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Über dieses Buch

This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.



Chapter 1. Integrative Production Technology—Theory and Applications

Manufacturing is a key factor in a country’s economic success. In manufacturing-oriented high-wage countries of Europe, Japan or South Korea it contributes to the largest share of exports and innovation. Skill shortages, volatility of markets and the urge to compete through innovation are major challenges for these countries. To cope with these challenges, ICT integration promises to increase productivity and shorten time-to-market. This chapter first gives an overview on the economic background of manufacturing, and subsequently outlines opportunities and challenges for high-wage countries. The third section outlines the vision of integrative production technology in the scope of the economic background and thus provides a framework for the subsequent chapters.
Christian Brecher, Denis Özdemir, Anja Ruth Weber

Individualized Production


Chapter 2. Direct, Mold-Less Production Systems

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in general—and in particular, Selective Laser Melting (SLM)—are characterized by a fundamentally different relationship with respect to costs, lot size, and product complexity compared to conventional manufacturing processes. There is no increase of costs for small lot sizes (in contrast to mold-based technologies) and none for shape complexity either (in contrast to subtractive technologies). Thus, only the holistic development of a direct, mold-less production system that takes all relevant interdependencies along the product creation chain into account provides the full economic, ecologic and social benefits of AM technologies in future production. The following six subjects of the product creation chain were examined: (i) New business models and customer willingness to pay for AM parts are revealed. (ii) The Product Production System (PPS) was totally revised regarding the adoption of SLM technology into conventional manufacturing environment. (iii) The SLM manufacturing costs were examined regarding different machine configurations. (iv) A high-power SLM process was developed for enhancing the process productivity. (v) High manganese steel was qualified for the SLM process. (vi) Finally, two lattice structure types and a design methodology for customer parts were developed.
Reinhart Poprawe, Wolfgang Bleck, Frank Thomas Piller, Günther Schuh, Sebastian Barg, Arne Bohl, Sebastian Bremen, Jan Bültmann, Christian Hinke, Ruth Jiang, Robin Kleer, Simon Merkt, Ulrich Prahl, Michael Riesener, Johannes Schrage, Christian Weller, Stephan Ziegler

Chapter 3. Mold-Based Production Systems

Mold-based production systems are vastly common in mass production processes, due to the high investment costs of production equipment. In order to address the challenge of a strong tendency towards individualized customer demands, companies in high-wage countries are forced to react towards these changes. This chapter describes recent advances in the field of individualized production for mold-based production systems regarding plastics profile extrusion and high-pressure die casting. A holistic methodology for an integrated product and mold design is presented based on the principles of simultaneous engineering. In addition, recent advances in the field of numerical optimization are shown. The advances in numerical optimization will be carried out based on the processes mentioned above. The monitoring and simulation of the viscoelastic swell will be shown for plastics profile extrusion. For the field of high-pressure die casting the strategy to optimize the entire process will be outlined and current experimental results shown. For both application cases the potential benefit of additive manufacturing technologies—such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM)—will be evaluated and validated inasmuch as possible.
Andreas Bührig-Polaczek, Marek Behr, Christian Hopmann, Günther Schuh, Abassin Aryobsei, Stefanie Elgeti, Markus Frings, Jan Kantelberg, Michael Riesener, Frank Schmidt, Roland Siegbert, Uwe Vroomen, Christian Windeck, Nafi Yesildag

Virtual Production Systems


Chapter 4. Virtual Production Intelligence (VPI)

The research area Virtual Production Intelligence (VPI) focuses on the integrated support of collaborative planning processes for production systems and products. The focus of the research is on processes for information processing in the design domains Factory and Machine. These processes provide the integration and interactive analysis of emerging, mostly heterogeneous planning information. The demonstrators (flapAssist, memoSlice und VPI platform) that are information systems serve for the validation of the scientific approaches and aim to realize a continuous and consistent information management in terms of the Digital Factory. Central challenges are the semantic information integration (e.g., by means of metamodeling), the subsequent evaluation as well as the visualization of planning information (e.g., by means of Visual Analytics and Virtual Reality). All scientific and technical work is done within an interdisciplinary team composed of engineers, computer scientists and physicists.
Sabina Jeschke, Achim Kampker, Torsten W. Kuhlen, Günther Schuh, Wolfgang Schulz, Toufik Al Khawli, Christian Büscher, Urs Eppelt, Sascha Gebhardt, Kai Kreisköther, Sebastian Pick, Rudolf Reinhard, Hasan Tercan, Julian Utsch, Hanno Voet

Chapter 5. Integrated Computational Materials and Production Engineering (ICMPE)

The research area “Integrative Computational Materials and Production Engineering” is based on the partial integration of individual models areas within separated simulation platforms with the objective of further development and integration into a single comprehensive ICMPE (Integrative Computational Materials and Production Engineering) platform that combines materials and machining simulation with factory and production planning. In order to realize an operational platform concept, the AixViPMaP has been implemented. AixViPMaP serves as a technology platform for the knowledge-driven design, implementation and improvement of complicated process chains for materials in high-value components. This allows manufacturing related influences to be considered during production in order to optimize process performance and materials properties. The extension and application of the AixViPMaP platform towards production modeling in the sense of an ICMPE based on one holistic system integrates production related models with all material-related models into a single, unified concept. Advanced test cases are under examination to validate and assess this new integrated approach (e.g., new alloys for large gears for the wind industry).
Wolfgang Bleck, Christian Brecher, Michael Herty, Gerhard Hirt, Christian Hopmann, Fritz Klocke, Nikolai Borchmann, Jens Dierdorf, Hamidreza Farivar, Patrick Fayek, Axel Häck, Viktor Kripak, Markus Krömer, Gottfried Laschet, Ulrich Prahl, Markus Rüngeler, Georg J. Schmitz, Marcel Spekowius, Phillip Springer, Andre M. Teixeira

Integrated Technologies


Chapter 6. Multi-technology Platforms (MTPs)

The growing demand for individualized commodities requires new solutions for a highly flexible yet cost-efficient production. Hence, the research results described in this chapter address the question of how different manufacturing technologies could be combined and employed efficiently in industrial practice. Reaching across the whole field of Multi-Technology Platforms (MTPs) a generalized design methodology was examined. The resulting template-based procedure, combining function structure and technology chains, is introduced in the first section. Consecutively, the next section advances this approach by illustrating the incorporation of metrology into machine tools and MTPs. For technological validation, all newly-developed scientific approaches were successfully integrated into four demonstrator test beds located at the RWTH Aachen University: a Multi-Technology Machining Center, a Hybrid Sheet Metal Processing Center, a Conductive Friction Stir Welding Center and a laser-enhanced hybrid lathe. The economic efficiency of manufacturing technology integration is reviewed before a profitability assessment based on the aforementioned demonstrator test beds is performed. The chapter concludes with an outlook on future research topics.
Christian Brecher, Wolfgang Bleck, Jörg Feldhusen, Gerhard Hirt, Fritz Klocke, Uwe Reisgen, Robert Schmitt, David Bailly, Markus Bambach, Laura Conrads, Frédéric du Bois-Reymond, Alexander Göttmann, Stefan Gräfe, Mohamed Harraz, Jan Erik Heller, Werner Herfs, Krishna Chaitanya Komerla, Marvin Laugwitz, Manuel Löwer, Chris Mertin, Andreas Naumov, Johannes Nittinger, Martin Peterek, Ulrich Prahl, Jan Rey, Alexander Schiebahn, Alexander Schmid, Roman Schmitz, Stefan Tönissen, Holger Voswinckel, Maximilian Wegener, Frederik Wellmann

Chapter 7. Multi-technology Products

Development of technical solutions that lead to widening the use of multi-technological products as well as in assessing ecological and economic potentials of multi-technological products have not yet been studied intensively. The activities conducted in the context of this research area focus on these aspects. The aforementioned aspects have been examined, evaluated and quantified on the basis of three example products resulting from the first funding period. The research activities conducted on the example components deliver the basis for the layout of different integrated multi-technology production systems. Technical solutions that enable coupling of different process steps with each other as well as the integration of different functionalities and different materials in final multi-technology products have been proposed. The complex interdependencies of the products themselves and their associated production processes have been researched and evaluated intensively. Finally, a profitability assessment of the proposed solutions was conducted and future research topics identified.
Kirsten Bobzin, Andreas Bührig-Polaczek, Christian Hopmann, Peter Loosen, Reinhart Poprawe, Mehmet Öte, Uwe Reisgen, Tobias Brögelmann, Arnold Gillner, Thomas F. Linke, Uwe Vroomen, Christian Windeck, Michael Berens, Claudia A. Hartmann, Jan Klein, Nathan C. Kruppe, Xifang Liao, Patrick Messer, Mona Naderi, Philipp Ochotta, Magnus Orth, Florian Petzinka, Malte Röbig, Alexander Schiebahn, Johannes Schönberger, Michael Steger

Self-optimizing Production Systems


Chapter 8. Cognition-Enhanced, Self-optimizing Production Networks

This research area focuses on the management systems and principles of a production system. It aims at controlling the complex interplay of heterogeneous processes in a highly dynamic environment, with special focus on individualized products in high-wage countries. The project addresses the comprehensive application of self-optimizing principles on all levels of the value chain. This implies the integration of self-optimizing control loops on cell level, with those addressing the production planning and control as well as supply chain and quality management aspects. A specific focus is on the consideration of human decisions during the production process. To establish socio-technical control loops, it is necessary to understand how human decisions are made in diffuse working processes as well as how cognitive and affective abilities form the human factor within production processes.
Christopher Schlick, Volker Stich, Robert Schmitt, Günther Schuh, Martina Ziefle, Christian Brecher, Matthias Blum, Alexander Mertens, Marco Faber, Sinem Kuz, Henning Petruck, Marco Fuhrmann, Melanie Luckert, Felix Brambring, Christina Reuter, Niklas Hering, Marcel Groten, Simone Korall, Daniel Pause, Philipp Brauner, Werner Herfs, Markus Odenbusch, Stephan Wein, Sebastian Stiller, Marvin Berthold

Chapter 9. Self-optimizing Production Technologies

Customer demands have become more individual and complex, requiring a highly flexible production. In high-wage countries, efficient and robust manufacturing processes are vital to ensure global competitiveness. One approach to solve the conflict between individualized products and high automation is Model-based Self-optimization (MBSO). It uses surrogate models to combine process measures and expert knowledge, enabling the technical system to determine its current operating point and thus optimize it accordingly. The objective is an autonomous and reliable process at its productivity limit. The MBSO concept is implemented in eight demonstrators of different production technologies such as metal cutting, plastics processing, textile processing and inspection. They all have a different focus according to their specific production process, but share in common the use of models for optimization. Different approaches to generate suitable models are developed. With respect to implementation of MBSO, the challenge is the broad range of technologies, materials, scales and optimization variables. The results encourage further examination regarding industry applications.
Fritz Klocke, Dirk Abel, Thomas Gries, Christian Hopmann, Peter Loosen, Reinhard Poprawe, Uwe Reisgen, Robert Schmitt, Wolfgang Schulz, Peter Abels, Oliver Adams, Thomas Auerbach, Thomas Bobek, Guido Buchholz, Benjamin Döbbeler, Daniel Frank, Julian Heinisch, Torsten Hermanns, Yves-Simon Gloy, Gunnar Keitzel, Maximilian Kemper, Diana Suarez Martel, Viktor Reimer, Matthias Reiter, Marco Saggiomo, Max Schwenzer, Sebastian Stemmler, Stoyan Stoyanov, Ulrich Thombansen, Drazen Veselovac, Konrad Willms

Chapter 10. Cognition-Enhanced, Self-optimizing Assembly Systems

Due to shorter product lifecycles and a rising demand for customization, flexibility and adaptability of assembly processes will become key elements in achieving sustainable success of industrial production in high-wage countries. Cognition-enhanced self-optimization as presented in this chapter has been identified as one major contributor to the enhancement of this flexibility and adaptability. The proposed approach to realize cognition-enhanced self-optimization for assembly systems in a broad range of application domains is to integrate dynamic behavior allowing reactions on disturbances and unforeseen events by dynamically adapting the target objectives of internal control loops. Unlike the approach of traditional closed control loops in which target objectives of an optimization process are determined in advance, this approach defines goal functions as dynamically adaptable throughout the process. The chapter concludes with two application examples—one dealing with the assembly of large-scale components (airplane structures) and the other with small component assembly (micro-optical elements)—presented to illustrate the industrial deployment of self-optimization for assembly tasks.
Robert Schmitt, Burkhard Corves, Peter Loosen, Christian Brecher, Sabina Jeschke, Walter Kimmelmann, Mathias Hüsing, Jochen Stollenwerk, Felix Bertelsmeier, Tim Detert, Sebastian Haag, Max Hoffmann, Martin Holters, Stefan Kurtenbach, Eike Permin, Marcel Prochnau, Christoph Knut Storm, Markus Janßen

Cross-Sectional Processes


Chapter 11. Scientific Cooperation Engineering

Scientific Cooperation Engineering researches, fosters and supports scientific cooperation on all hierarchical levels and beyond scientific disciplines as a key resource for innovation in the Cluster of Excellence. State-of-the-art research methods—such as structural equation models, success models, or studies on success factors—that are frequently used in IS research are applied to create profound knowledge and insights in the contribution and optimal realization of scientific inter and trans-disciplinary communication and cooperation. A continuous formative evaluation is used to derive and explore insights into interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation processes from a management perspective. In addition, actor-based empirical studies are carried out to explore critical factors for interdisciplinary cooperation and intercultural diversity management. Based on these results, workflows, physical networking events and tailor-made training programs are created and iteratively optimized towards the cluster’s needs. As Scientific Cooperation Engineering aims to gain empirical and data-driven knowledge, a Scientific Cooperation Portal and a prototypic flowchart application are under development to support workflows and project management. Furthermore, data science methods are currently implemented to recognize synergetic patterns based on bibliometric information and topical proximity, which is analyzed via project terminologies.
Sabina Jeschke, Wolfgang Bleck, Anja Richert, Günther Schuh, Wolfgang Schulz, Martina Ziefle, André Bräkling, André Calero Valdez, Kirsten Dahmen, Ulrich Jansen, Claudia Jooß, Sarah L. Müller, Ulrich Prahl, Anne Kathrin Schaar, Mamta Sharma, Thomas Thiele

Chapter 12. Towards a Technology-Oriented Theory of Production

Manufacturing companies in high-wage countries—one of the pillars of the European national economies—are particularly exposed to changes in global markets and rising market volatility. It is therefore necessary that manufacturers in these countries not only focus on reducing costs, but instead address the entire set of commonly defined operational capabilities: cost, quality, flexibility, and delivery performance. Although the optimization of these factors has been viewed since long as being largely mutually exclusive, we argue that advances in modern production technology might enable the resolution of the involved dichotomous relationships. In this chapter, we hence aim at presenting a technology-oriented theory of production that operationalizes the link between technological advances and possibilities to strengthen the four competitive priorities of manufacturing companies. For this purpose, existing production theories are first reviewed to ground and classify our theory. We subsequently formalize the technology-oriented theory by adopting a profitability assessment perspective derived from the insights of all projects within the Cluster of Excellence Integrative Production for High-Wage Countries.
Günther Schuh, Malte Brettel, Christina Reuter, David Bendig, Christian Dölle, Niklas Friederichsen, Annika Hauptvogel, Thomas Kießling, Till Potente, Jan-Philipp Prote, Anja Ruth Weber, Bartholomäus Wolff

Chapter 13. Technology Platforms

The Cluster of Excellence (CoE) focuses on foundational research within production engineering as the basis for future innovation in high-wage countries. Turning the results of basic research into subsequent future innovation requires bi-directional knowledge transfer between universities and industry. Therefore, the CoE pushed the idea of so-called technology platforms. This includes new cooperation and communication structures, such as virtual platforms as well as new education and training concepts. This chapter provides an overview of the communication means and technology platforms that were established during the duration of the CoE. However, motivation, research questions, and the state-of-the-art of technology platforms are outlined beforehand.
Christian Brecher, Günther Schuh, André Bräkling, Denis Özdemir, Anja Wassong, Anja Weber


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