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This edited book investigates the lack of interoperability in the IoT realm, including innovative research as well as technical solutions to interoperability, integration, and interconnection of heterogeneous IoT systems, at any level. It also explores issues caused by lack of interoperability such as impossibility to plug non-interoperable IoT devices into heterogeneous IoT platforms, impossibility to develop IoT applications exploiting multiple platforms in homogeneous and/or cross domains, slowness of IoT technology introduction at large-scale: discouragement in adopting IoT technology, increase of costs; scarce reusability of technical solutions and difficulty in meeting user satisfaction.



3GPP Evolution on LTE Connectivity for IoT

Nowadays, the maturity of IoT applications, networking technologies and manufacturers of “things” have caused an explosion in the number of connected devices. There are several reports which calculate that the number of connected things will reach 50 billion in the near future. This chapter focuses on the provision of wide area and efficient connectivity to the Internet of Things (IoT), a key factor in such an explosion, through the usage of LTE. LTE MTC (Machine Type Communication), LTE M2M or just LTE-M are the coined terms that refer to this issue. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the standardization efforts carried out by the 3GPP to convert LTE into an IoT capable technology.
Almudena Díaz Zayas, Cesar A. García Pérez, Álvaro M. Recio Pérez, Pedro Merino

Towards Efficient Deployment in Internet of Robotic Things

Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) is a new concept introduced for the first time by ABI Research. Unlike the Internet of Things (IoT), IoRT provides a dynamic actuation and is considered as the new evolution of IoT. This new concept will bring new opportunities and challenges, while providing new business ideas for IoT and robotics’ entrepreneurs. In this work, we will focus particularly on two issues: (i) connectivity maintenance among multiple IoRT robots, and (ii) their collective coverage. We will propose (i) IoT-based, and (ii) a neural network control scheme to efficiently maintain the global connectivity among multiple mobile robots to a desired quality-of-service (QoS) level. The proposed approaches will try to find a trade-off between collective coverage and communication quality. The IoT-based approach is based on the computation of the algebraic connectivity and the use of virtual force algorithm. The neural network controller, in turn, is completely distributed and mimics perfectly the IoT-based approach. Results show that our approaches are efficient, in terms of convergence time, connectivity, and energy consumption.
Cristanel Razafimandimby, Valeria Loscri, Anna Maria Vegni

Transmission Power Control in WSNs: From Deterministic to Cognitive Methods

Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are affected by dynamic environments, variable signal fluctuations and interference. Thus, prompt actions are necessary to achieve dependable communications and meet Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. To this end, the deterministic algorithms used in literature and standards, both centralized and distributed ones, are too slow and prone to cascading failures, instability and sub-optimality. Meanwhile, in recent years, cognitive protocols are gradually being introduced. This chapter provides an overview of the Transmission Power Control (TPC) protocols present in literature, categorized as deterministic (proactive and reactive) and cognitive (Swarm Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic and Reinforcement Learning). Only few solutions have considered TPC based on cognitive approaches, including both energy efficiency and QoS management. Our review identifies key shortcomings in deterministic TPC, pinpointing the benefit of the emerging methods based on computational intelligence.
Michele Chincoli, Antonio Liotta

Devices Can Be Secure and Easy to Install on the Internet of Things

One of the major issues that must be addressed in the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) is balancing the needs of security and reasonable installation and maintenance efforts. Security is crucial, as evidenced by the fact that IoT devices are frequent targets of attack. However, if the security infrastructure is not relatively easy to use, it will ultimately be compromised by users who are unwilling (or insufficiently motivated) to deal with the complexity of ensuring security. This paper describes the industrial deployment experience of the EZConnect™ security infrastructure implemented by BECS Technology, Inc., a firm that provides water chemistry monitoring and control equipment to the aquatics market.
Roger D. Chamberlain, Mike Chambers, Darren Greenwalt, Brett Steinbrueck, Todd Steinbrueck

A Service-Based Approach for the Uniform Access of Wireless Sensor Networks and Custom Application Tasks Running on Sensor Nodes

For reasons of convenience and interoperability, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are typically accessed by remote client applications through well-defined service-oriented interfaces. In addition, significant flexibility can be gained by letting clients install and run custom, application-specific sensing and processing tasks directly on the nodes of the WSN. However, this raises the issue of how clients can interact with such tasks in parallel to the regular access of the WSN. We propose an approach for supporting both information flows simultaneously and in a uniform way, via an open web-based service interface that can be flexibly extended through appropriate XML descriptions which specify the format of the respective message exchanges. This allows clients to perform both the regular interactions with the WSN and the custom interactions with the application tasks that have been deployed on the sensor nodes, using a single and well-established interface technology. Moreover, the WSN gateway can perform the mapping between the client interface protocol and the WSN-level protocol for both regular and custom accesses, by using the same message parsing/conversion engine. The paper presents our design, describes a prototype implementation, discusses an indicative application example, and evaluates the access overhead of our prototype and the benefits of deploying custom sensing tasks in the WSN.
Theodoros Fronimos, Manos Koutsoubelias, Spyros Lalis, Thomas Bartzanas

Towards Semantic Interoperability Between Internet of Things Platforms

Lack of interoperability between Internet of Things (IoT) platforms, systems, and applications is one of serious problems that prevents its even more rapid adoption. As long as individual IoT platforms cannot meaningfully communicate with each other, the vision of a global IoT ecosystem will not be realized. While the problem of IoT interoperability can be considered at different levels, starting from hardware interoperability at the bottom of the stack, we are interested in the semantic interoperability, which can be seen as the meta-level for all interoperability considerations. In other words, the aim of this chapter is to consider how multiple IoT platforms can “understand” each other and have meaningful “conversation”.
Maria Ganzha, Marcin Paprzycki, Wiesław Pawłowski, Paweł Szmeja, Katarzyna Wasielewska

Linked Data for Internet of Everything

The Internet and the World Wide Web have transformed modern life by connecting the real world. With the massive connectivity extension of the Net to a much wider world wide web of the manifold physical objects, we are on the verge of the next evolution of the Internet, so called the Internet of Everything (IoE). However, enabling seamless interoperability is still a biggest challenge towards building the next generation of IoE applications. Believing in Linked Data as a promising solution to address this challenge, we propose the idea of “Linking Everything” by extending Linked Data Principles to interlink “everything” into a hypergraph. Via this book chapter, we present how to make this hypergraph programmable via the emerging Semantic Web technologies.
Danh Le-Phuoc, Manfred Hauswirth

Sensing Enabled Capabilities for Access Control Management

Current knowledge and assets that support organizations competitiveness must be protected. This protection is highly dependent on a proper access control management. Unfortunately, traditional access control management approaches are rigid and isolated, constrained by proprietary requirements not easily interoperable. In this chapter, a new framework approach is presented and described. It provides a flexible, open, fluid and collaborative middleware for building access control management systems, based on the Sensing Enriched Access Control (SEAC) concept. This framework establishes the principles allowing the development of an access control management system that copes with today organization’s needs. The chapter also provides a description of a real use case raised to validate the framework, as well as the laboratory results supporting its scalability.
Mikel Uriarte, Oscar López, Jordi Blasi, Oscar Lázaro, Alicia González, Iván Prada, Eneko Olivares, Carlos E. Palau, Miguel A. Portugués, Alejandro García

The Application of Telematics and Smart Devices in Emergencies

The adoption of smart environments is becoming more and more important in many application scenarios such as healthcare, asset management and environmental monitoring. In emergency services, there are also very attractive use cases on next generation emergency services, presenting challenges that must be addressed in order to satisfy the requirements of both citizens and emergency service professionals. This chapter shares two interesting use cases depicting emergencies where the use of telematics and smart devices do enable improved emergency situational awareness for citizens and emergency services. Leveraging on the example of the eCall initiative, a thorough explanation is given on how next generation emergency services may further explore the promising new smart technologies to improve the communication dynamics with citizens and to attain increased effectiveness and performance in their daily mission to protect and safeguard lives.
Marco Manso, Barbara Guerra, Cosmin Carjan, Evangelos Sdongos, Anastasia Bolovinou, Angelos Amditis, David Donaldson

Towards Multi-layer Interoperability of Heterogeneous IoT Platforms: The INTER-IoT Approach

Open interoperability delivers on the promise of enabling vendors and developers to interact and interoperate, without interfering with anyone’s ability to compete by delivering a superior product and experience. In the absence of global IoT standards, the INTER-IoT voluntary approach will support and make it easy for any IoT stakeholder to design open IoT devices, smart objects, services, and complex systems and get them to be operative and interconnected quickly, thus creating new IoT interoperable ecosystems by using a bottom-up approach. In particular, INTER-IoT is based on hardware/software tools (INTER-Layer) granting multi-layer interoperability among IoT system layers (i.e. device, networking, middleware, application service, data and semantics), on frameworks for open IoT application and system programming and deployment (INTER-FW), and on a full-fledged CASE tool-supported engineering methodology for IoT systems integration (INTER-Meth). The INTER-IoT approach is notably exemplified through two use cases: INTER-LogP, involving interoperability of port logistics ecosystems, and INTER-Health, encompassing integration between e-Health at home and in mobility infrastructures.
Giancarlo Fortino, Claudio Savaglio, Carlos E. Palau, Jara Suarez de Puga, Maria Ganzha, Marcin Paprzycki, Miguel Montesinos, Antonio Liotta, Miguel Llop

Erratum to: Integration, Interconnection, and Interoperability of IoT Systems

Without Abstract
Raffaele Gravina, Carlos E. Palau, Marco Manso, Antonio Liotta, Giancarlo Fortino
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