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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a powerful method for innovation that reinforces combinatorial and analogical thoughts, with interdisciplinary communications among stakeholders in the market. In this method called Innovators' Marketplace, two games - Innovators' Market Game and Analogy Game - accelerate the spiral of innovation with visualizing data on the connectivity of pieces of existing knowledge. Some players invent ideas by connecting and combining pre-existing knowledge, while others evaluate the ideas to decide whether or not to buy. In a joyful atmosphere created by the games, players look beyond resistance to criticism, as experiments real cases show. They will start thinking and talking about the best segment of the majority, latent requirements in the future market, and scenarios for satisfying those requirements. This process embodies the principle that an interdisciplinary combination of business actors and resources, possibly with the appearance of new actors, triggers innovation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Innovation as a Serious Entertainment

Abstract
One century has passed since Joseph Schumpeter defined the concept of innovation as “the introduction of new goods, new methods of production, the opening of new markets, the conquest of new sources of supply, and the carrying out of a new organization of any industry” (Schumpeter 1912/1934). This definition can sometimes be confusing because “goods” and “methods” seem to be very different things, and a “market” is a mixture of these properties plus other factors such as money and individuals (suppliers, consumers, and stakeholders). However, after much thought, we have concluded that this definition is suitable for expressing what we need in this century of changes to hardware, software, networks, natural/social resources, the environment, information, and even human modes of thought. We need a new way of looking at this flood: a way of creating something that has a value beyond that of the most attractive existing commodities, thereby developing a new direction for the growth of the market.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 2. Chance Discovery as Value Sensing for Innovation

Abstract
As discussed in the previous chapter, we require participants in the market to understand other stakeholders’ contexts and values in the market and to sustain interactions in order to realize their innovations. In other words, communication based on “cognitive empathy” is desired. As in the reference (Thompson 2001), cognitive empathy is not a disembodied and affectless knowing of the other, but rather the feeling of being led by another’s experiences. Here, feeling means the integrated sense of bodily sensation and the emotional feeling of values.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 3. Using Maps for Scenario Externalization

Abstract
Successful companies understand and respond to the latent demands of customers. “Chance discovery” means, as stated previously, the discovery of events essential for making decisions (Ohsawa and McBurney 2003). In this chapter, we describe a method of chance discovery in which visual/touchable tools for data-based decision making are positioned in the spiral of human–machine collaboration in a business environment. We present a case of an actual business using this method to choose the most promising textile products for production and sale in the real market. The results are evaluated on the basis of the subjective criteria of business people rather than the objective criteria of a computer, and the evaluation is then passed on to the next cycle in the process of chance discovery, thereby improving the business performance.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 4. Theories for Innovative Thought and Communication

Abstract
Creativity and innovation represented by invention and discovery are symbols of knowledge-based interactions between human beings. Human creativity has been studied using various approaches: the anagogic approach (Reichardt 1969), the educational approach (de Bono 1971; Gordon 1961), the psychoanalytic approach (Sternberg 1999), the computational psychology approach (Torance 1974), the social science approach (Simonton 1997), the congregative, developmental psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive approaches (Runco 1997), design science (Gero and Maher 1993), case studies, and practices (Ghiselin 1952 Wallance and Howard 1989). Of these, the cognitive approach is most useful for revealing the creative process in the human mind – that underlies all thought and communication related to innovation. Experimental methods based on the paradigm of cognitive psychology and observational methods like participant observation have been used to study the process of human creativity in detail.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 5. Analogy Game: Training and Activating Analogical Thought

Abstract
As we mentioned in Chap. 1, innovation, which is more than the mere creation of novel ideas, can be achieved in an environment where suitable constraints are placed on human thought rather than allowing people to freely speak out ideas. We developed a Web-based environment for a word categorization exercise called the Analogy Game (AG). This game aims to elevate the inherent ability of individuals to externalize concepts based on existing words. In AG, players are engaged in analogical reasoning that contributes to the integration of words and leads to the construction of new concepts. We tested AG using both experienced employees working at companies and junior high school students. Both groups were presented with ambiguous words and asked to categorize them. Our results suggest that the presentation of ambiguous stimuli is associated with the analogical process of innovative thought. The older players, who have long been engaged in innovative work both at school and in their companies, tended to apply more insight to the word categorization, whereas the younger players relied more on trial and error. We present this case along with a case in which artists improved their work (based on their own evaluation) after playing AG. These cases show how AG works to measure and elevate innovative thought.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 6. Innovators’ Market Game: Communication with and for Innovative Thinking

Abstract
In this chapter, we introduce a board game called the Innovators’ Market Game (IMG). This game provides players with a communication space for thinking up innovative ideas, which they create by combining existing products, services, business ideas, and so on. They not only obtain new ideas but also evaluate the quality of each idea. Three types of players – inventors, investors, and consumers – discuss whether or not the new ideas are of value in the marketplace. This has typically been considered a difficult task, but in the game, the players find they are enjoying themselves as they work through the processes and eventually create feasible ideas. IMG has already been used by business people, students, researchers, and academic faculty members to produce innovative ideas, some of which are currently in the pre-production stage.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 7. Evidence-Based Guidelines for Innovators’ Marketplace

Abstract
We have tested out the Innovators’ Market Game using several different types of players. For example, in some games, all the players were from our School of Engineering (The University of Tokyo), while in others, the players consisted of students from across multiple disciplines (engineering, economics, law, etc.), or business people from multiple sections of a company (research, product design/development, marketing, etc.). We also tried open games where students and business people joined anonymously.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 8. Innovators’ Marketplace as Integrated Process: An Industrial Case

Abstract
The Innovators’ Marketplace is a process of innovative thought and communication that utilizes the Innovators’ Market Game (IMG) as a core step. In this chapter, we present a practical case where we integrated cycles of the game by using chance discovery (see Chaps. 2 and 3) and created and evaluated scenarios of future policies in a target domain.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 9. Application Case: Policies for Long-Lasting Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

Abstract
In the last chapter, we defined the Innovators’ Marketplace as a process of innovative thought and communications that uses the Innovators Market Game (IMG) as a core step. In this chapter, IMG and the Analogy Game (AG) are regarded as tools integrated into the Innovators’ Marketplace. AG is included here because it enables participants to reflect on subject data to conceptualize essential goals for technicians at nuclear power plants. The framework of tsugology is used here as the backbone of idea representation. The case we present demonstrates how reflecting on participants’ consciousness of tsugoes during the Innovators’ Marketplace process has a positive effect on the quality of the ideas obtained.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Chapter 10. IMG on the Web Versus on the Board, and Conclusion

Abstract
The Innovators Market Game (IMG), as presented in the previous chapters, has been proposed as a tool for aiding innovative thought and communication. This game, which stems from our 10 years of experience with chance discovery in which data visualization is applied to the decision-making process of business teams, is able to facilitate and encourage thought and communications for innovation as well as train individuals in analogical and combinatorial thinking. In this final chapter, we compare the effect of IMG when it is used as a board game with when it is used in a Web-based environment; in other words, face-to-face application vs. Web application. We will show that there are still certain aspects of innovative communication that we can improve, some with the board game and some with the Web. Finally, we conclude this book with the proposal of a new model of cycles of interaction between inventors and consumers in the real market to show that the Innovators’ Marketplace is a simplified realization of the modeled interaction.
Yukio Ohsawa, Yoko Nishihara

Backmatter

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