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This book describes the importance of integration and clustering in creating sustainable economic growth. Modern economic conditions demonstrate the need for governmental stimulation of cluster initiatives in entrepreneurship, and make it necessary to study the experience of developed countries in the sphere of stimulation of cluster initiatives in entrepreneurship, and to offer recommendations for improving the system of state stimulation of these initiatives. The authors conclude that at present, innovational economy is an economic system that functions on the basis of business networks, as this model offers innovational cooperation between specialists from various scientific and technical spheres, between organizations of various sizes (large, medium, and small), and between groups of various types of companies. Cluster strategy in modern global practice is one of the most important tools of public policy for increasing the competitiveness of national economies. This means that the most competitive spheres develop on the basis of the cluster principle, and support for cluster building increases a country’s economic competitiveness.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Building Cluster Initiatives as a Factor of Competitiveness of Modern Enterprises

Frontmatter

Contradiction of Clusters Taxation in Russia: Taxes as Barriers and Stimuli for Clustering

The purpose of the article is to study the role of taxation in the process of clustering of modern Russian economy. Methodological basis of the research consists of methods of induction, deduction, synthesis, problem and systemic analysis, modeling, and forecasting. The work also uses the method of scenario analysis for determination of the perspectives of development of the process of clustering in Russia depending on the fiscal policy. During the research, the authors determine sense and specifics of taxation of clusters in Russia, analyze tax barriers of development of the process of clustering of modern Russian economy, and study problems and perspectives of tax stimulation of clustering in Russia. As a result of the research, the authors come to the conclusion that taxes play a contradictory role in the process of clustering of economy of modern Russia, being barriers and stimuli for creation and development of clusters at the same time. Based on complex analysis of situation in modern Russia, possible scenarios are offered for clustering of Russian economy, depending of state fiscal policy.

Maria A. Troyanskaya, Yulia G. Tyurina

Using Project-Based Approach in Public-Private Partnership with Participation of Corporate Holding Structures

Integration processes in economy lead to changes in the model of interaction between state and private business, especially with participation of corporate holding structures in partnership relations. The article studies peculiarities of the use of project-based approach with participation of corporate holding structures in public-private partnership. The role of state influence on participants of partnership relations is described. The necessity for the formation of unified control center during realization of project activities within public-private partnership is substantiated. The model of division of functional responsibilities during cooperation between this center and the state is formed.

Yulia Veis

Effective HR Management as the Most Important Condition of Successful Business Administration

The purpose of the article is to determine perspectives of increase of effectiveness of business administration of modern enterprises by means of improvement of the process of HR management. In order to verify the offered hypothesis, the work uses the methods of factor analysis and methods of correlations and regression analysis. With these methods, the authors determine the contribution of HR management into success of business administration. The authors determine the most important indicators of success of business administration, describe the contribution of HR management into achievement of its effectiveness, and offer the authors’ recommendations for increase of effectiveness of HR management of the studied enterprise. As a result of the research, it was found that effective HR management is the most important condition for successful business administration. That’s why during the process of business administration of modern enterprise, it is necessary to pay special attention to issues related to HR management. Perspectives of increase of effectiveness of business administration of modern enterprises by means of improvement of the process of HR management are connected to growth of the role of personal aspect of human capital.

Iakov I. Kayl, Elena V. Zudina, Veronika S. Epinina, Yulia S. Bakhracheva, Vasiliy V. Velikanov

Marketing Strategies of Cluster Development in Retailing Sector

The purpose of the article is to verify the hypothesis and develop recommendations for selection and performance of marketing strategies of cluster development in retailing sector. As a method of verification of the offered hypothesis, this work uses the method of comparative analysis, with the help of which the authors compare activities of a particular enterprise and cluster in retailing sector and substantiate the necessity for the cluster using its own approach to selection of marketing strategy. The authors substantiate the necessity for use of various marketing strategies of development of separate enterprise and cluster entity in retailing sector, study specifics of marketing activities of cluster in retailing sector, compile recommendations for selection and performance of marketing strategies of cluster development in retailing sector, and develop the matrix of marketing strategies of cluster development in retailing sector.

Viktoria N. Ostrovskaya, Vyacheslav Y. Lapshin, Larisa V. Ponomareva, Timofey Yurchenko

Place and Role of Budgeting in the System of Methods of Managerial Accounting of Cluster Contractual Relationship

The purpose of the article is to determine the place and role of budgeting in the system of methods of managerial accounting of contractual relationship of cluster. The research was conducted within the concept of institutional economy, concept of enterprise management, concept of financial management, and concept of clustering of economy. This determined the choice and use of the methodology of the research, based on the method of institutional, financial, problem, systemic, and structural & functional analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, formalization, and modeling of economic systems. The authors determined the specifics of management of contractual relationship of cluster, analyzed the system of methods of managerial accounting of contractual relationship of cluster, and determined problems and perspectives and developed recommendations for development of budgeting as a ley method of managerial accounting of contractual relationship of cluster. As a result, the authors came to the conclusion that budgeting occupies the central place and performs the key role in the system of methods of managerial accounting of contractual relationship of cluster.

Gulfira M. Duysenbieva, Nizami A. Yusufov, Rasim A. Radzhabov, Kamil A. Umalatov

Role of Clusters in Promotion of Region’s Economic Competitiveness

The article shows the background of the implementation of cluster policy, the problem of creating cluster structures, and their role in improving the competitiveness and efficiency of the regional economy. The basic characteristics in a meaningful definition of a cluster are determined. The mechanisms of forming industrial clusters in the Voronezh region are discussed. The analysis of the main results of implementation of cluster policy in the region demonstrates the competitiveness of the regional economy and its innovative orientation.

Irina V. Cheremushkina, Olga V. Oseneva, Olga N. Ozherelyeva

Clustering as a Growth Point of Modern Russian Business

The article is devoted to the role of clustering in the development of modern Russian business. The authors analyze the dynamics of main parameters of development of small and medium business in modern Russia and reveal the problems and perspectives of development of business. The authors offer and prove the hypothesis that clustering is a growth point of modern Russian business.

Elena G. Popkova, Yulia G. Tyurina, Anastasia A. Sozinova, Larisa V. Bychkova, Olga M. Zemskova, Maria F. Serebryakova, Natalia V. Lazareva

Perspectives of Use of Competence-Based Approach to Management in Educational Services Market

The purpose of the article is the study of perspectives of use of competence-based approach to management in the market of educational services. In order to evaluate advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches to management, the method of comparative analysis is used. In order to determine peculiarities and problems of management in the market of educational services, the method of problem analysis is used. In order to describe and determine internal logics of the process of management in the market of educational services and determine perspectives of its development as a result of using the competence-based approach, the method of logical modeling is used. Also, the work uses general methods of scientific research: induction, deduction, synthesis, formalization, etc. As a result of the research, the author develops the model of the process of management of human resources in the market of educational services and determines logical succession of the process of management in the market of educational services as a result of use of competence-based approach. As a result, the author concludes that competence-based approach is a perspective approach to management in the market of educational services, as it allows overcoming the drawbacks of existing approaches to management and possesses significant advantages. By the example of modern Russia, the author proves that this approach can be applied to HR management and management of the quality of educational services, which makes it universal and highly effective approach to management in the market of educational services.

Irina V. Reikhanova

Marketing Aspects of Cluster Management in Retailing Sector

The article is devoted to study of marketing aspects of cluster management in retailing sector. The study was performed within the concept of marketing, concept enterprise management, concept of entrepreneurial activities, and concept of clustering of economy and contributes into their development. The author studied statistics and determined the role of clusters in retail business in development of economy of modern Russia, substantiated the importance of marketing component in provision of successful cluster management in retail business, and developed the “marketing mix” model for management of clusters in retail business. As a result of the research, it is possible to conclude that marketing aspects play a very important role in provision of competitiveness of cluster in retail business under the conditions of globalization and integration; the author offers recommendations for maximization of effectiveness of use of marketing instrumentarium of cluster management in retail business.

Vladislav I. Ostrovskiy, Maria A. Troyanskaya, Svetlana V. Shustova, Raisa A. Shchinova

History of Views on Audit of Commercial Structures Management Quality

The article studies the views on the problem of audit, economic control, and revision. Comparative characteristics are performed. Audit is viewed from the point of view of criteria as an independent competent study of an economic subject. Information base is studied from the point of view of organizational & legal, tax, financial & analytical, and reserve regulation according to the set criteria and standards.During the research, the authors used the international standards of audit of the ISO series, defining audit as a documented process of obtaining the proofs of audit and their objective evaluation for the purpose of establishment of the level of execution of coordinated criteria of audit.It is established that audit is an independent verification of authenticity of financial accounting and economic subject accounting, performed by external auditor and internal competent employee on the basis of observation of existing provisions and standards.Besides, a reason for negative phenomena in organizations is inadequate system of management, which characterizes instability and uncertainty of managerial decisions. Thus, quality of development and organization of management process determines the work of the organization on the whole and its structural departments in particular. Based on this, the authors set limits and peculiarities of management quality.One of the forms of management control is internal audit. The sense of audit of organization’s management control is defined as a process of study and evaluation of authenticity of data of financial accounting and other financial information that characterizes financial and economic activities of organization. It is emphasized that goals of revision, internal and external general audit, internal and external audit of management quality are determined by organization’s management. However, during conduct of external general audit, the tasks are determined not only by organization’s management but by the law as well (in case of mandatory audit). Besides, during revision, performed by revision commissions formed by the above organization, the goals are determined not by the management of inspected organization but by the above organization.

M. A. Volkova, E. D. Solomatina, N. V. Shabutskaya, T. V. Sabetova, E. A. Shubina

Approaches to Organization of Project Management in Russia

Dynamic transformation of external environment and necessity for adequate correction of approaches to management led to necessity for implementation of project management at micro-, meso-, and macro-levels. The article views reasons leading to usage of this technology and sense and mechanism of project management, in view of the Russian realia. The given mechanism of project mechanism includes the subject and object of management, as well as mandatory components for its effective realization (normative and legal base, laws and principles, goals and tasks, functions, processes, methodology, structure, and forms).

Innara Lyapina, Olesya Stroeva, Maria Vlasova, Oksana Konobeeva, Elena Konobeeva

Corporate Culture of Commercial Organization as an Effective Management Tool

Corporate culture of organization is an effective management tool and its evaluation allows determining advantages and disadvantages of relations in the workplace, responding to a problem situation, and developing recommendations on its further development and improvement.

Marianna Santalova, Dmitry Zemlyakov, Elvira Lesnikova, Irina Fatyanova

Provision of Economic Security by Means of Creation of Innovational Network of Transnational Cluster Initiatives

Frontmatter

Transnational Cluster Initiatives in Business as a Top-Priority Direction of Maximization of Economic Growth in Asian Countries

Research Objectives: The purpose of the article is to determine perspectives of maximization of economic growth in Asian countries. The hypothesis of the research consists in supposition that transnational cluster initiatives are a top-priority direction of maximization of economic growth in Asian countries.Methodologies: Methodology of the research includes the method of problem and systemic analysis and the method of economic modeling and forecasting.Preliminary Findings: The key conclusion of the research is substantiation of the offered hypothesis and of the fact that transnational cluster initiatives in business are a top-priority direction of maximization of economic growth in Asian countries.Potential Contributions to the Literature: The value of the performed research for science and practice consists in a possibility for using the authors’ recommendations for realization and development of transnational cluster initiatives in business of Asian countries for maximization of their economic growth.

Irina A. Morozova, Tatiana N. Litvinova, Alexandra V. Sycheva

Modeling of Eco-Economic Security With the Use of Tax Instrumentarium

The article deals with analysis of a range of indicators which characterize eco-economic state of Volgograd region. It is established that the state of surrounding environment has passed from the list of exogenous parameters for economic system to the list of intra-economic characteristics, which changes the structure and character of methods of analysis and evaluation of influence of pollution on the environment. Analysis of instrumentarium of eco-economic regulation for the purpose of improvement of tax mechanisms for provision of ecological security is performed. Analysis of existing system of ecological taxes and payments is Russia is performed, and some directions for improvement of taxation in Russian ecological sphere are offered.

Natalya N. Skiter

Formation of the System of Clustering as a Means of Perspective Development of Innovational Infrastructure of Region

The leading economies of the world entered the post-industrial stage of development, characterized by the dominating role of knowledge and information as production factors. The use of these resources in the process of creation of economic goods is performed through innovative activities. Its effectiveness determined competitiveness at all economic levels. The most perspective tool of realization of innovative activities in the modern conditions is clusters. Cluster may be characterized as a geographical proximate group of interconnected organizations (companies, universities, banks, etc.), suppliers of products, components, and specialized services, and infrastructure; R&D institutes; universities and other organizations. Clustering ensures vertical integration of enterprises and, as a consequence, growth of their competitiveness. Development of clusters is especially important in agro-industrial complex, as it ensures realization of modern approach to food security, which supposes security of food products at all stages of its manufacture, realization, and consumption.

Nadezhda A. Serebryakova, Natalya V. Dorokhova, Mikhail I. Isaenko

Concept of Innovational Development of Entrepreneurial Potential of Small Enterprises

The purpose of the article is to develop a concept of innovational development of entrepreneurial potential of small enterprises. The authors offer a proprietary methodology of evaluation of entrepreneurial potential of small enterprises which allows determining its structure that includes consumer, investment, social, and contractor potential. The authors define the notion and sense of entrepreneurial potential as an economic category, determine specifics of entrepreneurial activities of small enterprises, develop conceptual foundations of formation of innovational development of entrepreneurial potential of small enterprises, and prepare a map of competences of modern entrepreneur in the sphere of small business. As a result, the authors come to the conclusion that specifics of small enterprise determine a key role of entrepreneur in formation of entrepreneurial potential. That’s why the level of its realization depends on effectiveness of entrepreneur’s activities, which emphasizes the necessity for the use of the offered competence-based approach.

Chatkalbai K. Raymbaev, Chynara Кulueva, Aidarbek Giyazov, Boris A. Bezrukov, Tatyana L. Bezrukova

Problems and High-Priority Directions of Realization of Innovational Strategy of Development of Fuel and Energy Complex Enterprises

The purpose of the article is to study the problems and to determine high-priority directions of realization of innovational strategy for development of enterprises of fuel and energy complex by the example of modern Russia. The research methodology is based of systemic and problem analysis and the method of SWOT-analysis. The authors determine specifics of functioning of enterprises of fuel and energy complex and their role in economy of modern Russia and substantiate the necessity for modernization of enterprises of fuel and energy complex of modern Russia. The authors determine the main problems and perspectives and develop recommendations for realization of innovational strategy of development of enterprises of fuel and energy complex of modern Russia.

Lilia V. Ermolina, Larisa A. Ilyina

Biotech Cluster as a Criterion of Food Security Formation

The article deals with the issues of innovative development of national economy through the implementation of cluster policy. It considers the importance of federal programs as the mechanism of the formation of favorable conditions for cluster development and studies consumer preferences, indicating a focus on consumption of safe, fresh, and high-quality products. The authors show the value of innovative developments for improving food security in the country.

Irina V. Cheremushkina, Andrey N. Ryazanov, Aleksandr A. Samokhvalov

Education as the National Safety Element in the Globalizing World

Interconnection between education and national safety system is analyzed. Modern tendencies of globalization help the world to become more and more integral and interdependent because of objective integration processes.Under globalization processes, the influence of the problem of interdependence between national education system efficiency and safety condition of the country is becoming more and more important. Now the aim of the countries is to provide competitive advantages on the international scene. The state of educational system and its potential plays the main role in this regard.Government safety is provided by all the means and resources which the government has. But amid them human resources occupy a special place. The role of education in national safety system is important as sustained development and support for possibilities of intelligent, economic, and industrial facilities on a high level, which is necessary to realize reliable satisfaction of requirements during the time of peace and war.

Tatiana N. Shestakova, Liudmila M. Sukhorukova, Maksim V. Ivchenko, Nikolay I. Fokin

Formation of Creative Approach to Economic Activities as One of the Goals of Professional Training of Future Economists

The purpose of the article is substantiation of necessity for development of foundations of creative approach to future practical activities with future economists. This purpose can be achieved with the help of methods of theoretical analysis of scientific literature on the problems of pedagogical creativity, training of graduates, generalization of leading experience of teachers which use the development of creative approach with the students of various specialties, psychological and pedagogical analysis of creative direction of economists’ training, and development of theoretical model of the process of training the readiness for realization of creative approach to economic activities. The main results of the research are creation of classification of economists on the basis of use of creative approach in professional activities and building a model of a graduate of economic department of university, in which the structure of graduate’s personality is presented on the basis of modern ideas of integrity, versatility, and harmony. As a result of research, the authors come to conclusion that creativity is not a separate part of economic labor but its most significant and necessary characteristics. Stimulating with students-economists such types of activities as studying, R&D work, and practical work during studying, the basis of creative approach to future economic activities of to-be specialists is determined. In their concentrated form, the foundations of creative approach of students to solution of various economic tasks and their creative potential are stimulated in R&D work.

Margarita S. Irizepova

Marketing Instrumentarium of Provision of Food Security

The purpose of the article is to develop marketing instrumentarium of provision of food security. The work uses the proprietary marketing methodology of evaluation of food security which allows determining sustainability of economy to changes in the internal and global food markets. The authors evaluate the level of food security of modern Russia with the help of the developed methodology and develop marketing model for provision of food security. As the result of the research, the authors come to the conclusion that perspectives of provision of food security under the modern economic conditions are related to the use of corresponding marketing instrumentarium. Benchmarking and branding are offered as perspective tools.

Z. Kozenko, Y. Kozenko, K. Kozenko, N. Ivanova, I. Shmyreva

Innovational Approach to Management of Human Resources of Cluster Entity

The purpose of the article is to develop an innovational approach to management of human resources of a cluster entity, characterized by high effectiveness. For this, the work uses specially developed proprietary method of evaluation of effectiveness of management of human resources of a cluster entity. The authors of the research offer an innovational approach to management of human resources of a cluster entity, which supposes combination of efforts for management of human resources and performance of such management at the level of cluster entity, not of each separate member. In the process of the research, the authors conduct comparative analysis of traditional and innovational approaches to management of human resources of cluster entity and prove that traditional approach to management of human resources has low effectiveness in terms of cluster entity, which causes necessity for transition of modern clusters to usage of the offered innovational approach. In order to achieve maximal effectiveness of management of human resources of cluster entity, the authors offer the corresponding recommendations.

Iakov I. Kayl, Elena V. Zudina, Vasiliy V. Velikanov, Yulia V. Gaponenko, Vladimir A. Morozov

Young Specialists Labor Market in Modern Russia: Analysis, Problems, and Perspectives

The article is devoted to problems and perspectives of labor market of young specialists and graduates of Russian higher educational establishments. The purpose of the article is to determine the role of higher education in formation of labor resources of the country and its qualitative characteristics, and, as a result—in demand in labor market. The purpose is reached with the help of the following tasks: qualitative analysis of youth labor market, determination of problems of this market, and development of mechanism of formation of civilized market of young specialists in Russia. The authors analyze programs and informational systems of various levels which allow adapting to post graduate life. Opinions of graduates and employers are viewed. Statistics for 2006–2014 is provided. In order to determine the need for highly qualified specialists in the labor market, a sociological research on the topic “Specifics of employment of university graduates” was conducted. The research had the form of questionnaire survey. The research was conducted among students of Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg, as well as the Central, Volga, Siberian, Ural, Far Eastern, and Southern Federal Districts. Analysis of results showed that according to universities, the employing companies’ need for graduated did not change over recent years. Surely, there are certain positive changes, but they are not significant. A key conclusion of the conducted research is the proof that crisis in labor market significantly changes the structure of various employers’ demand for graduates.

N. N. Skiter, I. N. Sherer, E. I. Metelkova

Effectiveness of State Management and Economic Growth in the Context of Global Integration and Clustering

Frontmatter

The Substance of a Rational Approach to Entrepreneurship Socio-Economic Development

Making managerial decisions is the most difficult stage within entrepreneurial systems. The research authors suggest the resource-factorial approach, based on the human, technical-technological, natural, institutional, organizational and informational resources differentiation as the research methodic fundament. Cognitive modeling is applied to investigate the way the resources influence each other in the course of production. The authors make up a cognitive map, which is a scheme of cause-effect relations, defining the way the resources influence each other in the course of production. The authors suggest an algorithm for determining the figures, indicating how the resources influence each other. The article suggests an overview of how each separate resource influences the others and a method of regulating the share of the resources’ influence indicators, which is also applied in engineering forecasting. In conclusion, the authors define the substance of a business’s managerial decision, expressed in the order the resources are developed in the course of production.

Sergey A. Korobov, Viktor O. Moseiko, Elena Y. Marusinina, Ekaterina G. Novoseltseva, Veronika S. Epinina

Integration of Social and Innovative Activities into Industrial Organization

The article studies the typology of models of socially oriented innovative companies (SOIC), reflecting their integrated diversity, based on the use of criterion for the classification of “the level of integration between the programs of social, innovative, and business activities of an industrial organization”.Socio-oriented enterprises were classified by the level of integration between the programs of social, innovative, and business activities, affecting the selection of a specific business model of doing business innovation. Three basic models of socially oriented innovative enterprises were determined: (1) built-in; (2) integrated; (3) external SOIC model.Economic and mathematical modeling of socially oriented innovative companies using standardized innovative and social matrices allows selecting SOIC that is the most productive model from the point of view of sustainable development of industrial enterprises under the conditions of integration of social and innovative activities.

Valentina N. Parakhina, Olga A. Boris, Pavel N. Timoshenko

Using Economic and Mathematical Methods During Formation of Construction Cluster

The article deals with the notion “economic cluster” and views the necessity for creation of clusters in construction industry. The author offers a hypothesis that cluster enables effective information exchange between its members, formation of integrated legal and financial environment, and development and promotion of single commercial strategy. As a result of the research, the author distinguished peculiarities, goals, and principles of formation of construction clusters which operate in the subjects of the RF. Special attention is paid to expediency of application of economic and mathematical methods during formation of a construction cluster. As a result of the research, the author shows that formation of a construction cluster is a possibility to increase the level of manageability of construction complex and effectiveness of interaction of economic subjects with the perspective of transition to innovational path of development, and strengthening of financial and economic situation in the region on the basis of application of economic and mathematical methods.

Elena A. Gladkaya, Elena N. Egorova, Elina R. Torsunova

Support for Cluster Initiatives in View of Development of Innovational Economy: Regarding the Issue of Legal Regulation at the Level of Subjects of the Russian Federation

Detailed study of the global tendencies of state economy’s transition to innovational type of development allows making a conclusion about active popularization of the phenomenon of economic clustering over the recent 15 years. Unification into clusters of small and medium enterprises has to become a decisive direction of realization of the strategies of perfection of particular spheres, which pre-determines priority of development of foundations of cluster theory as applied to territorial organization of production. Experience of the developed countries points at active application of cluster approach which has been used within study of the problems of competitiveness, in the process of development and realization of strategies and programs of development, and for the purposes of optimization of interaction of various subjects of large and smack business. The same path was chosen by the Russian Federation. The Russian Government has taken a serious task of transformation of the structure of small business through increase of the share of small enterprises involved in the sphere of processing industry on the basis of sub-contracts with large enterprises. It is a serious reason for activation of cluster policy and scientific study of the issues of state and other actors’ conducting the cluster development of territories. It is also a significant foundation for realization of attempts for determination of existing gaps in its regulation in normative and legal vector.

Irina M. Kuzlaeva, Maria A. Troyanskaya, Ulyana A. Pozdnyakova, Evgeniy Y. Malikov, Lyudmila Y. Mkhitaryan, Natalya A. Volkova

Methodology of Complex Evaluation of Eco-Economic Effectiveness of Agricultural Clusters

Aggravation of ecological problems in agriculture leads to necessity for formation of a new scientific approach to evaluation of eco-economic effectiveness of the use of agricultural lands and formation of irrigated agriculture clusters. Insufficiently systemic approach to consideration of a large number of ecological risk factors during formation and development of agricultural clusters leads to economic problems—primarily, due to reduction of soil fertility.Solving the issue of systematization of the above characteristics allows describing any complex eco-economic system, including the complex of ameliorative measures. Therefore, the paper offers the methodology of unified evaluation complex for assessment of investment projects related to amelioration.Possibility of integration into a unified model of key indicators of the project, reflected in the form of quantitative evaluations that characterize the project at a certain moment allows realizing the task of building a systemic interconnection of quantity and quality of conducted ameliorative measures and evaluation of expenses for them. The developed graphical model of a unified evaluation complex allows for qualitative assessment of economic effectiveness of the project and the volume of expense for creation of the project on the whole and of its specific elements.

Yuri A. Kozenko, Konstantin Y. Kozenko, Yulia S. Rogoleva, Svetlana V. Zemlyanitsina

Political Existence of the System of Social Space-Time

Politics is interpreted as an activity that regulates social time and space (STS), and the peculiarities of the mechanisms and processes of STS are considered in the general context of society’s civilizational and political history.In this aspect, every epoch is characterized not only by its own “design” of STS and the range of political chronotopes, but also by the peculiarities of their forming and the peculiarities of social identity. It should be mentioned that in pre-industrial societies the structure of STS, the range of political chronotopes and their geopolitical hierarchy are determined primarily by natural-geographical factor (population and territory size, resource potential). In industrial society, it is determined by the level of technological development. In modern world, the specificity of social time and space is determined primarily by the variety of person’s identities of political and cultural self-identification and by the scale and level of involvement of “the virtual” in society’s social and political objective reality. In this context, projective and virtual transformative individual and social minorities’ activity become the dominant process of forming STS and regulating political objective reality.

Elvira R. Gatiatullina, Elena I. Polyakova, Alina N. Khasanova

Wind Rose as One of the Main Factors of Apartment Buying Decision

The article analyzes the data on wind directions in the city of Volgograd for 1998–2014. As a result of statistical analysis, we found the disparity between empirical data and the data obtained from the set of rules of building climatology. According to the set of rules, the predominant wind direction in Volgograd is west wind, and according to our data—east wind. As the study showed, many citizens of Volgograd consider the issue of wind direction not to be the one that should be taken into account when buying an apartment. However, it should be known that lack of data on predominant wind direction might lead to the purchase of apartment which would have less comfort than apartment which is less influenced by wind, especially winter wind. Based on longstanding meteorological data, we have built a general wind rose for Volgograd which can be used by anyone who plans to buy the real estate property. This is necessary, as many developers neglect the influence of the wind rose on residential houses and focus on location of the house on the property.

Mikhail К. Starovoytov, Elena G. Popkova, Elena A. Gladkaya

Conceptual Aspects of Tax System Development in Cyclic Economy

The objective of the research is study of the transition points of the tax system in order to define its further development. The paper envisages the tax system development regularity as a dynamic system within various forms of economies.The methods of dialectics were applied in this article such as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis as well as logic approach to noesis. Theoretic and methodological basis consists of fundamental works in the catastrophic theory, mathematic simulation, and self-organizing system theory represented in the works of Russian and foreign scientists.Different variants of phase transition from one economic system to another are defined within the present research. The features of each system phase transition within the acknowledged chronology are considered. The key impelling factors for each period are found. The probable development vector of the tax system after the finance crisis in 2018–2020 is determined.The altered economic conditions will require the formation of completely new tax system where the main taxable items will include labor, financial capital and land. The phase transition will presumably last for several decades and will induce high levels of social, politic, and economic instability in the world. The formation transition takes place under the influence of external factors and only at the precise moment when the previous formation has created the necessary conditions for that transition to the next formation.

Tatiana L. Bezrukova, Larisa V. Bryantseva, Valery L. Pozdeev, Irina V. Orobinskaya, Anton G. Kazmin, Boris A. Bezrukov

Economic Aspects of Application of Biotechnologies During Creation of Forest Plantations

The article views economic possibilities for creation of forest plantations on the territory of forest fund and areas taken from agricultural turnover. With the help of survey among the managers of enterprises that work in the sphere of forestry, evaluation of risk and income during creation and exploitation of forest plantations was performed. It was established that the age of cutting (or turnover) of forest plantations, together with assortment and agricultural technique of growing, influences significantly the entrepreneurial revenues and risks. Forest plantations with minimal turnover of cutting are the most risky and unprofitable. A criterion of entrepreneurial certainty in effectiveness of creation of forest plantations is combination of acceptable level of revenues with acceptable risk. It is proved that significant factors for development of entrepreneurship in this sphere are measures for support and tax subsidies. A large part of entrepreneurs that work in the forestry sphere of the central part of Russia are not sure in effectiveness of plantation forestry, as these activities are related to risk and uncertainty in receipt of the final result, due to long time intervals of growing plantation trees. The economically expedient plantation forestry is based on combination of two conditions—turnover of cutting for the criterion of maximum of receipt of the targeted assortments and price for assortments that is sufficient for compensation of production costs which appear in the process of cutting. A large contribution into reduction of the turnover of cutting and, as a consequence, reduction of production costs could be done by biotechnologies. It is determined that with the use of biotechnologies, the cost of creation of forest plantations grow significantly. That’s why entrepreneurial structures are not interested in creation of plantations. This task could be solved in the sphere of development and establishment of the State program of support for development of agricultural forestry and plantation forest breeding. The program should envisage economic mechanisms of stimulation of development of plantation forest breeding.

S. S. Morkovina, I. V. Sibiryatkina, A. V. Ivanova

Methodological Approaches to Measurement of Sustainable Development of Industrial Enterprises Under the Conditions of Integration and Clustering

Frontmatter

Educational Clusters as a Factor of Development of Educational Services Market in Region

The purpose of the article is study of educational clusters as a factor of development of educational services market in the region. The methodology of this research is based on the method of economic and mathematical modeling of the state and development of socio-economic systems and method of factor analysis, with the help of which a model of educational services market in the region is built and influence of various factors on it is determined. The authors determine the sense and specifics of educational clusters, compile economic & mathematical model of development of educational services market in the region, determine main factors of development of educational services market in the region, define the roe of educational clusters in development of educational services market in the region, determine perspectives of their development, and compile corresponding authors’ recommendations. As a result of the research, the authors come to the conclusion that under the conditions of global competition, clustering is an important source of competitive advantages of educational establishments in the region. Ignoring the possibilities and perspectives of creation of educational clusters could be a serious threat to development of educational services market in the regions of Russia, especially under the condition of absence of other factors of development of this market.

Irina A. Morozova, Mikhail N. Mysin, Sergey A. Gryaznov, Stanislav S. Yatsechko

Development of Entrepreneurial Component and a Factor of Increase of Effectiveness of Cluster Structures Management

The article is devoted to study of perspectives of increase of effectiveness of cluster structures management by means of development of entrepreneurial component. For determination of the level of effectiveness of cluster structures management, the work uses the method of structural and logical modeling and builds a model for determination of effectiveness cluster structures management with the help of economic and mathematical instrumentarium. In the process of the research, the authors determine peculiarities of cluster structures management, determine factors of effectiveness of cluster structures management, outline perspectives of increase of effectiveness of cluster structures management by means of development of entrepreneurial component, and offer recommendations for development of entrepreneurial component of cluster structures management. The performed analysis showed that development of entrepreneurial component positively influences all factors of effectiveness of cluster structures management. Therefore, effectiveness of cluster structures management could be increased by means of maximization of use the market mechanism and organization of self-management of clusters. This is done by means of development of entrepreneurial components in the process of cluster structures management.

Irina A. Morozova, Mikhail N. Mysin, Sergey A. Gryaznov, Stanislav S. Yatsechko

Two-Level Economic and Mathematical Model of Monotown Development on the Basis of Cognitive Maps

The article deals with theoretical and methodological approaches to economic and mathematical modeling of development of medium cities and monotowns which take into account their peculiarities at the modern stage of development, including distribution of labor resources and investment flows. Expediency of two-level modeling on the basis of cognitive approach is substantiated, which includes compilation of cognitive maps that allow accounting and determining complex factors of connection between them, peculiar for the modeled cities.

Aleksey F. Rogachev

Rational Environmental Management: The Platform for Integration and Optimization of Resources

The article is devoted to questions of optimization of resource management, namely, the management of the city authorities. The article gives a definition to a city as a cluster, as an integrated expression of the predicted productivity of efforts of the city authorities indicators of a development of the city, satisfaction of its inhabitants have to act with work and life. Also, the paper provides materials of calculation of an index of development of industrially developed average cities. Approaches to strategic planning in the cities are defined. It is proved that ensuring dynamic balance and positive dynamics in development of social, ecological, and economic systems of the cities can be based on the principles of foresight-management. Authors offer the concept of the green cities as the most perspective concept in the twenty-first century. The question of development in the city of a specialized cluster of green construction is considered.

Mikhail K. Starovoytov, Lyudmila N. Medvedeva, Konstantin Y. Kozenko, Yana M. Starovoytova, Gennady I. Lukyanov, Mikhail A. Timoshenko

Green Technologies: The Basis for Integration and Clustering of Subjects at the Regional Level of Economy

The authors consider the green technology as a platform to bring together the interests of business structures to expand business boundaries and improve the quality of life of the population. Development in the South Russian regions and cluster seed is not only a way to food security, but to the landscape gardening of cities and rural settlements. The use in landscaping cities of the matrices of Pete Oudolfa will bring the unique plants growing in the natural park of nature reserves in the region to urban human habitat. Knowledge and compliance with environmental laws should help mankind realize the need to search for and transition to a new stage of development of the world economy—“economy of ecology”. The emergence of the concept of ecological settlements “after oil green city” (Post Carbon Cities), “bio-positive sustainable settlement” (AN Tetior) eco-polis (D. Kavtardze), and green city based on industrialized medium-sized cities (L.N. Medvedeva) will provide an understanding of how life is seen in cities across the decades. Cluster policy model in regional economic systems will allow a differentiated approach to stimulate the cluster of subjects. The management of “lean technologies” will ensure the effective functioning of the cluster seed and achievement of identified milestones.

Viktor V. Melikhov, Alexey A. Novikov, Lyudmila N. Medvedeva, Olga P. Komarova

Effectiveness of State Territorial Administration in Provision of Sustainable Economic Growth of the Region

Under the conditions of overcoming the post-crisis recession and need of modernization of national economic system, the efficiency of the sphere of public administration should be considered as a significant factor of socio-economic development of territories. Increase of productivity of the system of public administration at the regional level requires introduction of new elements of the transactional mechanism of executive authorities’ activities with simultaneous monitoring of its efficiency by means of modern information methods. This article introduces an approach allowing creating an assessment of the efficiency of territorial governance which includes the same system of indicators for all the regions and highly correlates with the main socio-economic development indicators of a region. The authors use the method of the canonical correlation analysis that allows revealing analytical expression of correlation between indicators of socio-economic development and efficiency of regional executive authorities’ performance.

Elena Petrova, Andrey Shevandrin, Vera Kalinina

Economic and Mathematical Modeling During Organization and Conduct of Business Games

The article is devoted to the questions of organizing and performing business games while training the economists in a university. Use of the mathematical apparatus of the game theory is considered the top-priority direction of the achievement of the goal. The definitions of the concepts “modeling”, “mathematical modeling”, “social and economic processes”, “business game”, “virtual model”, and “simulator” are given in the article. The authors of the article perform key stages of mathematical modeling of social and economic phenomenon. The main qualitative characteristics of modeling of social and economic processes and specific recommendations about their application are provided in the scientific work. The main aim of the research is to describe concept of organizing and performing business games, define their elements, relations and interconnections and realize a mathematical model of economic process in the form of specific business game simulator.

Anastasia A. Ermakova

Strategic Management of Clustering Policy During Provision of Sustainable Development

Analysis of the problems of sustainable development of territories shows that one of the main methods for solving is transition to strategic management of the policy of clustering. Strategic management of the policy of clustering is pre-determined mainly by quick changes of external environment and emergence of hardly predictable economic and financial situations. An important precondition of transition to strategic management of the policy of clustering of territories is the process of globalization of the country’s economy, which determines not only the necessity to use the resource potential effectively, but also to create conditions for creation and formation of new competitive advantages. Enterprises and organizations of small business should become their bearers. The Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation until 2020 sets one of the most important conditions for transition to innovational development as “creation of a network of territorial and production clusters which realize competitive potential of territories”. Besides, the Strategy of innovational development of the Russian Federation until 2020 includes into the main goals of innovational policy of regions the transition to principles of innovational cluster policy. Thus, strategic documents of the federal level pay special attention to management of clustering policy through creation of a network of clusters which would allow increasing effectiveness of using competitive potential of territories and providing their sustainable development through development of the network of territorial and production clusters of subjects of small business.

Ulyana A. Pozdnyakova, Elena G. Popkova, Irina M. Kuzlaeva, Olga M. Lisova, Nelli A. Saveleva

Conceptual Features of Management Tools of Enterprise Structures Under the Conditions of Globalization of the World Market

Results of analysis of scientific & methodological and applied works show that up to this time, despite many attempts, it was impossible to determine conceptual peculiarities of instrumentarium of business structures management under the conditions of globalization of the world market. Specialists in the sphere of scientific research of business structures develop various tools of management, but they do not reflect the influence of globalization of the world economy. This process aggravates the problem of competitiveness of business structures and emphasizes concentration and specialization on the most perspective directions of activities. Generally, it is necessary to systematize management tools, study factors which influence formation of demand of final users for product of business activities in the global world market, and analyze the process of formation of assortment of products of business structures which work in the globalizing world and changing external environment. The article shows results of reserch on determination of conceptual peculiarities which play an important role in the instrumentarium of business structures management.It was found that the created algorithm of effectiveness of business structures functioning on the basis of factor of perspective, under the condition of free trade, will allow using optimal complex of managerial practice. With the help of the given examples, expected directions of development of business structures are determined, which will allow quickening the development of business and make it competitive on the basis of coordination of activities of financial, logistic, and other structures.

Tatyana L. Bezrukova, Y. N. Stepanova, Olga A. Boris, Anna V. Savtsova, R. A. Zulpuyev, Boris A. Bezrukov

Measures to Improve the Investment Attractiveness of Enterprises in the Modern Context

The article is devoted to increasing the investment attractiveness of Russian enterprises during the crisis. The authors identified and proved the main directions of the enterprises investment attractiveness improvement, based on the maximum use of all resources available. The introduction of financial and management accounting systems, automation of information flows and fair valuation of companies are specified as the leading procedures. For this purpose, accounting information was precisely analyzed, depending on types of accounting existing in company. The fair valuation of a company was considered in detail as one of the most investor-attracting events. The article identifies peculiarities of fair value and presents the recommendations for the use of fair value standard at the enterprise. It also explains the basic differences between the fair value standard and the market value standard. Then it considers a hierarchy of fair value measurements. Indicators of the fair value measurements are recommended to be determined on the basis of the relevant information, i.e., on input data and recommendations on their use. The article also specifies three levels of the input data reliability to classify by, to estimate more accurate the fair value of assets and liabilities. The proposed activities, according to the authors, would allow investors to receive more complete and accurate information for effective management and investment decision-making.

Svetlana Chernikova, Olga Zvyagina, Yuriy Isakov

Adaptation of Macro-Economic Models to Solving the Problem of Countries Differentiation in Global Economy

The purpose of the article is to verify the offered hypothesis and determine possibilities and perspectives of adaptation of macro-economic models to solving to problem of countries differentiation in the global economy. In this work, the authors use systemic approach, method of problem analysis, formalization, and economic modeling. During conduct of the research, the authors view main approaches and offer a new proprietary approach to classification of countries in the global economy, determine a problem of countries differentiation in the global economy, determine perspectives of solving it, and offer recommendations for solving the problem of countries differentiation in the global economy through adaptation of macro-economic models. As a result of the research, the authors come to the conclusion that the problem of differentiation of countries in the global economy cannot be solved with the help of current methods and tools, which causes necessity for search for new ways for solving it, one of which is adaptation of macro-economic models.

Olga Oreshina, Elena V. Povorina, Marina V. Vinogradova

Problems of Sustainable Development of Depressive Region in Crisis

The purpose of the article is to verify the hypothesis and study the problems of provision of sustainable development of a depressive region under the conditions of crisis by the example of modern Russia. For that, the work uses the method of systemic, comparative, horizontal, trend, and problem analysis. The authors determine and analyze specifics of crisis in depressive regions by the example of Orel, Kostroma, and Pskov Oblasts of Russia in 2008–2015. The authors determine the most important problems related to unstable development of a depressive region under the influence of crisis and develop recommendations and offer a proprietary model for provision of sustainable development of a depressive region under the conditions of crisis. As a result of the research, the authors specify the notion of stability as to depressive region and improve classification of region in the context of their capability to opposing and overcoming the crisis. The authors have come to the conclusion that specifics of crisis in depressive region consists in the fact that unlike other regions, they are not capable to exist independently and overcome consequences of crisis, being in deep recession.

Marzhanat Isalova, Umugani Gadzhieva, Hellas Gereyhanova, Saida Buttaeva, Indira Bogdanova

Improvement of Methods of Analysis of Effectiveness of Stock Management at Industrial Enterprises

The article views methods of analysis of effectiveness of functioning of a stock management system and determines differences in approaches to management of stock of particular departments of industrial enterprises. Various methodologies of stock analysis are studied which are used at present. Main stages of conduct of analysis of effectiveness of stock management are determined. Based on this, analysis of effectiveness of the system of stock management at industrial enterprises is performed (by the example of enterprises of cellulose and paper industry). For the purpose of evaluation of influence of stock management at assets profitability, a three-factor model is offered which allows assessing the influence of effectiveness of stock management on the results of activities of an industrial enterprise on the whole.

Tatiana Tereshkina, Svetlana Tereshchenko, Tatiana Bezrukova, Ekaterina Drevaleva, Olga Pecherskaya

Modeling of Cluster Processes in the Sphere of Manufacture of ECO-Products: Issues of Ecological and Food Security of Russia

The purpose of the article is to model cluster processes in the sphere of manufacture of ECO-products as a perspective direction for ecological and food security of Russia. For that, the work uses the method of horizontal analysis and analysis of causal connections, as well as proprietary method of evaluation of national ecological security, traditional method of evaluation of national food security, and method of modeling of socio-economic processes. The authors determine the level and evaluate dynamics of development of situation in the sphere of ecological and food security of Russia, conduct analysis of current state and problems of development of the sphere of manufacture of ECO-products in Russia and cluster processes in this sphere, and develop cluster model of import-substitution in the sphere of manufacture of ECO-products as a perspective direction of provision of ecological and food security of Russia. As a result, the authors come to the conclusion that modern Russia is characterized by low level of ecological and food security. Its increase requires the usage of cluster instrumentarium. Modeling of cluster processes in the sphere of manufacture of ECO-products showed that clustering allows solving all the main problems of development of this sphere, which pre-determines its high effectiveness.

Natalia N. Skiter, Galina I. Sidunova, Yuriy A. Kozenko

Development Efficiency Analysis of Public Administration Informatization

The article presents the development efficiency analysis in the countries with the Western and Eastern information society development models. The main development factors of public administration informatization are given for the EU, the USA, Japan and South Korea. The Russian Federation informatization is analyzed and the main issues and development directions are defined.

Alla Kalinina, Anna Borisova, Anna Barakova

Formation of a Complex System of Indicators for Evaluation of Smooth Production Flow

The article views the issues of provision of smooth production flow as the most important task of rational organization of a production system. The authors note that evaluation of the level of smoothness of production flow is determined by the system of operative managerial accounting, and solving the task is brought down to formation of indicators system. The key parameters that should be a foundation of the accounting system are labor, natural, cost, and time indicators.

Larisa A. Ilyina, Maksim A. Brazhnikov, Irina V. Khorina

Building a Strategy of Development of Hospitality Industry on the Basis of Improvement of the System of Personnel Training

Topicality of the studied problem is predetermined by the fact that the issue of personnel training is a restraining factor of development of hotel industry. The purpose of the article is to determine directions for improvement of personnel training for hotel industry on the basis of professional standards.Within the scientific work “Formation of organizational and economic mechanism of creation of the national system of professional qualifications in the hospitality industry”, the authors develop the algorithm of the procedure of independent evaluation of professional qualifications. The authors of the article substantiate that creation of national and sectorial systems of professional qualification is a necessary condition of not only improvement of personnel training but of increase of labor efficiency and goods and services’ quality. The results of the research could be used in hospitality industry and in other sectors of economy of Russia and other countries.

Natalia A. Zaitseva, Anna A. Larionova, Marina A. Morozova, Ruslan V. Yakimenko, Irina V. Balitskaya

Complementary Approach to Functioning of Entrepreneurial Structures Under the Conditions of Economic Instability of Region

A precondition for the research was the authors’ idea that methods and tools of sustainable development are the most important methodological foundation for self-regulation of activities of entrepreneurial structures under the conditions of region’ unstable situation, which supposes transition from struggle with prevention of influence of separate negative factors and negative phenomena to complex management of sustainable development of entrepreneurial structures with complementary approach. Necessity for provision of activities of entrepreneurial structures under the conditions of economically unstable situation in the region on the basis of complementary approach determines theoretical and practical topicality of the subject. The authors determine and analyze peculiarities of functioning of entrepreneurial structures with complementary approach, study the sense and peculiarity of commodity markets’ economy, and offer the proprietary classification of conditions and factors of functioning of entrepreneurial structures under the conditions of economic instability of the region with distinguishing political, economy, socio-organizational, and technological factors and conditions. As a result of analysis of influence of various factors, the authors distinguish the most significant ones: development of technological progress, modernization and reconstruction of production, innovations in the process of production, and creation of new type of products. As a result of the research, the authors came to the conclusion that entrepreneurial structures’ subjects’ applying the above classification will lead to general balance which will ensure the state of finished coordination of demand and offer, at various stages of development of the global market (in the short-term and in the log-term).

Yulia N. Stepanova, Irina S. Zinovieva, Yulia V. Busarina

Perspectives of Development of Small Business Within Modernization of Tax and Cluster Policy

The purpose of the work is to study perspectives of development of small business within modernization of tax and cluster policy. For this purpose, the authors use such scientific methods as analysis of time series (horizontal, regression, and correlation), systemic, problem, structural & functional analysis, analysis of causal connections, synthesis, induction, deduction, formalization, etc. The authors determine the role of taxes and clusters in development of small business and analyze dynamics of its development, study the tax aspects of clustering of small business subjects, and develop recommendations for improvement of the system of taxation of small business within economic clusters in modern Russia. The most interesting part of the article is the proprietary model of Russian modernization of tax and cluster policy for improvement of taxation of small business. The results of the conducted research showed that realization of the combined measures within modernization of tax and cluster policy stimulates activation of small business in modern Russia. Development of small business within modernization of tax and cluster policy is based on establishment of a system of tax stimuli in the sphere of clustering of small business.

Irina V. Gashenko, Yulia S. Zima

Economic Growth in Russia: Influence of Oil Shock and Macro-Economic Factors

Topicality of the subject of the research is predetermined by dependence of the rates of modern economic growth in Russia on the situation on the world oil market, sanction policy of the Western countries, and such macro-economic factors as dysfunction financial market, structural shift of economy in favor of raw materials and processing spheres, and insufficient volume of investments into high-tech and social sectors of economy.The article includes results of analysis of dynamics of economic growth, views various groups of factors influencing economic growth of the country, including dynamics of world prices for oil, sanctions against Russia, development and problems of financial institutes, and structure of investments into main capital for the types of economic activities.

Yulia P. Vasileva, Olga I. Shalina, Guzel F. Tokareva, Elvira R. Baykova

Transformation of Ethnocultural Development of Indigenous Peoples in the Conditions of Socialist Modernization of the Far East in 1920–1970s: Problems of Historiography

The paper addresses the historiography of the problem of transformation of ethnocultural development of the indigenous peoples in the conditions of the socialist modernization of the Far East in 1930–1970s. The theses identified the main stages in the development of historical scientific knowledge on the history of minority ethnic groups of the Far East during the study period.This paper was issued with the support of the Russian Federation President’s grant (Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation) for 2016–2017 on the subject: “Regional model of transformation of culture of native minorities in the context of Socialist modernization of the Russian Far East in the latter half of 1930s–1970s” [№ 14.Z56.16.5304-МК.]

Anna V. Akhmetova

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