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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the results of discussions and presentation from the latest ISDT event (2014) which was dedicated to the 94th birthday anniversary of Prof. Lotfi A. Zade, father of Fuzzy logic. The book consists of three main chapters, namely:

Chapter 1: Integrated Systems DesignChapter 2: Knowledge, Competence and Business Process ManagementChapter 3: Integrated Systems Technologies

Each article presents novel and scientific research results with respect to the target goal of improving our common understanding of KT integration.



Integrated Systems Design


Integrated Reconfiguration of Multi-Satellite Network Communication Using Colored Petri Nets

An integrated quantitative reconfiguration model for interacting satellite networks is a powerful tool in analyzing reliability and developing protocols for uninterrupted operation. However, such a model is not easy to develop since it involves many parameters related to the network’s operation including all the earth-linked communications. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated communication model for a network of interacting satellites using high level Petri Nets which permits sub-network reconfiguration without loss of communication whenever there are satellite faults. To model the communication interactions in a network of satellites, Colored Petri Nets (CPN) paradigm is used so as to simulate the operation of the integrated Networked Control System (NCS). A modular representation of the interacting satellites within the network in terms of senders and receivers including packet-data transmission through the network is provided. The packets stored on-board the satellites are sent via the network to the earth station which may not arrive successfully in case of a fault in the communication payload/network. The proposed approach is used to study the overall response time of a given NCS in interacting satellites, as well as the delays between the mutual senders and receivers. Simulations of the detailed model used show that the networked control performance of the interacting satellites, in particular with reference to any satellite failure, can be improved with inclusion of appropriate monitors within the networked system as represented by sub-networks in the CPN model. The proposed integrated networked control can be used to obtain a fault tolerant reconfiguration for a standard network performance.
Atefeh Einafshar, Behnam Razavi, Farrokh Sassani

Integrating Electric Energy Demand of Machine Tool Processes as Resource for Production Planning Software

Electrical energy consumption of machine tools and production facilities for the production of goods is not included in the production planning process at present. This article presents first results of an ongoing research project with the aim to consider electrical energy demand besides other resources like personnel or machine capacity as planning dimension in software systems for planning and optimization (Manufacturing Execution Systems - MES). Additionally, in the sense of a holistic PLM approach, this aspect and the resulting information should be lead back to the product creation process. One goal of the project is therefore, that energy demand can be taken into account in the data models and in corresponding planning and optimization algorithms of detail planning systems or manufacturing execution system, Furthermore, it is necessary to define the corresponding interfaces between the involved IT-systems at the various levels. Another goal of the project on methodical level is a detailed systematic analysis and determination of possible potentials in terms of profitability, planning horizons of electrical power production forecasts, specific savings depending on the particular production technology of specific sectors, and integration e.g. to intelligent building management systems in order to be able to plan holistically.
Detlef Gerhard

Integration and Operation of Fuel Cell and Gas Heating System by Fuzzy Logic Control

Generation and consumption of heat power for domestic demand should consider economical and ecological aspects. Integration of the Fuel Cell System (FCS) for heat and electrical power generation into classical building heating systems enables the user to consider the environmental aspects. Hydrogen powered FCS as a source of clean and renewable energy replaces or reduces the classically employed fossil and Gas Heating Systems (GHS). This is the most important motivation for using FCS as a renewable energy source, which reduces the environmental pollution and ensures the demand for heating and electrical energy is met.
By evaluating the thermal behavior of the building and the heating system, Fuzzy Logic Control System (FLCS) provides a powerful rule base for decision-making and guarantees optimal operation of the FCS and the GHS. Additionally, FLCS reduces the switching frequency for both FCS and GHS, which is very important for the maintenance and operational life of the system. As a result, FLCS ensures a low emission operational mode of the GHS. FLCS is also responsible for optimal evaluation of heat power demand. Overall, the entire system consists of three different fuzzy controllers, each responsible for a different function described as: a) Fuzzy Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller for heating water supply temperature; b) a Fuzzy Controller for optimal evaluation of heat power demand; and c) a Fuzzy Controller for the operation of the FCS and GHS with high efficiency and lowest switching frequency.
Reza T. Daryani

Design and Integration of a Nanohybrid Functional Biomaterial with Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Nanohybrid functional biomaterials with advanced properties can provide a competitive edge in diverse biomedical applications from diagnosis to therapeutic treatments. This work describes the design of a green functional biomaterial composed of type I collagen reinforced with cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) to effectively enhance the rigidity of collagen and to better mimic the morphology and profile features that are characteristic to biological tissues. Careful control of the processing conditions resulted in the successful grafting of CNWs within the collagenous medium and gave rise to the formation of a three-dimensional rigid percolating network; fact which imparted a significant improvement in the system’s mechanical and thermal stability at small amount of nanofiller concentration. Similarly, the initial biocompatibility of the collagen-cellulose nanohybrid composite was probed by in-vitro incubation of human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which resulted in the invasion and proliferation of MSCs within the hydrogel nanomaterial at day 8 of culture. We believe that the green nanohybrid composite in this study with its unique features could open new perspective design in the self-assembly of functional biomaterials for diverse range of biomedical applications.
Parisa Pooyan, Luke Brewster, Rina Tannenbaum, Hamid Garmestani

Decision Analysis Model for Optimal Aircraft Engine Maintenance Policies Using Discrete Event Simulation

With stringent standards for materials, manufacturing, operation, and quality control, jet engines in use on commercial aircraft are very reliable. It is not uncommon for engines to operate for thousands of hours before being scheduled for inspection, service or repair. However, due to required maintenance and unexpected failures aircraft must be periodically grounded and their engines attended to. The tasks of maintenance and repair without optimal planning can be costly and result in prolonged maintenance times, reduced availability and possible flight delays.
This chapter presents the development of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) models that utilize aircraft flying, grounding and engines service times, as well as Time-On-Wing (TOW) data which represents the current accumulated flying time for each engine since its last service, and Remaining-Time-to-Fly (RTTF) to aid maintenance policy decision making. The objective is to determine the optimum number of engines on an aircraft for maintenance that leads to greater use of the estimated remaining useful life of the engines and shorter downtime for the aircraft. To achieve this, first, a number of small models are built and simulations performed to gain an insight into the problem. A final model is then developed that is based on the integration of these small models. It is shown that a simulation model of this type can enable the decision maker to readily examine different policies and from the analysis of the simulation output arrive at an optimum policy.
Behnam Razavi, Atefeh Einafshar, Farrokh Sassani

Knowledge, Competence and Business Process Management


An Adaptive Model for Competences Assessment of IT Professionals

Emerging technologies such as Big Data and Cloud Computing in the field of information technology imposes further needs (requests) for professional competences in organizations and IT companies. The ultimate goal is to comply with industrial changes characterizedby adaptive solutions for fostering human-machine interactions. Here competence and job knowledge play a great role in organizations. This paper discusses the concept ofan adaptive competence profiling platform in the context of EU funded project ComProFITS. The main goal is (i) reinforcing competence analytics, and (ii) improving the quality of personnel selection and job performance in the IT sector. This project reflects the results of the research and development activities based on needs analysis with a Spanish IT company.
Mahdi Bohlouli, Fazel Ansari, George Kakarontzas, Lefteris Angelis

An Ontology Matching Approach for Improvement of Business Process Management

This paper introduces and elaborates a semi-automatic methodology for improving business processes. It holds the concept of process ontology matching, based on ontologies derived from business process models and relevant reference models. The ontology matching approach provides information for indicating deviations between "TO-BE" and "AS-IS" business processes. It ultimately identifies opportunities for modeling and analyzing the current processes, and optimizing and redesigning (ideal) “To-BE” processes. The present methodology has been successfully developed, applied and tested in the context of eBest project and on higher education processes. Furthermore, the prospective of applying the methodology on vocational education of healthcare professionals particularly nurses has been studied in Med-Assess project and is considered for further development in Pro-Nursing project.
Katalin Ternai, Marjan Khobreh, Fazel Ansari

A Conceptual Model to Combine Creativity Techniques with Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Enhanced Knowledge Management

This chapter introduces a conceptual model to combine creativity techniques with fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) and aims to support knowledge management methods by improving expert knowledge acquisition and aggregation. The aim of the conceptual model is to represent acquired knowledge in a manner that is as computer-understandable as possible with the intention of developing automated reasoning in the future as part of intelligent information systems. The formal represented knowledge thus may provide businesses with intelligent information integration. To this end, we introduce and evaluate various creativity techniques with a list of attributes to define the most suitable to combine with FCMs. This proposed combination enables enhanced knowledge management through the acquisition and representation of expert knowledge with FCMs. Our evaluation indicates that the creativity technique known as mind mapping is the most suitable technique in our set. Finally, a scenario from stakeholder management demonstrates the combination of mind mapping with FCMs as an integrated system.
P. Kaltenrieder, E. Portmann, N. Binggeli, T. Myrach

Future Integrated Factories: A System of Systems Engineering Perspective

The manufacturing sector has gone through tremendous change in the last decade. We have witnessed the transformation from stand alone, manual processes to smart and integrated systems, from hand written reports to interactive computer-based dashboards.
Future integrated factories will operate as a system of systems through intelligent machines, human factors integration, and integrated supply chains. To effectively operate and manage these emerging enterprises, a systems science approach is required. Modelling and simulation is recognised as a key enabling technology, with application from stakeholder engagement and knowledge elicitation to operational decision support through self-tuning and self-assembling simulations. Our research has led to the introduction of effective modelling and simulation methods and tools to enable real time planning, dynamic risk analysis and effective visualisation for production processes, resources and systems. This paper discusses industrial applicable concepts for real-time simulation and decision support, and the implications to future integrated factories, or factories of the future, are explored through relevant case studies from aerospace manufacturing to mining and materials processing enterprises.
Saeid Nahavandi, D. Creighton, V. T. Le, M. Johnstone, J. Zhang

Smart Engineering as Enabler for the 4th Industrial Revolution

The convergence and synergies of the latest ICT developments in the areas of embedded micro-devices, mobile communication, hardware infrastructures, as well as Internet and software technologies penetrate any artifact and product in our real lives. Traditional products are becoming more and more multidisciplinary, intelligent, networked, agile, and include product-related services. However, not only consumer goods (i.e. smartphones) but also industrial goods are becoming ‘smart’. Smart Product Service Systems (smartPSS) will dominate most industrial sectors in the near future and lead to the 4th Industrial Revolution. Thus, the engineering of these smartPSS will be of crucial importance for the competitiveness of industrial companies. This contribution summarizes the related ICT developments and describes their successive penetration of industrial products. It points out the need for new Smart Engineering approaches, which also use the latest ICT innovation and similarly smart features like smartPSS. Smart Engineering defines the highest level of requirements for engineering processes, methods, and tools.
Michael Abramovici, Jens Christian Göbel, Matthias Neges

Integrated Systems Technologies


Integrated Battery Management System

Increased concerns over limited sources of energy as well as the environmental impact of petroleum based transportation infrastructure have led to an ever increasing interest in electric transportation infrastructure. Thus, electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Issues dealing with the battery technology and related systems remain a central challenge in vehicle electrification. The objective of this chapter is to shed light on some of the challenging issues, in regards to the battery management system design from a control theoretic perspective and highlight some open areas of research.
M. Foad Samadi, Mehrdad Saif

Locally Sparsified Compressive Sensing in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique for acquiring images of human organs/tissues. Due to its complex imaging process, it consumes a lot of time to produce a high quality image. Compressive Sensing (CS) has been used by researchers for rapid MRI. It uses a global sparsity constraint with variable density random sampling and L1 minimisation. This work intends to speed up the imaging process by exploiting the non-uniform sparsity in the MR images. Locally Sparsified CS suggests that the image can be even better sparsified by applying local sparsity constraints. The image produced by local CS can further reduce the sample set. This paper establishes the basis for a methodology to exploit non-uniform nature of sparsity and to make the MRI process time efficient by using local sparsity constraints.
Saeid Nahavandi, Fuleah A. Razzaq, Shady Mohamed, Asim Bhatti, Peter Brotchie

Bragg Resonance of Gravity Waves and Ocean Renewable Energy

Here we study Bragg resonance of surface and interfacial waves. Specifically, we show one triad resonance between two surface waves and one seabed component in a homogeneous fluid, and another triad between a surface wave, an interfacial wave and a bottom component in a two-layer density stratified fluid. Via the Bragg resonance between two surface waves in a homogeneous fluid we can transfer the energy of one wave to another wave with the same frequency that moves in a different direction. We use this type of Bragg resonance to design lenses and curved mirrors for gravity waves. These lenses and mirrors are merely small changes to the seabed topography (e.g. by placing obstacles) and hence are surface non-invasive. By a concave mirror or a convex lens of gravity waves, we can focus gravity waves at a specific location. This may be of interest to the ocean wave energy, as instead of putting a multitude of wave energy harvesting devices over a large area, one large wave energy absorber can be placed at the focal point. This will reduce the cost, increase the efficiency and is clearly more environmentally friendly. We also show that Bragg resonance of surface and interfacial waves can be used to transfer energy from surface waves to interfacial waves, and from interfacial waves to the surface waves. Therefore in a two-layer density stratified fluid a proper architecture of the topography can be used to create a buffer zone which is protected from surface waves. This idea, known as cloaking, can protect floating offshore wind towers from the momentum of oceanic waves.
Ryan B. Elandt, Louis-Alexandre Couston, Ruth A. Lambert, Mohammad-Reza Alam

Power System Dynamic Scheduling with High Integration of Renewable Sources

In this paper, we present a model predictive control (MPC) based method for dynamic economic power scheduling in power grids. The proposed method is first applied to the power systems with relatively low penetration of renewable generation sources. The proposed MPC-based optimization method is then extended to the case, where a high penetration of renewable sources is expected. In the latter case, instead of considering power generated from renewable sources as a negative load (non-dispatchable), the system operator (SO) takes these sources into account as dispatchable in solving the scheduling problem. Various constraints pertinent to power systems including transmission congestion and generators’ capacity are also considered in the optimization process. Consequently, we will show that the use of storage devices will be an effective way to reduce the cost of generation in the future generation of power systems. The effectiveness of the proposed power scheduling methods will be demonstrated using an IEEE 14-bus system combined with the California ISO data.
Ali Hooshmand, Javad Mohammadpour, Heidar Malk, Hossein Danesh

Two-Phase Heat Transfer Modeling in Subsea Pipelines

Rising global energy demand has led to new operational challenges in unfamiliar environments, with higher temperature gradients. The challenges directly address safety, environmental and economic issues. Due to the low subsea temperatures and relatively higher petroleum fluid temperature in deep water pipelines, convectional heat losses occur from the petroleum fluids to the surroundings. This heat transfer is necessary to be considered, to ensure the proper flow of petroleum fluids. While conventional equivalent heat transfer models are easier to compute, they are not accurate enough to reflect the changes that would occur within a fluid due to different multiphase flow regimes and proportions. The objective of this paper is to develop a low dimensional and low computational equivalent thermal model of subsea fluids, which can predict two-phase fluid temperatures along insulated subsea pipelines. The developed heat transfer model combines the application of two-phase heat transfer coefficient model with fluid properties obtained from a low dimensional fluid model developed by our group. The presented model shows the effect of heat transfer in subsea pipelines for two-phase fluids for normal operating and shut-down conditions. This model, when compared with industry standard software, showed that results were obtained with similar accuracy with approximately 1000 times less computational time.
Reza Tafreshi, Zurwa Khan, Matthew Franchek, Karolos Grigoriadis


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