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This book is readers who wish to develop their knowledge, insight, skills, and facility into integrated communications within the post-modern era, a topic of relevance everywhere, but particular apposite as the original conference was hosted in Turkey, a rapidly developing nation, and one enjoying significant growth in the global.



1. Introduction: Integrated Communications in the Postmodern Age

This book is intended for marketing and brand managers, market researchers, and in any field directly related to marketing and communication (Kitchen, 2010; 2013). It is proposed for postgraduate and under-graduate students, and other interested publics, who wish to develop their knowledge, insight, skills, and facility into integrated communications within the postmodern era — a topic of relevance everywhere, but particularly apposite as the setting for several chapters is in Turkey, a rapidly developing nation, an EU accession nation, and a nation enjoying significant economic growth in the global marketplace. The book is based primarily on the opinions, views, and expertise of significant authors in the field (see Contents).

Philip J. Kitchen, Ebru Uzunoğlu

2. Integrated Marketing Communications: A Contextual International Advertising Approach

In the past quarter century, the concept of integrated marketing communications (IMC) has swept around the world and become an integral part of the marketing, and even the corporate, communication strategies of many companies (Kitchen, 2005; Schultz et al., 2011). IMC is now a significant factor affecting the outcomes of marketing strategy and can help companies position products/services/brands, reach target markets, and build brand image, whether nationally or internationally (Hsu et al., 2009) (Naik and Raman, 2003; Prasad and Sethi, 2009).

Philip J. Kitchen, Marwa Tourky

3. Integrating Communications at Tourism Destinations: Meeting the Needs of Tourists

This chapter deals with the importance of information for tourists when they are in a large city such as Madrid. Information enriches tourist knowledge, favouring tourist spending in the city, their experiences, and satisfaction. A good communications strategy benefits both tourists and the destination. The focus of the chapter is to:Presentand discuss empirical evidence concerning the importance of tourist information in a large city.Evaluatethe importance of online and offline communication through various forms of information.Comparethe importance of various forms of online and offline information with the importance of several hotel services.Analysetourist online and offline information in Madrid in relation to tourist interest.Establishpractical implications of the study conducted in order to improve communication efficacy.

Enrique Ortega, Beatriz Rodríguez, María J. Such-Devesa

4. Webcare as an Integrative Tool for Customer Care, Reputation Management, and Online Marketing: A Literature Review

When consumers are dissatisfied with a consumption experience, they usually respond in one of the following ways (Hirschman, 1970): (1) stop using an organization’s products/services and take their business to a competitor, (2) file a complaint with the organization that is responsible for the dissatisfying consumption experience, or (3) talk about their dissatisfying consumption experience with fellow consumers (negative word of mouth). Janelle McCoy, a former loyal customer of Chevrolet, decided to combine all responses with the help of social media. In a series of comments on Facebook and Twitter, in which Chevrolet was either tagged or addressed (@chevrolet), Janelle shared her dissatisfaction with one of Chevrolet’s car dealers. In doing so, she not only engaged in negative word of mouth (NWOM) but also complaint behaviour. As can be seen from the excerpt of the Twitter dialogue depicted by Figure 4.1, Janelle’s comments addressed a double audience consisting of not only other consumers but also the organization responsible for the dissatisfying consumption experience. Consumers such as Janelle increasingly voice their complaints as electronic NWOM, with the aim to draw the attention of organizations and, as such, enforce service excellence. Thus, after receiving no satisfactory response from Chevrolet, Janelle decided to take her business to a competitor and to share this decision with other consumers on Facebook and Twitter as well.

Guda van Noort, Lotte M. Willemsen, Peter Kerkhof, Joost W. M. Verhoeven

5. Customer Engagement — Fad or the Real McCoy? The Attempt of IMC Paradigm Shift via Online Media

This chapter explores the issues integrated marketing communication (IMC) is facing nowadays, chiefly due to the rapid development and diffusion of new digital media outlets and social media in particular. It addresses questions concerning the role of IMC in developing relationships with customers, which is becoming the integral part of marketing exchange in the era of customer- and experience-centred perspectives. The chapter develops a dual model of value creation which could become the basis for the IMC paradigm shift. Following the proposed model, it discusses the potential challenges for IMC when taking into account the digital online environment and its characteristics in the postmodern world.

Klement Podnar, Urša Golob

6. The Effects of Marcoms and Social Interaction through Virtual Communities on Consumer-Based Brand Equity

This chapter will explore the following objectives: Examine the structure of virtual communities in the virtual environmentIdentify the effects of virtual communities on marketing communications (hereafter “marcoms”), social interaction, and brand equityIllustrate components of consumer-based brand equityExamine marcoms and social interaction through virtual communitiesUnderstand the effects of marcoms and social interaction through virtual communities on consumer-based brand equity

Bayram Zafer Erdoğan, Tolga Torun

7. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Communication: A Turkish Industry Example

Many companies are concerned with satisfying social responsibility expectations and communicating their policies of corporate social responsibility (hereafter CSR). In other words, CSR communication has become a vital issue in building and sustaining the legitimacy of a company in the eyes of stakeholders. According to the definition provided by Podnar (2008: 75):

CSR communication is a process of anticipating stakeholders’ expectations, articulation of CSR policy and managing of different organization communication tools designed to provide true and transparent information about a company’s or a brand’s integration of its business operations, social and environmental concerns, and interactions with stakeholders.

Companies utilize means, such as advertisements, product labels, media relations, CSR reports, and websites to achieve the above. While advertising and public relations are considered to be open communication, CSR reports and websites are considered to be subtle communication (Morsing and Schultz, 2006). Although the Web is thought to be a passive informational tool (Pomering, 2011), getting information through the Web involves active participation on the part of users. Active participation of users in the communication process is also considered to be a characteristic of the postmodern era, in which communication is taken to be a process whereby “meaning is produced through negotiation and contention between the author, the reader (the receiver) and the culture” (Firat and Dholakia, 2006: 146).

Selin Türkel, Aysun Akan

8. Fostering Interactivity through Responsiveness: The Case of Turkish Environmentalist Non-Profit Organizations’ Websites

The aims of the chapter are to reflect changes in the communications environment occasioned by technological developments, relay information on the relationship between responsiveness and interactivity, address the potential benefits of websites as facilitators of interactivity and responsiveness, and to reveal the potential benefits to Turkish environmentalist non-profit organizations (NPOs) of exploiting dialogic communication and responsiveness through websites. Given these aims, for success in communication, it is critical for organizations to understand changes in consumer behaviour. Today’s technological developments have created a new type of savvy, sophisticated, and well-informed consumer. They are no passive recipients of messages (Pickton and Broderick, 2005; Finne and Grönroos, 2009). Instead, consumers are eager to participate and become involved in every process, from idea generation to product development to brand performance. Furthermore, they now tend to rely on messages and recommendations from other individuals, rather than depending upon information from organizations. As a result of these changes, the ways organizations communicate with their target groups have been affected. Particularly, the integrated marketing communication (IMC) approach has evolved from the 1990s, involving brand-oriented communication in relationship building.

Sema Misci Kip, Ebru Uzunoğlu

9. Articulating Locality in Advertising Adaptation: The Snickers Case

Advertising is the least popular format in communication studies for analysis when related to understanding culture and society. Nevertheless, it is the most important social form of modern communication with respect to the relationships between business, marketing, customers, and consumers. According to Morris (2005: 704) “postmodern advertising indicates a qualitative turn that likewise corresponds to changes in the production and communication processes”. Postmodern consumers desire to become a part of interactive processes (Cova, 1996: 18) and postmodern advertising practitioners understand the social importance of the interpretive capacity of people (Morris, 2005: 704). Thus, one way to understand marketing from a multi-dimensional perspective in order to analyse current heterogeneous markets via an integrated marketing communication (IMC) approach, is to look at advertising adaptation. Such adaptations tend to play a significant role in the understanding of customization of media messages in national marketplaces in the postmodern era. Therefore, in this chapter, we analyse the Turkish adaptation of an advertising campaign developed by brand managers of an internationally famous and successful brand: Snickers. The first commercial of the Snickers campaign, which was broadcast in the United States during the Super Bowl in 2010, was produced by the New York branch of a global advertising agency (BBDO/New York) with a catchy slogan: “You are not you, when you are hungry”.

Yeşim Kaptan, Burcu Öksüz

10. The Changing Paradigm of Public Relations in Turkey: From Past to Present

This chapter explores how a public relations firm/agency has attempted to postmodernize its business through internal reorganization and client-focused communication. The firm chosen, MPR Pazarlama Halkla Iliskiler (MPR Communications Consultancy), was founded in 1994 as the first marketing public relations (MPR) firm in Turkey.

Serra Görpe

11. Rethinking the Role of “The Idea” in Integrated Communications

“Nothing endures but change” — Heraclitus (5th century BC)

The assumption above is probably very convenient for human-related matters. Communication is built upon human interaction, technology, and trends; therefore, it is open to the effects of change more than any other field. Over the past few decades, marketing and marketing communications have been also experiencing emergent accelerating ideological, cultural, and technological change. Shifting from an offline communication environment to more online and emergent, new and dynamic, communication practices has brought about new terminologies such as engagement, experience, relationship, inside-out/outside-in, viral effect, co-creation, interactivity, customization, and so on. To go further, labelling the current era is controversial; whether to call it still modern or postmodern is difficult due to its elusive but undoubtedly crucial features. In addition to this, the behaviour and attitudes of consumers are shifting especially with the newly joined generation called digital natives. This altered and altering profile of consumers is now smarter, more demanding, empowered, engaged, and even co-creating.

Pinar Umul Ünsal, Burcu Yaman, Burak Amirak, Serçin Sun İpekeşen


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