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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces readers to neo-mercantile planning theory in the context of spatial regional integration in Africa. It proposes a new approach that rethinks neo-liberalism as the meta-theory of planning in Africa, and pioneers an original school of thought that presents a general theory of planning for Africa in the twenty-first century.

Research to substantiate the new theory was conducted over the period November 2010 to May 2015 and is presented here in four sections with more than 500 references. The book offers comprehensive coverage, from the theoretical foundations and framework, through application and empirical research, to analysis, conclusions and recommendations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

The resilience of the epistemological foundations of imperialism is diagnosed to be the problem with urban productivity in Africa. Planning responses fail to address this malaise because planning scholarship barely extends beyond the consideration of the science of planning. The meta-theory of planning, which engages the influence of development ideologies on planning, is seldom considered. This omission disenfranchises planning in the chessboard of political economy. At the moment, planning in neoliberal dispensation is delivering dependency in which spatial systems in Africa function as imperial instruments. An extended definition of terms is given in anticipation of the launch of the new planning theory.
Donald Okeke

Theoretical Founding

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Points of Departure and Major Arguments

The epistemologies of imperial mindset, imperial space economy and imperial cities are critical points of departure in determining the way forward for planning in Africa. The revision of these epistemologies, entrenched under the growing influence of informality, is assumed to be the challenge ahead of planning intervention in Africa. In search of an appropriate planning perspective, this work assumes that form-based planning attributes are not significantly resilient in planning within spatial systems in Africa. Although contrary to current trend, the work argues that in so far as a new spatial planning perspective is without the form element it lacks merit to initiate a theoretical evolution in spatial planning. As such it further argues that formal expertise knowledge should take precedence over informal expertise knowledge in planning. These dispositions point to the need to revisit neoliberalism as development ideology and thinking instrument for planning in Africa.
Donald Okeke

Application of Theory to the Reality Within Africa

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Epistemological Ideologies and Planning (in Africa)

Epistemological foundations and ideologies of imperial space economy and informality are the bane of planning in Africa. These epistemologies draw from development ideologies, which reside in the meta-theoretical realm. The disregard of the meta-theory of planning is responsible for the gross misreading of planning. This explains the neglect of urban planning in favour of investment planning and environmental management. The urban environment ceases to be the subject of planning and the object of planning transits from spatial integration to poverty alleviation. Although the current informalization of cities has no theoretical basis for growth , the planning scene continues to tend towards neoliberal participatory planning for project development in environmental management. This widens the lacuna in urban planning and deepens urban crisis in Africa.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 4. Meta-Theoretical Frameworks of (Spatial) Planning

There are traditional and international perspectives of meta-theories of planning. The traditional perspectives are embedded in worldviews and philosophies, which mark traditional communities as unique societies. This work reviewed ujamaa philosophy based on socialist principles in East Africa, the ubuntu ideology based on survivalist structures (i.e. the extended family) in Southern Africa and the omenani philosophy of Ibo socialism built on spirituality amongst the Ibos in South-Eastern Nigeria, West Africa. International perspectives portray meta-theories as trade methodologies. Classical liberalism nurtured popular design tradition in planning, fettered capitalism nurtured formal master planning theory and neoliberalism nurtured neoliberal participatory planning theory. The precepts of neoliberal planning theory amount to the reinvention of planning.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 5. Theoretical Frameworks

The world system is theorized as an imperial instrument that retains Africa in dependent capitalism. Its operationalization perhaps explains the stagnation in the development of urban (structure) theory and the dynamics in the development of regional development theory. The review of regional development theories from 1930s shows that regional theories sought for the economic bases of integration. Thus, the theories synchronized with the ethos of the world system vis-à-vis market economy. However, the need for spatial integration persists and is perhaps responsible for the cyclical evolution found in urban planning theory, from classic in the 1960s to rational in the 1970s to neoliberal in the 1980s–1990s and then to neoclassical since 2000. Simultaneously, tendencies of recourse to spatial models of regional integration are gaining momentum.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 6. Overview of Urban Planning Principles and Practice

The inception of participatory planning perspectives in Africa in the 1980s was a direct result of global trends linked with the activities of external assistance agencies. As neoliberal participatory planning perspective (planning without a plan), in which a market metaphor in development processes determines planning approach, the relevance of formal planning as a rational instrument to manage the distribution of activities in space diminishes in practice. Regardless, quantitative and qualitative research was used to establish the resilience of formal planning. Thus formal master planning remains a universal planning instrument and the idea of new master planning is underway amidst upsurge in neoliberal planning initiatives interpreted loosely as participatory planning perspective. It was found that spatial integration eludes neoliberal participatory planning initiatives in Africa.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 7. Analysis of Current Reality (Principles and Practice)

In a comprehensive investigation of paradigm shift in planning, the categories of MCA, perception analysis and SWOT analysis were mobilized to analyse the data generated from planning studies. The functional flow of analysis involved six operations, which investigated compliance to the participatory paradigm of planning. The analyses, which were conducted at national and planning initiative levels, confirmed the incidence of compliance to neo-liberal participatory planning principles but failed to confirm the delivery of integration in planning practice. Regardless of the influence of neo-liberal planning paradigm , there are clear indications of the resilience of formal planning principles . Given the scenario analysis of planning, changes in the meta-theoretical, theoretical and practical context of planning are recommended for planning in Africa.
Donald Okeke

Synthesis and Statement of New Theory

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. African Renaissance

The Subject of Planning (in Africa)
In the African context where political realities make equity a critical variable for new economic and spatial entities, the theory of African renaissance provides the object for planning and the mission for cities. African renaissance is up against a new agenda of sharing African market for Euro-American goods and services. Hence this theory seeks the primary objective of integrated regional development, which connects with sourcing enhanced productivity through the introversion of the economy of urban Africa. It demands the restructuring of the urban form through territorial planning and in so doing hopes to generate communities of African renaissance of the twenty-first century with capacity to surmount contemporary urban crisis in Africa. Hitherto communities of African renaissance of the Middle Ages, with diverse systems of behaviour and belief bound with spiritual values, who ousted the backward Bushmen and Pygmies, overcame similar obstacles and founded cities and built states and empires.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 9. Neo-Mercantilism as Development Ideology (in Africa)

Originally, neo-mercantilism emerged as a trade strategy, which is applied at the global space. The African region was exposed to it from the receiving end as a consumer economy. However its attribute of protectionism amongst other qualities recommend it as option to be conceptualized as development ideology for Africa. Neo-mercantilism as development ideology adopts government and entrepreneurial synergy to maximize regional interest as a means of advancement in political economy. Therefore it anticipates optimal state intervention to support entrepreneurship, both formal and informal although it holds informality as an exception and not a norm. In the circumstance, market force is expected to intersperse with planning rationality to manage growth in the context of regional spatial integration. Therefore, spatial factors framed on distributive justice sought with territorial planning principles, inform neo-mercantilist ideology as policy instrument for African regionalism.
Donald Okeke

Chapter 10. Introducing Neo-mercantile Planning Theory

The neo-mercantile planning theory supports the spatio-physical growth theories typology, developed along the convergence hypothesis model. It introduces the ‘Time-efficient’ effect (measured with a ‘Time-coefficient’) in planning, which classifies the time efficiency of cities to move goods and services in global space. It argues that the system of commercial nodes and their distribution in space is a function of time-efficient decision-making for demand-side trade transaction. Within neo-mercantile planning process sectoral and project planning relocates to merge with plan implementation procedures where they are subject to the provisions of spatial integration mechanisms. Also, budgeting is strategically subsumed in the neo-mercantile planning framework which has inbuilt provision for investment planning and funding strategies. In practical terms, the theory functions with an innovative spatial model for urban region development to translate growth visions of urban Africa into space. It does so with spatial integration planning (SIPs) and thematic integration planning (TIPs) instruments. Three levels of planning and six categories of spatial systems shall be integrated in line with the standards of extended metropolitan region and growth triangle models for isolated market regions.
Donald Okeke

Contribution to New Knowledge, Application and Approaches

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. New Knowledge in Planning (in Africa)

The visioning process for domesticating neo-mercantile planning theory in Africa identifies priority transboundary problems to include urban spatio-physical expansion, suburbanization, urban sprawl, extroverted urban economies and spatial inequalities. With the vision exposition focused at building African civilization as a culture of cities that are integrated across national boundaries, the short-term objectives of creating enabling environment leads the mobilization of concrete action to resolve the priority transboundary problems within 15 years. Hence priorities for action are identified alongside performance indicators. These actions are regrouped into ten typology of action. International funding is likely to threaten the implementation of proposed action cards (although the action cards are low investment ventures; therefore not really vulnerable) but a lot depends on the resolve of Africa and the Diaspora to chart her destiny.
Donald Okeke

Backmatter

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