Environmental quality and resource management has become a prominent challenge in a modern economy. The complexity involved has prompted a series of diverse policy initiatives, ranging from market oriented instruments (like taxes, subsidies and tradeable permits) to command and control measures (ranging from voluntary agreements to standards). Some of these instruments were illustrated in Chapters 3–6 of this book and discussed in terms of their effectiveness and desirability when considered in isolation (see Tietenberg et al., 1999, for a general overview). In practice, many policy initiatives are hindered by much uncertainty (see, for example, Roberts and Spence, 1976, and Adar and Griffin, 1976), so that a clear choice for price-based instruments — as opposed to quantity-based instruments — is difficult to make.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Instrument Choice and Energy-Efficiency Improvement by Firms: An Empirical Analysis
Henri L. F. de Groot
Esther E. M. Luiten
Martijn G. Rietbergen
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 7