a larger size which influences directly the cutting forces and the curvature of the slip lines. The slip lines generated are studied and the characteristic of these can be observed by altering the input parameter values such as hydrostatic pressure at a fixed location, the rake angle of the tool or the input slip line angular ranges.

Hridayjit Kalita, Kaushik Kumar

Review on Magnesium Alloy Processing

Demand to design engineering components with lightweight materials is a big challenge for the twenty-first-century engineer. Many researchers of the world have been trying hard to innovate new lightweight and energy-efficient alloy materials to replace steel and other metallic alloys. So far magnesium alloys are found fit for the purpose. But its alloying process is a little bit tough as molten magnesium is more prone to oxidation. Therefore, to improve its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, researchers have been trying to establish new alloy systems in order to fulfill requirements from different industries especially automobile, aerospace, and health sector. Magnesium melting techniques, different Mg–alloy systems, and effect of alloying elements on the alloy have been discussed in this paper.

Pradipta Kumar Rout, Pankaj C. Jena, Girija Nandan Arka, B. Surekha

Thermogravimetric Analysis of Biochar from Arhar Fiber Powder Prepared at Different Pyrolysis Temperatures

Arhar is one of the most cultivated crops in Asian countries; arhar dal is the main yield from the arhar crop. After crop harvest, arhar stalks are mostly used as firewood which causes pollution and has a bad impact on the environment. The present research work is to convert these arhar stalk fibers into biochar. Arhar fiber powder is subjected to pyrolysis process to prepare biochar. Different parameters involve in the pyrolysis process, in the current study effect of temperature on biochar yield was investigated. SEM and TGA analyses are performed on arhar biochar to know the thermal stability of biochar. From the experiment results, it was found that temperature has a great impact on surface structure and thermal stability of biochar. The surface morphology of biochar materials was studied by SEM analysis, it was found that with the increment in pyrolysis temperature there was enhancement in porosity of biochar materials. From the TGA analysis, it was observed that biochar materials prepared at high temperature exhibited high thermal stability.

M. Om Prakash, G. Raghavendra, Manoj Panchal, S. Ojha

A Machine Learning Scheme for Tool Wear Monitoring and Replacement in IoT-Enabled Smart Manufacturing

Tool wear monitoring is an important task in a smart manufacturing industry. Detecting worn-out tools and replacing them in time can increase the efficiency significantly. Various sensors are being used in machine tools to integrate them into a smart manufacturing setup. Continuously decreasing the cost of the sensors is encouraging the use of low-cost indirect methods for the task. Using multiple sensors increases the precision of estimating tool health over the single sensor-based approach. Appropriate mathematical models relating tool wear parameters and sensors data can be used here, but machine learning models become more suitable in a large variety of applications over normal mathematical models. This paper proposes a methodology for multi-sensor-based indirect tool wear monitoring system and presents a comparison of accuracy among various machine learning models. Standard references are used to generate dummy training and testing data. Python is used to create and test the models. In the end, it has been found that Naïve Bayes and support vector machine algorithms are yielding up to 97% accuracy. This is the initial work in the development of an IoT enabled and fully automated manufacturing setup.

Zeel Bharatkumar Patel, Sreekumar Muthuswamy

Experimental Investigation of Vibration Response of Faulty Rotor Shaft Partially Submerged in Viscous Medium

In the current investigation, it is taken an effort to determine the dynamic response of cracked rotor fixed at both ends partially immersed in the different viscous medium. The influence coefficient method is used to obtain dynamics response of faulty rotor shaft. The Navier-Stokes equation is applied to investigate the external fluid forces acted on the rotor shaft. The strain energy release rate at the crack section of the rotor has been used for determining the local stiffness and is dependent on the crack depth. The fluid viscosity, crack depth and the crack location are considered as main variable parameters. Also, the dynamic responses in two transverse directions (i.e., x-axis and y-axis) of the crack of the rotor shaft are numerically found. Further, experimental analysis has been done for authentication of the obtained numerical results.

Adik Yadao, Abhishek Kumar Kashyap

Influence of Double Elliptical Leaf Angle with Same Orientation and Direction to Evaluate Thermal Performance in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

Double pipe heat exchanger is an apparatus utilized to transfer the energy between two liquids. To attain high performance of heat transfer rate in small-area passive methods are castoff. The heat transfer rate along the length of the heat exchanger is intended at different mass flow rates of water by experimentally and numerically. FLUENT analysis is conducted with different strips. In this FLUENT analysis, strip having two elliptical leafs at a distance of 50 mm along the length, the major and minor axes are in 2:1 with 1 mm thickness at altered angles between 0° and 180° at 10° intervals are arranged. These two elliptical leaves are having same orientation and same direction toward the length of the strip. Water is taken as a liquid at various turbulent regions in between 5000 and 20,000. From numerical results, increased rate of heat transfer rates is achieved with strip with elliptical leaves having 60° inclinations because of more turbulence and secondary flows are acquired.

J. Bala Bhaskara Rao, B. Murali Krishna, K. Narendra

Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Process

Frontmatter

Evaluation of Optimization Parametric Condition During Machining for Al-CSA Composite Using Response Surface Methodology

This work aims to the optimization of cutting process parameters on the surface finish for Aluminum (Al)-coconut shell ash (CSA) composite reinforced with 15% volume prepared via stir casting route. The machining has been performed with H20TI tool. The experiments have been designed using response surface methodology (RSM), i.e., Box–Behnken design. The input process parameters are speed (A), feed (B) and depth of cut (C), whereas the output is surface finish (Ra). Better surface finish and reduction of tool wear can be achieved with deployment of lubricant. ANOVA has been performed and revealed feed is the most influencing parameter followed the depth of cut on surface finish.

R. Sivasankara Raju, C. J. Rao, D. Sreeramulu, K. Prasad

Optimization of Process Parameters in Resistance Spot Welding Using Artificial Immune Algorithm

Welding is one of the fundamental manufacturing processes and is used for manufacturing components or assemblies with great strength in minimal time. Resistance spot welding (RSW) is utilized often as an efficacious method of joining for different works, most commonly in automobile and other industrial processes. Recent researches in welding are trending toward the economical process with optimum productivity. It is laborious to formulate a mathematical model for the analysis of RSW parameters, because of obscureness during the process with many parameters especially with the property of less operating time. A novel optimization method based on artificial immune algorithm (AIA) is presented in this article to find the optimum set of welding parameters for an economical process which offers the highest load carrying capacity at low power consumption.

Sudhakar Uppada, Subbarama Kousik Suraparaju, M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Sendhil Kumar Natarajan

An Evolutionary Algorithm-Based Damage Detection in Structural Elements

Damage in structural and rotating machine elements causes the local changes in the dynamical parameters of the system. To find the damage present in a system is becoming one of the important research topics in today’s civil and mechanical engineering field. This topic of research can mainly be used in bridges, offshore platforms, plates, shells, beams, aerospace and composite structures and other large civil structures to detect structural damages by analyzing the dynamic features of the system. It has been observed due to any slight physical change, the stiffness of the system changes which changes the modal responses of the system. The aim of this research work is to derive a simple method for estimating the failure parameters (crack depth and crack location) in structures based on a data-driven subspace identification technique. These changes in the modal parameters can be used as the input variables to find out the damage severity. The responses (natural frequencies) were obtained using finite element analysis, and then, the differential evolution algorithm (a type of evolutionary algorithm) is used to detect and characterize these defects. This work proposes a robust computational application of the differential evolution algorithm that more accurately takes into account the natural evolution with initial point and produces a good converging result.

Sasmita Sahu, D. R. Parhi, B. B. Nayak

Optimization of EDM Process Parameters on Aluminum Alloy 6082 by Using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

Electric discharge machining is one of the most popular machines which are capable of machining geometrically complex and hard materials, that are precise and difficult to machine such as heat-treated tools, superalloys, heat-resistant steels, carbides, etc; these types of materials are being widely used in aerospace, automobiles, marine industries, etc. This paper aims to investigate the optimal set of process parameters of die sinker EDM on aluminum alloy 6082 with copper tube electrode by varying the input parameters such as pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), current (I), and voltage (v). An L16 orthogonal array has been designed using the Taguchi method for input parameters to conduct experiments for getting the output variables such as metal removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR). Based on the analysis, the experimental results have been carried out using ANOVA method. To find out the optimal set of values, multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is used to predict the experimental results. Upon comparing the experimental values and predicted values, an optimal value is obtained which is useful to the manufactures to get the high-performance rate of EDM to machine aluminum alloy 6082.

Sk. Md Riyaz, P. Srinivas, I. Ramu

Optimizations of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloy Al 7050

In the present study, an attempt is made to evaluate the effect of process parameters on mechanical properties of but welded similar plates of Al 7050 by friction stir welding (FSW) process. The process parameters play a significant role in achieving the desired characteristics and properties of welded joints. For the effective use of welded plates, welded joints must have adequate strength. The process parameters such as tool transverse speed and its rotation speed were varied for 03 levels and optimized by Taguchi technique. The optimum levels of process parameters were determined. It was concluded that process parameters play an important role in the mechanical properties and the micro-structure of the joints.

Vineet Chak, V. M. S. Hussain, Mayank Verma

Analysis of Discharge Characteristics During EDM Process

During the process of electric discharge machining (EDM), the spark is generated between tool and workpiece which is controlled by a servo-controller. This spark can be categorized into five different types and can be used to eliminate material and affect the quality of the surface. Different process parameters affect discharge characteristics in the EDM process, while machining, the various sets of current–voltage waveforms affect the value of EDM, which can be captured by signals. In this work, different EDM waveforms are conformed followed by the analysis of the experiment using wavelet transforms. The influence of different EDM parameters like discharge current (Ip), pulse-on time (Ton), and duty cycle (Tau) on the different discharge characteristics of EDM pulses has also been investigated.

Shailesh Dewangan, Sanjay Kumar Jha, S. Deepak Kumar

Influence of FGM on the Parametric Instability of Skew Plates in Thermal Environment

The present work explains the influence of functionally graded material on parametric instability of skew plate in high thermal environments subjected to periodic loads. The graded material properties and temperature distribution are varied using power law. The basic kinematics of third-order shear deformation hypothesis is adopted to analyze the plate to be established in a finite element using quadrangular elements and these are updated into skew plate geometry by applying an appropriate transformation rule. A four-noded rectangular element is employed to create the work for finite element study of the instability regions of the skew plate in the parametric space by using Bolton’s approach. Difference between the results of the current numerical solution for finite element approach and the results of literature are plotted. The effects of temperature difference, index of power law, and skew angle of FGM plate parametric instability discussed in detail.

I. Ramu, M. Raghuraman, M. Venu

Optimization of Input Control Variables in Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel-718

With rising requests of ongoing building items, the controlling of surface texture alongside dimensional exactness turns out to be increasingly indispensable. It has been analyzed that the working of the machined components and properties, for example, appearance, resistivity against fatigue/wear/corrosion, grease, introductory resistance, capacity to hold weight, load conveying limit, and commotion decrease (if there should arise an occurrence of apparatuses), are largely extraordinarily impacted by surface texture. The anomalies superficially as variety in stature and spacing are termed as surface roughness usually. It is always very strenuous and costly to control this in manufacturing, no matter what process is employed. Thus, accuracy in dimension and surface roughness is one of the main factors required to consider machining variables of any machining operation. In this paper, a research is being conducted to obtain optimal settings of the various levels of the input control variables in the machining of Inconel-718 by electric discharge machining (EDM), for achieving minimum roughness of the machined surface (SR).

Rahul Davis, Abhishek Singh, Tanya Singh, Subham Chhetri, V. Vikali Sumi, Alomi P. Zhimomi, Stephen Dilip Mohapatra

Navigational Control Analysis of Mobile Robot in Cluttered Unknown Environment Using Novel Neural-GSA Technique

A unique hybridized neural-GSA artificial intelligence strategy has been proposed in this current paper for the steerage of a wheeled mobile robot in an obstacle prone environment. In this work, a seven-layered back propagation neural network has been hybridized with GSA to synthesize a controller for the wheeled mobile robot. The inputs to the neural-GSA approach are front obstacle distance, left obstacle distance, right obstacle distance and target angle. The output from the neural network is intermediate steering angle. The inputs to the GSA system in neural-GSA technique are front obstacle distance, left obstacle distance, right obstacle distance and intermediate steering angle. The output from the GSA controller is final steering angle. During the research, several simulations are carried out. Using the proposed neural-GSA strategy as well as theoretical results, it has been found out that the robot can successfully navigate in an obstacle prone environment.

Swadhin Sambit Das, Suranjan Mohanty, Adhir Kr. Behera, Dayal R. Parhi, Saroj Kr. Pradhan

Control Strategy of Mobile Robots Using Fuzzy-Gravitational Search Method and Review of Other Techniques

A systematic research methodology has been adapted using fuzzy-gravitational search algorithm for solving a complex navigational control problem of a mobile robot from source point to destination point while negotiating with obstacles. Inputs to the hybrid method are target angle, right obstacle distance, left obstacle distance, front obstacle distance. The interim output is interim steering angle. These interim inputs along with LOD, ROD, FOD are applied to gravitational search algorithm, and the outputs are final steering angle (SA). It is observed from the simulation and experimental results that the proposed technique is well suited for navigational control of robots in a densely populated environment. Keeping in view of the methodology used for control of robots, several artificial intelligence techniques are also discussed in the current paper.

Suranjan Mohanty, Swadhin Sambit Das, Adhir Kumar Behera, Dayal R. Parhi, Saroj Kumar Pradhan

Application of PCA-TOPSIS Method for Selecting Optimal Welding Conditions in GMAW to Improve the Weld Quality

Generally, the weld quality depends on the mechanical properties like ultimate strength and yield strength. Again the weld bead geometry mainly the depth of penetration affects these mechanical properties. These weld quality parameters weld bead geometry, weld bead strength are highly controlled or influenced by the welding process parameters like welding current, welding voltage, and wire feed rate, gas flow rate, and nozzle to workpiece distance in gas metal arc welding. As the process parameters affect the different welding performance parameters in different ways, single-objective optimization technique is not efficient enough to optimize all the parameters simultaneously. In this paper, a hybrid multi-objective approach, i.e., Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approach has been used to obtain improved welding quality in optimal welding condition for gas metal arc welding (GMAW).

Amruta Rout, Golak Bihari Mahanta, BBVL. Deepak, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

Experimental Analysis on Composite Material Using Multiple Electrodes by EDM Process

High-performance lightweight aluminium metal matrix composite (MMC) is used in the aerospace and automotive industries in recent years. This work suggests an experimental analysis of the various machining parameters for the electrical discharge machining (EDM) on aluminium metal matrix composite (AL-22%-SiC). A Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to calculate the responses such as the tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra) using copper and brass electrodes with input machining process parameters such as low voltage current (LVC), high voltage current (HVC), pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff) and flushing pressure (FP). Quadratic regression models are established for the individual responses, and response surface methodology has been applied to the invention of the optimum process parameter settings.

Subhashree Naik, Debabrata Dhupal, Bijoy Kumar Nanda

Revelence of Multiple Breathing Cracks on Fixed Shaft Using ANFIS and ANN

The article is focused on the revelation of using AI technique to detect cracks in shaft using ANFIS, ANN based on error percentage comparing with experimental work. The effectiveness of crosswise loaded fixed-fixed shaft with multiple cracks is contemplated using theoretical and experimental analysis in the article. The presence of fractures with its positions and dimensions on vibration domain is identified considering the consequence of curtailment in stiffness. The fundamental frequencies including their mode patterns in varying positions and intensities are estimated. These outcomes received from the analytical model have applied by ANFIS and ANN utilizing the modal frame. The parameters so as first three fundamental frequencies including their mode shapes for several positions and intensities of the shaft are rendered to ANFIS and ANN network separately. The test model including the sustainable error checks the authenticity of the AI techniques (ANFIS and ANN design). It is concluded that the rate of average error in ANFIS and ANN based on the experimental investigation is 2.17% and 3.5%, respectively. The existing approach is simple for preparing a condition-monitoring model of the shaft applying in a structure.

J. Nanda, L. D. Das, S. Choudhury, D. R. Parhi

Optimization of Process Parameters in Electro Discharge Machine Using Standard Deviation, MULTIMOORA and MOOSRA Methods

Nowadays in the extremely competitive market, an industrial product should be manufactured in minimum duration with high precision and quality. To attain these, the process parameters are regulated to get the desired output based on the requirement. The process parameters play an important role in defining the surface quality and material removal rate. Electric discharge machine (EDM) is one of the most striking alternative in the industry based on its attributes. Four input parameters, namely voltage, pulse-on time, current and duty cycle, are considered. The effect of these parameters on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) is studied based on the experimental results. Multi-objective optimization techniques help a decision-maker to select a best alternative from a set of alternatives which have conflicting objectives. In this paper, standard deviation is used to find the relative importance of the attributes. The weights obtained using standard deviation are MRR is 0.53 and Ra is 0.47. Further new multi-objective optimization techniques, namely full multiplicative form of MOORA (MULTIMOORA) and multi-objective optimization based on simple-ratio analysis (MOOSRA), are applied to obtain the optimum process parameters. The process parameters corresponding to run number 6 are voltage 50 units, current 15 units, duty cycle 50 and pulse-on time 100 units, are the best parametric combination to achieve maximum MRR and minimum surface roughness.

J. Anitha, Raja Das

Analysis of Smart Front-End Structure in Frontal Crash Mitigation

Bumper system of a vehicle absorbs the kinetic energy of full-frontal and offset collision. The bumper of a vehicle is the most prominent component considering the safety of the occupant. Design of new bumper system should be done in a way in which the deceleration of the occupant and intrusion in the passenger compartment must reduce. A new way to improve safety in the frontal collision is the implementation of the hydraulic damper in the bumper system of the vehicle. Magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper is suitable for absorbing high-speed impact energy. Implementation of MR damper in the bumper system will reduce the occupant injury. A dynamic model of a vehicle has been developed. This model has four degrees of freedom and damping provided by an airbag is also taken into account, thus giving a more accurate prediction of response during the collision. A new configuration of MR damper has also been proposed.

Soumitra Singh Kachhwaha, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Dhaneshwar Prasad Sahu, Nohar Kumar Sahu

Optimization and Simulation

Frontmatter

Enhancement of Line-Based Voltage Stability of Energy System with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

Preserving stable conditions on encountering with small disturbances under normal or slightly overloaded conditions is termed as voltage stability. Maintaining voltage stability is one of the leading factors for energy system networks. In this paper, new line established voltage stability index entitled fast voltage stability index (FVSI) is proposed for optimal placement of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). Optimal tuning of TCSC is obtained using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) to increase the voltage stability of the energy system established on minimization of total voltage deviation of the system. The CSA is coded in MATLAB and the performance is tested on IEEE 30 bus system with voltage deviation minimization as an objective function. TCSC is a series-connected device in the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) family. It was capable of controlling the power flow through the line and also controls the line-based voltage stability. In this paper, TCSC is merged in CSA-based Power Flow to optimize the total voltage deviation. Results attained by CSA are related to that attained by genetic algorithm (GA) in both without and with TCSC conditions. These results show that CSA produces better results compared to GA for solving optimal tuning of TCSC.

B. Venkateswara Rao, B. Sateesh, R. Uma Maheswari, G. V. Nagesh Kumar, P. V. S. Sobhan

Follicle Detection in Digital Ultrasound Images Using BEMD and Adaptive Clustering Algorithms

Ultrasound imaging is one of the techniques used to study inside the human body with images generated using high-frequency sounds waves. The applications of ultrasound images include an examination of human body parts such as kidney, liver, heart, and ovaries. This paper mainly concentrates on ultrasound images of ovaries. Monitoring of follicle is important in human reproduction. This paper presents a method for follicle detection in ultrasound images using adaptive data clustering algorithms. The main requirements for any clustering algorithm are the number of clusters K. Estimating the value of K is a difficult task for given data. This paper presents an adaptive data clustering algorithm which generates accurate segmentation results with simple operation and avoids the interactive input K (number of clusters) value for segmentation of ultrasound image. The qualitative and quantitative results show that adaptive data clustering algorithms are more efficient than normal data clustering algorithms in segmenting the ultrasound image. After segmentation, using the region properties of the image, the follicles in the ovary image are identified. The proposed algorithm is tested on sample ultrasound images of ovaries for identification of follicles and with the region properties, the ovaries are classified into three categories, normal ovary, cystic ovary, and polycystic ovary with its properties. The experiment results are compared qualitatively with inferences drawn by medical expert manually and this data can be used to classify the ovary images.

M. Jayanthi Rao, R. Kiran Kumar

Optimal Allocation of Solar DGs in Distribution Network

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasing in the power system day by day. These micropower sources are located in the distribution system at low voltage levels. These are also called type 1 distributed generations (DGs) as they generally supply real power to the system. Optimal location and sizing of the DGs are important as it will influence the power loss and voltage profile in the distribution network. The optimal location is found using loss sensitivity factor and sensitivity indices. The optimal size is found using successive sizing method and sensitivity factor method. Therefore, the present work develops an algorithm to solve the optimal allocation of DGs for IEEE 33 radial distribution test system. The power losses and voltage profile of the distribution network are found using forward and backward sweep methods. The power loss and voltage profile of the test system are calculated and presented without and with DGs.

Purnachandra Rao Thota, Srikanth Khandavalli, Lakshmi Narayana Vital Muktevi, Hari Vamsi Valluri

Hybridization of Particle Swarm Optimization with Firefly Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch

Reactive power management is very crucial for stable operation of the system. The ultimate aim of reactive power dispatch (RPD) is to set the control variables to its optimal values to minimize the objective function of real power losses in lines and voltage deviation satisfying all the equality and inequality constraints. The multi-objective function is also proposed to solve both the objective functions simultaneously. This paper presents hybridization of two optimization techniques, one is particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the other is firefly algorithm (FA) represented as hybridization of particle swarm optimization with firefly algorithm (HPSOFA), which is used to yield a better result. This hybridization is carried out in MATLAB for IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems.

Manasvi Kunapareddy, Bathina Venkateswara Rao

Optimal Scheduling of Hydrothermal Plant Using Particle Swarm Optimization

This paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for solving hydrothermal problem by considering demand constraint, thermal generator constraint, reservoir capacity constraint, hydrogenerator constraint and water discharge constraint. The possibility examination of the proposed method is exhibited on one hydro-plant and a steam plant by utilizing MATLAB. The comparison of the simulation results shows that PSO has a better performance than the other programs like gravitational search algorithm, genetic algorithm, classical evolutionary programming, simulated annealing approach and fast evolutionary programming.

P. Sowmith, R. Madhusudhanrao, N. Gouthamkumar

A New Algorithm for Reduction of High Order Commensurate Non-integer Interval Systems

This note presents a novel methodology for reduction of high order linear time-invariant commensurate non-integer interval systems. It is shown first that the fractional-order interval system is reconstructed to integer interval system and further a hybrid technique is applied as a model reduction scheme. In this scheme, the reduced denominator is acquired by applying a modified least square method and the numerator is achieved by time moment matching. This formulated reduced interval integer model is reconverted to a reduced fractional interval model. As a final point, the results of a numerical illustration are verified to show the relevance and superiority of the proposed technique.

Kalyana Kiran Kumar, Kurman Sangeeta, Chongala Prasad

Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Al-MMCs Reinforced with Coconut Shell Ash Particulates

This study has been described on the optimization of tribological characteristics of Al-coconut shell ash (CSA)-reinforced composite prepared with stir-casting route. In this study, three operating variables (i.e., load, sliding speed, and % of CSA) and three responses (i.e., wear (µm), wear rate (mm3/m), and coefficient of friction) are considered. The experiments are designed using L27 orthogonal array (full factorial design). The influence of each parameter on the response is established using response tables and response graphs. Based on experimental data, the model equations for each response were developed with multiple linear regressions. The models give the factor effects of individual parameters. Interaction effects provide additional information to understand the detailed behavior of parameters. It revealed that load is the most influencing effect on wear behavioral responses. An optimum parameter combination was obtained by using a genetic algorithm.

K. Vikash Kumar, R. Sivasankara Raju

Automatic Generation Control of Multi-area System Incorporating Renewable Unit and Energy Storage by Bat Algorithm

The proposed work demonstrates the automatic generation control (AGC) of two area systems. Both areas contain conventional plants such as thermal–hydro–diesel, as well as renewable solar PV and geothermal units with proper physical constraints. Energy storage device named ultra-capacitor (UC) has also been incorporated in the system to support the stability and damp out the oscillations. Proportional–integral–derivative with filter (PIDN) optimized through bat algorithm is used, and the response is compared with other integer-order controllers. The system is tested under three distinct cases [i.e., SLP of 1% in area-1 (Case I), 1% area-2 (Case II), and 1% in area-1, 2 (Case III)]. The analysis points out the superior performance of PIDF to that of other controllers. The impact of geothermal plant and energy storage on system performance is investigated, and it can be inferred that the inclusion of such devices would enhance the performance of the model to a great extent.

Subhranshu Sekhar Pati, Aurobindo Behera, Tapas Kumar Panigrahi

Disassembly Sequence Planning Methodology for EOL Products Through a Computational Approach

Minimization of adverse environmental effect by generated e-waste day to day became challenging in different sectors of both developed and underdeveloping countries. Promoting 3’Rs policy such as reuse, resale, and remanufacture from the EOL products found as an only possible solution for the encountered challenge. An efficient disassembly sequence plan is needed to perform necessary operations and sorting out the relevant parts from EOL products. In order to achieve this, different existing methods have been studied and observed that subassembly identification is most essential in disassembly sequence planning to formulate an efficient solution. But the involvement of more computational effort in SI-based DSP got less research interest. Part concatenation method in ASG proved for generation in ample amount of subassemblies besides ASP. In this paper, a novel attempt has been made by implementing PCM to perform DSP. The results indicated that the method has tremendous workability not only in DSP but also extendable to PDSP, SDSP, and CDSP. The working of PCM on various classifications in DSP is explained with a case study and described well with suitable illustrations.

Anil Kumar Gulivindala, Vykunta Rao Matta, M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni

Optimization of Patch Size Using Response Surface in Asymmetric Patch Repair

Cracks developed in thin metallic structures propagate with applied loads and result in catastrophic failure. A potential method of crack repair is by adhesively bonding FRP composite patch on the cracked region. The single-sided asymmetric repairs are commonly employed which produces unbalanced forces causing patch failure by separation at the bonded interface; largely influenced by the length and width of the patch. An optimum size of the patch is necessary due to limited bonding space and increased weight of the structure. The study of single-sided repair of a centre crack in a thin aluminium alloy sheet using carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite patch was carried out. The interface separation was numerically simulated by employing the cohesive zone material model in ANSYS 15.0. The failure stress and the mode of failure were obtained in the numerical simulations. The optimum patch size was obtained through the response surface methodology.

Amol Rasane, Prashant Kumar, Mohan Khond

Swarm-Inspired Task Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the most emerging technology which provides sharing of computing resources and data storage through virtualization concept. However, managing plenty of virtualized resources made scheduling a difficult task in cloud computing. Task scheduling must be done in such a way that it must satisfy customer requirements and maintain the quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we proposed a method for resource allocation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and with two objectives which produce optimal task scheduling. The first objective is related to virtual machine processing, and the second objective is related to the time elapsed to complete the given task. Based on the throughput of these objectives, the virtual machines are allotted to the resources.

Ramakrishna Goddu, Kiran Kumar Reddi

Nonlinear Behaviour of Fixed-Fixed Beam with a Moving Mass

This study addresses the coupled nonlinear behaviour of a fixed-fixed beam under the travelling mass. Because of the beam and mass interaction phenomenon, coupling terms are more likely to arise which results in kinematic nonlinearities in the system. The major focus of this paper is to develop a theoretical model by introducing nonlinearities in the system. Later analysis of modal amplitude, mass position and tip deflection are done. For the beam modelling, Euler–Bernoulli beam assumptions are taken for consideration. Initially, a coupled mathematical model of the mentioned system is derived by using Hamilton’s principle. Afterwards, the Galerkin discretization technique followed by the perturbation method is implemented in the mathematical system to analyse the dynamic characteristics of the desired system. Then, MATLAB ODE solver is used to plot various graphs for variation of amplitude and deflection with respect to time in case of both beam and mass. Under the internal resonance condition, the time-response curves are plotted to analyse the beating phenomenon for the beam and mass.

Anwesa Mohanty, Rabindra Kumar Behera, S. K. Pradhan

Finite Element Dynamic Study of Inclined Beam Subjected to Moving Point Load

This paper showcases the response analysis of the inclined beam under consideration of concentrated load moving at a constant velocity. Finite element method is utilized for the formulation of the problem. A convergence study is made for natural frequencies of pinned-pinned (P-P) beam. The case is extended for the horizontal and inclined beam. Newmark integration method is implemented for dynamic vibration of the structure. The numerical results are obtained using MATLAB code. Influence of damping on dynamic magnification factor (DMF) due to moving load is investigated. Effect of velocity parameter on load is studied as well. Results are extended in graphical form with respect to vertical dynamic displacement of the beam for a different angle of inclination.

Suraj Parida, Sudhansu Meher, R. K. Behera

Determination of Flow Characteristics in Fire-Tube Boiler by Numerical Simulation

This research work provides the thermal analysis of fire-tube boilers used in thermal power plants. For simulation purpose, a small-scale prototype of the original fire-tube boiler is designed using SolidWorks. The numerical simulation of the designed model is carried out in ANSYS Fluent. The initial section of the project represents the pressure and temperature variations along the length of the boiler for different water velocities (25, 30, 35 and 40 m/s). The later section deals by changing the boiler casing material between steel, brass and stainless steel to study the pressure and temperature variations at a constant water velocity of 30 m/s. Based on the results, the best boiler shell material among these three has been identified. The results have been provided in the form of pressure and temperature contours as obtained from the CFD analysis.

A. Hari Kishan, Muppidi Chaitanya, P. Uma Maheswara Rao

Application of VIKOR for the Selection of Material for the Green and Sustainable Construction

The objective of this article is to depict the appropriate techniques to understand the basic problems faced by the engineers to select the proper material and proportion it to enable a structure or machine to perform its function efficiently. Selection of material is a challenging task in the construction industry due to many alike materials available in the market. In order to overcome this challenge, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method is used, which yields a rank wise output which eases down the material selection procedure. Vlsekriterijuska optimizacijia I komoromisno resenje (VIKOR) is a robust decision-making method. VIKOR method focuses on ranking with finding the compromise solution and selects the best alternatives in the existence of conflicting criteria. This procedure can aid civil engineers in the selection of suitable sustainable materials for sustainable construction. The best solution was determined by the smallest VIKOR index. A comprehensive analysis of this method is illustrated in this paper, for the selection of best-suited construction material.

Sonu Rajak, Prabhakar Vivek, Sanjay Kumar Jha

Application of an MCDM Tool for Selection of 3D Bioprinting Processes

Bioprinting deals with layer-by-layer generation of organs or parts of organs by additive manufacturing, and the materials used for the purpose contain living cells. Different bioprinting processes offer different capabilities in terms of cell viability, the structural integrity of the printed parts, physical properties of the materials that can be handled, etc. So, for a given type of bioprinting material, selection of the most suitable bioprinting process to optimize the biological as well as the mechanical properties requires trade-offs. In this paper, a fuzzy-TOPSIS MCDM process has been applied for this purpose. Characteristics of various bioprinting processes have been summarized and sorted before fuzzification, and for any set of required characteristics, the MCDM tool can identify the ideal solution, i.e., the solution having the least Euclidean distance from the positive ideal solution and the largest Euclidean distance from the negative ideal solution using TOPSIS method.

Sumanta Mukherjee, Jay Prakash Kumar

Optimization of Texture Geometry for Enhanced Tribological Performance in Piston Ring-Cylinder Liner Contact Under Pure Hydrodynamic and Mixed Lubrication

Surface texture can be positive (protruded out of the surface) or negative (recessed into the surface). In the present work, a theoretical model is presented to study the impact of positive texturing on tribological performance by solving a modified Reynolds equation and asperity contact model under steady-state conditions. Positive surface textures are introduced on a flat piston ring surface under simulated conditions of piston ring-cylinder liner contact. The influence of various parameters such as texture shape and area density is investigated under pure hydrodynamic as well as mixed lubrication conditions. The results indicate that elliptical-shaped textures are found to be superior in improving the tribological performance parameters such as load support and friction coefficient.

Peddakondigalla Venkateswara Babu, Ismail Syed, Beera Satish Ben

Short-Term PV Power Forecasting for Renewable Energy Using Hybrid Spider Optimization-Based Convolutional Neural Network

In this paper, we concentrate to optimize the power demand using forecasting of the solar radiation power, temperature and wind speed. We propose the hybrid technique (CNN-SSO), i.e. convolutional neural network (CNN) and short-term power forecasting model, and it is combined with the social spider optimization (SSO). The SSO algorithm is used to optimize the design constraints in order to inevitably choose the suitable widespread constraint cost of the PV power estimation. The results from simulation work have shown the estimation of the CNN-SSO method that successfully selected by the appropriate operating mode to achieve streamlining of the general vitality effectiveness of the framework utilizing every external parameter. The simulation results demonstrate the viability of CNN-SSO technique in standings of computational feasibility, accuracy and increased robustness.

Debom Ghosh

Virtual Manufacturing

Frontmatter

Contingency Management of a Power System Using Rapid Contingency Management Technique and Harmony Search Algorithm

Optimal power flow (OPF) is an ideal method of optimally utilizing power system resources. Its effect further enhances the presence of FACTS devices. Performing OPF in combination with a FACTS device may also be helpful for the improvement of power system stability during outage conditions. In the present work, a combined index-based strategy for the optimal placement of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and optimal tuning of generators using the harmony search algorithm is proposed for improving the system stability. The projected technique is verified and implemented on IEEE 30 bus system. The system is tested at both normal and contingency conditions. The contingency analysis is done using a new method, namely rapid contingency ranking technique (RCRT). The TCSC has been placed on the basis of an index which is a combination of line utilization factor (LUF) and fast voltage stability index (FVSI). A multi-objective function has been chosen for tuning the generators. The multi-dimensional function includes deviation in voltage, cost of power generation, and loss of transmission line. The outcomes of the proposed method are also compared to a method, i.e., genetic algorithm.

B. Sravan Kumar, R. Uma Maheswari, B. Sateesh, B. Venkateswara Rao, G. V. Nagesh Kumar

Numerical Study of Warm Incremental Forming Limits of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

The main objective of this paper is to study the warm incremental forming of the magnesium alloy to achieve the forming limits. The influence of the different forming temperatures on the von Mises stresses, sheet thickness and plasticity of the material is a major concern. In this paper, a single-point incremental forming (SPIF), a tool containing hemispherical end, was used to describe the formability of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet. The results obtained indicate that the temperature has a significant effect on the von Mises stresses which decrease obviously with the increase of temperature. For the simulation purpose, ABAQUS software is used. The hemispherical tool is assumed to be an analytical rigid body.

Rohit Kumar Sharma, Shahul Hamid Khan

Implicit Knowledge-Oriented New Product Development Based on Online Review

As one of the most important stages of product design, the early stage of new product development is knowledge-intensive creative work, whose essence is the evolution of knowledge. There is a lot of complex tacit knowledge in the early stage of new product development. Therefore, organizing and applying this knowledge is the key to the success of product conceptual design and even the whole product design. It is also the embodiment of the user-centered design concept. This paper presents a method of implicit knowledge-oriented new product development based on online review. The method of user requirement acquisition and product feature characterization based on online review is studied. This method can provide accurate user requirement analysis for the early stage of new product development, providing reference and support for product positioning.

Huiliang Zhao, Zhenghong Liu, Jian Lyu

Mechanical Characterization and Microstructural Study of Carbon Steel Welded Joint Made Under SMAW and GMAW Processes

With the increasing demand for safety, emission reduction, production efficiency, cost-effectiveness and quality of the product, it becomes necessary to think about most suitable welding process among existing techniques for the better output to weld a specific kind of job. Increasing demand to weld different high alloys and dissimilar materials becomes a challenge for the fabrication industry. In fusion welding alone, several techniques are there. SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, SAW, Oxy-Acetylene welding and Resistance welding are coming under this. All these techniques have a unique identity. Hence, it is important to find their character with application suitability. In this paper, attempt has been made to characterize two different most popular welding processes, i.e., SMAW and GMAW. Using these processes, the mechanical characterization and microstructure grain distribution of carbon steel welded joint has been studied. Both the results are compared to understand their suitability and industrial applications.

Pradipta Kumar Rout, Pankaj C. Jena

Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Chi-Square Fuzzy C-Mean Clustering

Accurate brain tumor segmentation is an interesting and challenging task of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the field of medical image processing. For this purpose, we propose a chi-square fuzzy c-mean-based segmentation via clustering to segment the abnormal tissues from the normal region. Initially, based on improved threshold and center-symmetric LBP, the preprocessing is performed to extract the region of interest. Then, we compare the preprocessing output and original MRI image using Bhattacharya similarity metrics to obtain the region of interest from the imaging technology. Finally, chi square distance-based fuzzy c-mean (CS-FCM) segmentation is performed to cluster the region according to the feature based on the region of interest (ROI), including entropy, contrast, and mean for necrosis, edema, and enhanced tumor regions. BRATS 2015 dataset is used to evaluate the performance in terms of Jaccard matching, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The existing approaches are not efficient and predictive, whereas our proposed method performs better in clustering the tumor into three regions (necrosis, edema, and enhanced tumor) based on the region of interest.

G. Anand Kumar, P. V. Sridevi

Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on Value-Stream Maps

Lean manufacturing is considered to be a holistic approach to improve manufacturing practice by reducing various types of wastes. This area of research attracts the attention of researchers from academia and industries in recent times. This research paper presents a leanness assessment methodology using value-stream mapping, a prominent lean tool. Slack-based measure, a method of the data envelopment analysis, is used here to assess the leanness. A case study of a manufacturing system along with its value-stream map is considered to illustrate the application of the methodology. The value-added and non-value-added activities are also considered during the lean assessment. The leanness measure quantitatively expresses the extent of leanness in the firm and the scopes for further improvement. By utilizing lean score, the improvements in lean activities can be initiated. The methodology for leanness assessment can be useful in industrial practice for achieving the goal of manufacturing excellence.

L. N. Pattanaik, Ch. Koteswarapavan

Reinforcement Learning for Inventory Management

The decision of “how much to order” at each stage of the supply chain is a major task to minimize inventory costs. Managers tend to follow particular ordering policy seeking individual benefit which hampers the overall performance of the supply chain. Major findings from the literature show that, with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence, the trend in this area has been heading from simple base stock policy to intelligence-based learning algorithms to gain near-optimal solution. This paper initially focuses on formulating a multi-agent four-stage serial supply chain as reinforcement learning (RL) model for ordering management problem. In the final step, RL model for a single-agent supply chain is optimized using Q-learning algorithm. The results from the simulations show that the RL model with Q-learning algorithm is found to be better than Order-Up-To policy and 1–1 policy.

Shraddha Bharti, Dony S. Kurian, V. Madhusudanan Pillai

Quality Improvement in Organic Food Supply Chain Using Blockchain Technology

Agriculture sector is the backbone of the Indian economy which employs more than 50% of Indian citizenry. But in the recent past, this sector is entangled with many problems like food adulteration, price hijacking, lack of transparency in the supply chain, improper communication medium, etc. The objective of the present work is to make use of advanced technologies that are available to improve the sustainability of food supply chain. In this endeavor, AHP analysis is used for studying the different technologies that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the food supply chain. From the study carried out, it is found that Blockchain technology is superior to others. Further, using Blockchain a network is developed which will ensure fair-trading and circular economy.

G. Balakrishna Reddy, K. Ratna Kumar

A New Heuristic for Solving Open Vehicle Routing Problem with Capacity Constraints

In this paper, a new heuristic is developed to solve an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP). This heuristic considers minimizing the number of vehicles as the primary objective and minimizing the total distance travelled as a secondary objective. The new method proposed uses a modified sweep algorithm that produces a solution with the least number of vehicles, in a relatively short amount of time. This objective is achieved by loading the vehicles nearly to their full capacity by skipping some of the customers if necessary. The new heuristic is tested on standard test instances found in the literature. The results are then compared with the eleven other methods found in the literature. This new heuristic is found to be quite effective compared to other methods if both the speed of computation and closeness to the best value are considered important. The complexity of the algorithm is only O(n), and hence the algorithm produces the results in a relatively short time. The output from this method can be further improved by using metaheuristics like genetic algorithm.

Bapi Raju Vangipurapu, Rambabu Govada, Narayana Rao Kandukuri

Barriers in Sharing of Agricultural Information in Odisha (India): A Critical Study of Small-Scale Farmers

Based on extensive review of the literature, the barriers of information sharing in agricultural sectors of Odisha in India were identified in this study. The responses were obtained from 64 farmers using questionnaires on the barriers of information in the Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neither disagree nor agree, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree). Then, the factor analysis was done to find out the most significant barriers of information. Subsequently, the BWM ranking was performed to rank the most significant barriers of information.

Suchismita Satapathy, Debesh Mishra

Development Inventory Model of Price-Dependent Perishable Products in Sustainable Environment

In this paper, an inventory model, which maximizes the profit of the vendor, in a sustainable environment is developed. It is assumed that the vendor supplies price-sensitive perishable goods. This model determines the optimal order quantity and the optimal price of the items. First, a model is developed without taking sustainability into consideration. This model is then used as a basis for the second model which takes sustainability into account. The second model incorporates carbon tax, imposed on freight transportation, into the base model. It is found that, in the second model, the optimal order quantity decreases and the optimal price of the item increases. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out on the second model by varying the carbon tax. It is found that the profit decreases more or less linearly with the tax rate in the second model.

Bapi Raju Vangipurapu, Rambabu Govada, Narayana Rao Kandukuri

Robotics, Mechatronics, Automation

Frontmatter

Optimum Navigation of Four-Wheeled Ground Robot in Stationary and Non-stationary Environments Using Wind-Driven Optimization Algorithm

In this article, the atmospheric motion-based inspired wind-driven optimization (WDO) algorithm is implemented to minimize the traveling path length of a four-wheeled ground robot (FWGR) in different stationary and non-stationary environmental conditions. This optimization algorithm works on the principle of atmospheric motion of very small air particles, which revolves over the multi-dimensional search area. In the present study, WDO algorithm is employed to search a minimal or near-minimal steering angle for the (FWGR); this steering angle minimizes the path length during motion, orientation, and collision avoidance. The objective function for the WDO algorithm has been created for two reasons: for obstacle avoidance and traveling path optimization in the environments from the source point to the endpoint. Simulation results demonstrate that the FWGR covers a shorter path length using WDO algorithm as compared to the path length obtained by the FWGR using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA).

Nilotpala Bej, Anish Pandey, Abhishek K. Kashyap, Dayal R. Parhi

Analysis on Inverse Kinematics of Redundant Robots

The objective of the present work is to finalize a numerical solution that operates on the inverse kinematic mechanism of redundant robots leading to a robust method. After considering the consequences of all numerical ways of solving the inverse kinematics problem with their limitations and difficulties, it aimed to receive the best one of them and find a final effective solution. Now, the results obtained till now are implemented to the task space trajectory planning and redundancy resolution.

G. Bhavani, K. Harish Kumar, K. S. Raghuram, Hari Shankar Bendu

Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation Units for Improvement of Voltage Profile and Congestion Management Using Particle Swarm Optimization

In this paper, the methodology used for optimal placement and best sizing of distributed generation units is particle swarm optimization algorithm. The objectives include improvement of voltage profile using voltage profile improvement index and congestion management using locational marginal price approach. In order to reduce the congestion, the difference of the locational marginal price between various buses is reduced. The IEEE 14 bus system is presented to represent the usefulness of the particle swarm optimization with locational marginal price-based approach as an objective function in relieving congestion and improving voltage profile. In this paper, voltage criteria-based approach is used to improve the voltage profile of the system and locational marginal price-based approach is used to reduce the congestion by using particle swarm optimization.

Manikonda Lavanya, Gummadi Srinivasa Rao

Analysis for Material Selection of Robot Soft Finger Used for Power Grasping

The geometric relationship between contact parameters such as deformation, contact area and touch angle of robot soft finger is developed. The suggested nonlinear cylindrical soft finger deforms on the application of normal load and contact surface and touches angle grow correspondingly. The force relationship between contact parameters and geometrical data is derived. The developed theoretical model enables to determine the total contact force at the contact surface manipulation. The theoretical model is validated by conducting experiments with the artificial finger of hyperelastic material (Silicone Ecoflex 00-30). The contact width is measured by conducting compression testing from 10 N to 100 N with an increment of 10 N on silicone finger to leave a vivid print on recording paper, and contact area is calculated from those data. The importance of coefficient of friction cannot be overlooked. The value of coefficient of friction is also calculated from inclined test result. The developed model and soft finger can be used for tackling real-life problems related to object manipulations.

Chiranjibi Champatiray, G. B. Mahanta, S. K. Pattanayak, R. N. Mahapatra

Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring Strategy for a Steel Making Shop

Monitoring of a manufacturing process ensures production of consistently good quality end production. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a monitoring strategy for a serial multistage manufacturing facility based on multi-block partial least squares regression, a multivariate regression technique. The developed monitoring strategy has been applied to a medium scale steel making shop. The monitoring strategy thus developed was employed for detection as well as for diagnosis of the faults responsible for the poor quality end product. The results obtained were found to be in sync with actual conditions.

Anupam Das

Mathematical Modeling and Comparative Study of 12-DoF Biped Robot Using Screw Theory and Denavit–Hartenberg Convention

The studies on legged robots have gained huge attention in recent years because of the agility that makes them applicable to a variety of environments. Biped robots are two-legged robots which replicate human anthropomorphism. Locomotion of biped robots is highly nonlinear, and modeling such a biped system demands some critical assumptions in foot rotation, ground contact, foot, and hip trajectories, etc. The gait pattern of biped walking can be expressed as a combination of single support phases (SSP) and double support phases (DSP). Kinematic and dynamic analysis is required for both configurations so that a realistic behavior can be modeled. There are various methods used for modeling of biped robots and similar open-chain robotic systems. The scope of this paper is to compare the kinematic models of a 12 DoF biped robot using Screw theory framework and Denavit–Hartenberg (D-H) convention. Further, the dynamic modeling is carried out using recursive Newton–Euler method and Lagrangian-Euler method for torque variations for single support phase. Joint angle, velocity, acceleration, and torque variations are analyzed during dynamic walking.

K. K. Rohith, Navaneeth Varma, A. P. Sudheer, M. L. Joy

Kinematic and Static Structural Analysis of a Humanoid with a Wheeled Mobile Base

Humanoid robots are facing issues such as self-collision, low speed, instability, and complex control system, when putting to work in different working environments. Humanoid robots with legs are generally not dynamically stable during high-speed motions. One of the solutions for avoiding this challenging issue is to replace the legs with wheelbase. This paper mainly deals with the development of a humanoid having a wheeled mobile base for indoor and outdoor applications. The upper body of the humanoid robot is designed with 3-DOF in the torso, 2-DOF in the neck, dual arm with 5-DOF in each arm, and mobile base with four wheels and 3-DOF. Forward and inverse kinematic modeling is done for the torso and arms. Workspace analysis is performed and the maximum work volume is 2.678 m3. Static structural analysis is carried out for dimension synthesis.

Manoj Kumar Mallick, A. P. Sudheer

Modelling and Analysis of Seeding Robot for Row Crops

Agriculture in India relies on light and heavy machinery managed manually by farmers. In such cases, the output is affected by the availability of manual labour. This brings about a scope of automation to ease the efforts taken by farmers. Currently, available agriculture robots are very expensive and big sized. This makes it difficult for small/medium farmers to introduce automation into their fields. This paper mainly focuses on modelling of a farming robot that is compact and suitable for small-scale farming. An innovative precision seeding mechanism is designed based on vacuum pressure. A dual prismatic–revolute (2PR) robotic manipulator with a soil drill as the end effector guides the seed into its position after digging the soil to appropriate depth. The seeder is designed to seed at desired inter-crop distances in multiple rows at a single pass. The 2PR robotic manipulator is supported on a wheeled base to enable mobility through rough terrains.

Cino Mathew Jose, A. P. Sudheer, M. D. Narayanan

Bandwidth Enhancement in MEMS-Based Energy Harvester for Cochlear Implants

In this paper, a MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester is designed to convert vibrational energy in the range of 150–230 Hz into electric energy using piezoelectric effect for cochlear implants. The simulation is done in COMSOL Multiphysics. The comparison of different MEMS structures has been done with the same piezoelectric material, ZnO. The thickness of the piezoelectric material is kept constant in all the three structures which are equal to 2 µm. The single cantilever beam structure with a silicon anchor is designed which consist of four layers, namely silicon substrate, electrodes layer, and a piezoelectric layer. A sinusoidal acceleration of 0.1g is applied to three structures which are preferred for the proposed structure. The objective of this paper is to get lower resonant frequency, high output voltage, and larger bandwidth. The performance analysis is carried by considering the different designs of cantilever structures on the same substrate.

Ayesha Akhtar, Neela Chattoraj, Sudip Kundu

Design, Analysis and Development of a Flying Wing UAV for Aerial Seeding and 3D Mapping

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) commercialization has increased the possibility of performing monitoring, data collection, survey mapping and aerial seeding in the modern world. The main components used in unmanned aircraft systems are ground control station (GCS) which includes mission planner software and two-way communication system (Telemetry) between the GCS and the UAV, transmitter, and receiver, autopilot on board, payload, remote video terminal, etc. This paper deals with the entire design of flying wing UAV taking into account wing and fuselage design and later implementing payload attachment for aerial seeding and mapping. Initially, UAV has been designed using dimensions and wing loading parameters calculated from basic aerodynamics. The complete UAV was designed in CATIA, and flow and structural analysis was performed in ANSYS. UAV was fabricated using balsa wood to test the prototype. Modified UAV design is further fabricated using composite for aerial seeding.

Movva Srilakshmi Sai, Kamlesh Kumar, Bhanu Prakash

Conceptual Design and Analysis of Three Jaw Robotic Gripper with Flexural Joints

Robots are introduced in the manufacturing industry to mechanize the manufacturing process for satisfying the high quality, low-cost product, and to higher productivity rate. Industrial robots are capable to do a wide variety of work like pick and place, material handling, palletizing, welding, and other operations in mechanized industries. Gripper is mounted at the end of the robot acts as the contact medium between the object and the robot. In this paper, we proposed a conceptual design of a three jaw robotic gripper with flexural hinges. The proposed design can grasp small delicate objects by incorporating soft materials. Tendon-driven mechanism is used for the actuation of the gripper to ensure the use of less number of actuators. The proposed model is designed in CATIA and analysis of a single finger mechanism is carried out using ANSYS software.

Golak Bihari Mahanta, Amruta Rout, BBVL. Deepak, B. B. Biswal

Path Planning of the Mobile Robot Using Fuzzified Advanced Ant Colony Optimization

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a probabilistic optimization method. In this analysis, its application has been explored in mobile robotics for path planning. It provides multi-feedback information and robustness to the mobile robot during navigation. Due to the robustness of the advanced fuzzified ant colony optimization (FACO), the path planning task has been executed in the unstructured environment, and collision-free navigation has been achieved smoothly. For fuzzified advanced ant colony optimization (FAACO), path pheromone update scheme is divided into two categories like favorable and unfavorable path. Using these, path pheromone as the problems of conventional ACO like slow convergence has been sorted out. The advanced FACO improves the evaporation rate of pheromone to accelerate the convergence speed. Finally, the simulation results show the proposed method conquered the previous drawback.

Saroj Kumar, Krishna Kant Pandey, Manoj Kumar Muni, Dayal R. Parhi

Dynamics Analysis of Frictionless Spherical Joint with Flexible Socket

This paper presents the investigation of dynamic modeling and anaylsis of spherical joint with flexible socket joint model. Ball and socket are composing spherical joints which are modeled as two individual colliding components. A continuous force model is introduced for the normal contact–impact force. For the analysis of energy dissipation during contact process, Hertzian-based contact model is used. Generally, Hertzian contact model is used for the analysis of energy dissipation during the dynamic conditions of ball joint because it gives normal deformation of sphere parts of ball and socket joint. This model also describes the viscosity and shear response of the components with friction and adhesion. The pseudo-penetration that occurs between the potential contact points of the ball and the socket surface, as well as the indentation rate, plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the normal contact forces. In addition to this, different force models, such as Coulomb’s law, come into the picture. A friction model is taken for the analysis of friction at the interface of friction between ball and socket joint. The normal and tangential force is evaluated and included in the dynamic model of multibody dynamic system. In modern car, different types of ball joint are used for the better performance of the spherical joint. Geometrical and material parameters are modified to understand the behaviour of the failure and heavily loaded section. The manufacturing process also plays an important role in designing of the component of spherical joint.

Dhaneshwar Prasad Sahu, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Soumitra Singh, Nohar Kumar Sahu

Investigation on the Effect of Different Dielectric Fluids During Powder Mixed EDM of Alloy Steel

The machining characteristics of electric discharge machining (EDM) are dependent on various factors, namely work material, process parameters, electrode materials as well as the dielectric fluids. It is to be noted that the addition of semiconductive particles in dielectric fluid improves its properties by reducing the insulating strength of the dielectric fluid and increasing the spark gap between the tool electrode and workpiece. This mechanism results in a more stable process, higher metal removal, and good surface finish. In the present paper, an experimental investigation on the influence of various dielectric fluids namely paraffin, kerosene, distilled water, and transformer oil mixed with aluminum powder during EDM of EN-19 work material. Brass is used as the electrode material during the machining process. The effects of Al powder mixed dielectric fluid on the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), surface roughness (SR), and radial over cut (ROC) were measured at different levels of input given parameters like gap voltage (Vg), peak current (Ip), and pulse on time (Ton). From the experimental results, it is observed that the transformer oil is found to provide high MRR, surface finish, EWR, and ROC among all other dielectric fluids.

T. Sree Lakshmi, Sagnik Sarma Choudhury, K. Gnana Sundari, B. Surekha

Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance of UAV Using Adaptive Differential Evolution

Presently, the path planning and obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are attracting research field. A variety of techniques have been introduced by the researchers for obtaining optimal path and avoiding obstacles in the path. This paper presents the implementation of adaptive differential evolution (DE) algorithm for collision avoidance as well as obtaining the optimal path in a static environment whereas former being given more importance. Compared to classical DE algorithm, the proposed adaptive DE allows the UAV to reach the target in an optimal path while avoiding obstacles in a collective manner. The overall performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulation results.

P. Nagendra Kumar, Prases K. Mohanty, Shubhasri Kundu

Effect of Crack Severity on a Curved Cantilever Beam Using Differential Quadrature Element Method

In the present paper, investigation of a crack in a curved cantilever beam is studied. The crack in the beam is modeled using a rotational spring with stiffness defined in terms of depth of the crack. The equation of motion for the cracked cantilever beam is solved using Differential Quadrature Element Method (DQEM). The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using ANSYS is also carried out for the cracked curved beam. The severity of the crack with its location on cross-section of the beam is studied using DQEM and FEA. Many numerical examples are demonstrated to verify the aforementioned effects. It is concluded that both the approaches are very close to each other for different crack locations and severities.

Baharul Islam, Prases K. Mohanty, Dayal R. Parhi
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