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This book exploits the benefits of integration of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT) for smart cities. The authors discuss WSN and IoT in tackling complex computing tasks and challenges in the fields of disaster relief, security, and weather forecasting (among many others). This book highlights the challenges in the field of quality of service metrics (QoS) in the WSN based IoT applications. Topics include IoT Applications for eHealth, smart environments, intelligent transportation systems, delay tolerant models for IoT applications, protocols and architectures for industrial IoT, energy efficient protocols, and much more. Readers will get to know the solutions of these problems for development of smart city applications with the integration of WSN with IoT.



Software-Defined Networking Framework Securing Internet of Things

Programmable framework has led the way for managing the devices in the network. The designing of applications of the network has initiated the potentials of the paradigm of SDN, which has helped in the improvement of managing the network. Data Planes and Control Planes are diverted from one another as an outcome of the devices of data plane acts as the data forwarding devices and leaving behind the part of decision making to the system that is centralized which is termed as controller. Architecture of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) in the environment of Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest challenge. Though it has lots of benefits, still security is the major issue in the field of SDN. In this chapter, we will present the security attacks and challenges faced in the field of SDN and IoT and also the ad hoc architecture for IoT in the framework of SDN.
Himanshi Babbar, Shalli Rani

A Comprehensive Study of Attacks on the IoT and its Counter Measures Using Blockchain

The Internet of things (IoT) covers the whole world, and our myriad daily devices are connected with their surrounding environment in order to collect information to perform specific tasks. These IoT devices need to interact and synchronize with each other, and every place is sensing enabled by a wireless sensor network. The server–client model makes managing the communication and synchronization of a few devices easy. However, if there are thousands of devices, during synchronization the IoT suffers from several limitations and issues, which are most challenging due to its complex environment. To overcome these limitations and issues, blockchain can be used to control and configure IoT devices. Blockchain’s original use was for bitcoin (cryptocurrency), but now its use is expanding to many other fields, including the IoT, healthcare, finances, security, and academic and industrial fields. Now that blockchain technology has been realized as the next revolutionary technology, the primary aim of using blockchain in the IoT is to connect things to the Internet in a peer-to-peer manner, and blockchain is the only distributed ledger maintained by a peer-to-peer network where non trusted participations in the network can communicate with each other without a trusted third party. Blockchain capabilities, such as immutability, auditability, transparency, open source, persistency, and anonymity, can solve most architectural shortcoming of the IoT. Among other things, IoT devices require privacy, security, authentication, protection from attacks, affordability, easy deployment, and self-maintenance. The aim of the IoT is to merge both digital and physical worlds into a single ecosystem that makes up a new intelligent era of the Internet.
Pardeep Kaur, Shalli Rani

Caching Policies in NDN-IoT Architecture

The named data networking (NDN) has emerged as a promising candidate of future Internet architecture as an alternative to traditional Internet. The NDN taken from broad field of information-centric networking (ICN) is based on content name irrespective of its physical location to get rid of address management and NAT traversal problems. The benefits associated in terms of reliable, efficient data delivery, content security, and in-network caching have raised NDN as a forthcoming networking solution for Internet of Things (IoT) challenges. Several constraints associated with IoT devices such as low processing capability and limited memory with high energy efficiency requirement impose burden on the use of IP for IoT. The NDN-IoT in-network caching provides solution to overcome these constraints and presented alternative implementations. This paper discusses several NDN-IoT caching algorithms with their strategies, advantages, parameters evaluated, and simulators used for study. The various research challenges associated with caching in NDN-IoT environment have also been presented in this study.
Divya Gupta, Shalli Rani, Syed Hassan Ahmed, Rasheed Hussain

A Systematic Literature Survey: Development of Smart City Based on Various Internet of Things Architectures

The Internet of Things is emerging out as the revolution in research world. IoT has the capability to make the human life smart. Since IoT is in its dawn stage, there is plethora of things that is required to be scrutinized in this high-tech field. Sensors being omnipresent in mobiles to smart homes, smart agricultural fields to smart retail stores, and smart cars to smart cities all are getting connected to each other and acquaint using the Internet. Even the security systems are moving toward smart security systems. In addition to CCTVs, sensors and the Internet can be used to achieve inclined level of sharp security structure of the warehouse. Physical intrusion detection system (IDS), which is a smart security system, can be used to detect the encroachers in zone where humans are prohibited. In this paper, the authors have implemented the physical intrusion detector as the security guard for cold storages. The authors reviewed the IoT-based architectures that are employed to move from urban cities to smart cities. In this paper, the authors thoroughly reviewed the work implemented in the last 7 years to convert urban cities into smart cities.
Kirti, Gagandeep, Anshu Singla

Integration of WSN with IoT Applications: A Vision, Architecture, and Future Challenges

The Internet of Things (IoT) represents the physical world of devices and objects connected over the network using wireless sensors. This chapter gives detailed study about the different applications of IoT with the integration of WSN (wireless sensor networks) with Internet connectivity. This allows applications to communicate among themselves and users on a global scale. A large number of IoT applications, like smart home, buildings, transport, water management, healthcare, agriculture, environment and industries, together form the smart city. Along with this, various challenges in the implementation of applications are discussed related to the reliability, sustainability, and efficiency. An open architecture looking into current need of IoT is also proposed and discussed.
Karan Bajaj, Bhisham Sharma, Raman Singh

Impact of IoT-Based Smart Cities on Human Daily Life

The Internet of things (IoT) has become one of the principle applied technologies in the past few years. In this chapter, you will read about how the IoT has an impact on certain fields and on human daily life. You will also read about the basic features of Smart Cities and why a modern city is given that name, along with some of its problems and solutions. In addition, this chapter discusses the role of 5G technology in the IoT and big data analysis. Lastly, it will include the main features of the 2030 vision in Saudi Arabia for Smart Cities to enhance human daily lives along with conceptual and block diagrams.
Ghazanfar Latif, Jaafar M. Alghazo, R. Maheswar, P. Jayarajan, A. Sampathkumar

Internet of Things: Reformation of Garment Stores and Retail Shop Business Process

Modern technology has developed at a fast pace, with many types of technology competing against each other. However, the Internet of Things (IoT) has superseded many new technologies. IoT basically consists of algorithms that obtain your retail habits more than what can be probably assumed. IoT capabilities allow devices and sensors to communicate with other devices to achieve faster work and reduce overall sales time. One good example of IoT is artificial intelligence (AI) which has the highest effectiveness on the retail businesses. These machinery tactics lead to smarter cities that make everything easier to deal with. From Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) smart tags to the IoT sensors that can tell whether a product is about to be purchased, or if it is being returned to the shelf using scanning codes. Furthermore, they have the ability to scan faces with ease, allowing it to mark down whether employees are absent or present. Out of stock items are easily identified through the use of IoT. Smart shelves are a new concept that has been derived from the use of IoT technologies in the retail business.
Ghazanfar Latif, Jaafar M. Alghazo, R. Maheswar, P. Jayarajan, A. Sampathkumar

Toward Smart Urban Development Through Intelligent Edge Analytics

The rise of successful cutting-edge Internet of Things (IoT) applications for urban development has inspired the industry and research community. Although the industry verticals such as automotive, robotics, e-health, and entertainment applications create new business opportunities for the service providers, they pose challenges in terms of deployment cost, reliability, and latency requirements. For example, self-driving vehicles require ultralow latency and reliable data processing to make split-second decisions. Unfortunately, cloud-based solutions for such IoT applications are not suitable due to the end-to-end latency and connection reliability. To meet these challenging requirements, edge computing paradigm has emerged as a solution where computational resources are brought to the proximity of the end users. Now, advanced data analytics, machine learning, and cognitive techniques can also be deployed at the edge of the network. Together, edge computing, data analytics, and machine learning empower service providers with true and intelligently automated infrastructure for IoT applications. In this chapter, we investigate the relevant use cases of edge-enabled IoT applications for smart urban development. To this end, we also provide a comprehensive study of the recent trends and the state of the art in accommodating all these emerging technologies in the acceleration of smart urban development.
Mahmoud Abu Zaid, Mohamed Faizal, R. Maheswar, Osamah Ibrahiem Abdullaziz

The Perspective of Smart Dust Mesh Based on IoEE for Safety and Security in the Smart Cities

This chapter presents several perspectives of the smart dust mesh based on theInternet of Everything, Everywhere (IoEE). Smart dust surveillance finds application in military and security area (monitoring of people and products), in enhancing ambient interaction (for people with visual, motor, and auditory impairments), e-health monitoring, environmental surveillance of temperature, light intensity, sound, pressure, particle suspensions (PM 0.1–10) in the air, humidity, harmful chemicals, vibrations, magnetic, and electrical fields. The goal is to survey climatic changes, seismic activities, air emissions, and water pollution in case of mines or extremely industrialized cities. However, it is of interest to note its applicability in smart city IoT; the smart dust surveillance also comes with disadvantages, such as privacy, control, maintenance, and high costs. The device comprises clusters of smart interconnected small parts (MEMS, memristors in micro/nano size), which add to the cost. The smart dust networked mesh should be lightweight and maintained by passive power generators which rely on harvesting light, vibration, heat. According to DARPA reports (ElectRx program 2016), the smart dust such as neural dust “motes” that are implantable monitors nerve activity by recording wirelessly. In the field of health surveillance, ElectRx program that is developed by neural smart dust is capable of treating pain, general inflammation, post-traumatic stress, severe anxiety, and trauma by precise noninvasive monitoring of the patient’s peripheral nervous system. The prototype for neural dust is millimeter size small, with the possibility of manufacturing individual motes of 1 cubic millimeter or even as small as 100 microns per side.
Raluca Maria Aileni, George Suciu, Martin Serrano, R. Maheswar, Carlos Alberto Valderrama Sakuyama, Sever Pasca

A Novel Scheme for an IoT-Based Weather Monitoring System Using a Wireless Sensor Network

Life becomes exceptionally less difficult in all stages with the improvement of automation innovation. Today, programmed techniques are being picked over manual strategies. The Web has turned into a part of life, and the Internet of things (IoT) is the cutting edge technology developing web expertise in accordance with the rapid increase in the quantity of web clients. From mechanical apparatus to client, the IoT is creating a system of regular articles that can share information and complete obligations when you are occupied with different happenings. In this chapter, we present an IoT-based environment monitoring framework utilizing the WSN innovation. The primary goal of the framework is to give environmental parameters at remote areas utilizing the web. This proposed framework speaks to the environmental parameter monitor utilizing wireless sensors associated with the Internet. There are two distinctive sensor nodes in the framework. Clients can observe the information by means of the web application from anyplace on the Internet. In the event that the sensor node information surpasses the designed range in the web application, a notice message is sent to clients to improve environmental conditions.
A. Sampathkumar, S. Murugan, Ahmed A. Elngar, Lalit Garg, R. Kanmani, A. Christy Jeba Malar


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