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Über dieses Buch

This book reports on research on innovative human systems integration and human-machine interaction, with an emphasis on artificial intelligence and automation, as well as computational modeling and simulation. It covers a wide range of applications in the area of design, construction and operation of products, systems and services, including lifecycle development and human-technology interaction. The book describes advanced methodologies and tools for evaluating and improving interface usability, new models, as well as case studies and best practices in virtual, augmented and mixed reality systems, with a special focus on dynamic environments. It also discusses different factors concerning the human, hardware, and artificial intelligence software.
Based on the proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018), held on January 7-9, 2018, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, the book also examines the forces that are currently shaping the nature of computing and cognitive systems, such as the need for decreasing hardware costs; the importance of infusing intelligence and automation, and the related trend toward hardware miniaturization and power reduction; the necessity for a better assimilation of computation in the environment; and the social concerns regarding access to computers and systems for people with special needs. It offers a timely survey and a practice-oriented reference guide to policy- and decision-makers, human factors engineers, systems developers and users alike.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Erratum to: Modelling the Perceived Pragmatic and Hedonic Quality of Intelligent Personal Assistants

Tihomir Orehovački, Snježana Babić, Darko Etinger

Intelligence, Technology and Automation

Frontmatter

A Design and Description Method for Human-Autonomy Teaming Systems

The article outlines a description method and a common language to structure and depict configurations for highly automated human-machine systems, involving cognitive agents, for autonomous vehicle guidance and mission management. Therefore, this article outlines a procedure to follow to design and describe human-autonomy teaming systems, system requirements, and top-level system designs. This contribution primarily aims at the application field of military, highly automated manned/unmanned vehicle systems.

Axel Schulte, Diana Donath

Current Insights in Human Factors of Automated Driving and Future Outlook Towards Tele-Operated Remote Driving Services

Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.

Christopher D. D. Cabrall, Alexander Eriksson, Zhenji Lu, Sebastiaan M. Petermeijer

External HMIs and Their Effect on the Interaction Between Pedestrians and Automated Vehicles

This paper presents a study where different types of external Human Machine Interfaces (eHMIs) are used to communicate the system state of a highly automated vehicle (SAE Level 5) that shows the intention to give right of way to pedestrians. In an interactive online survey with embedded videos for a pedestrian crossing scenario, the participants, placed in the ego perspective of the crossing pedestrian, had to decide whether they want to cross or not in regard to the equipment status of the vehicle (with eHMI vs. without) and how the system state was communicated (command vs. affirmative). The statistical analysis revealed slight tendencies within the eHMI types. Significant differences were found regarding the comparison between the implicit (no eHMI) and explicit (with eHMI) condition of the communication in the crossing frequency and the reaction time.

Ye Eun Song, Christian Lehsing, Tanja Fuest, Klaus Bengler

Attuning the ‘Pedestrian-Vehicle’ and ‘Driver-Vehicle’ - Why Attributing a Mind to a Vehicle Matters

Vehicle automated driving systems, capable of performing all dynamic driving tasks are profoundly changing the traffic environment. With increased automation the vehicles are gradually becoming artificial agents that act and interact in conjunction with human agents, creating a pristine social context. This paper addresses the interaction between ‘pedestrian-vehicle’ and ‘driver-vehicle’. The idea is to make interaction as humanlike as possible, to increase safety and a positive user experience. We suggest that concepts describing social attunement in human-human interaction also can be applied to human-vehicle interaction. Social attunement implies a scenario where human and vehicle share intentions, infer goals of the interaction partner, are mutually predictable, and understand performance limitations. Furthermore, we propose the use of an in-vehicle avatar interface to assist in this interaction. A reason for using an avatar is that it can be hypothesised that the user can interact more naturally with an anthropomorphic artificial agent.

Peter Bengtsson

Designing a Proactive Risk Mitigation Environment for Integrated Autonomous Vehicle and Human Infrastructure

Many safety and implementation issues plague the broad deployment of autonomous vehicles. A viable path to address these issues may include borrowing technology and policy design from the air traffic control (ATC) space. Air traffic is currently operating in a mixed human-automation environment made possible through restrictions. Future plans for air traffic systems include full automation, but the inclusion of proactive risk mitigation will be necessary to manage system and human errors to prevent catastrophic incidents. Autonomous vehicles will likely operate in a mixed environment upon initial implementation, but the same type of forward-facing risk assessment, mitigation, and restrictions will be necessary to provide a safe transportation environment. This paper evaluates the adaptation of “critical pairs” from aviation to autonomous vehicles as a proactive risk mitigation tool. The implementation of critical pairs evaluates each vehicle in relation to the others, and, based on feasible errors, determines speed and position adjustments to avoid a collision in the event of such errors. This type of proactive risk assessment would help prevent collisions or other dangerous events by giving the vehicles enough space and time to preemptively react to otherwise unexpected errors. This information can be used to determine if, how, and when errors may occur that would endanger other vehicles and may be a human monitored function in the face of full autonomous driving. This paper also addresses the type of infrastructure and regulation changes, such as dedicated autonomous vehicle roadways, pedestrian infrastructure, and specialized transition areas, that would be needed to support transition into a transportation system that includes autonomous vehicles, and would eventually support a fully autonomous environment.

Caitlin Anne Surakitbanharn

The 4D LINT Model of Function Allocation: Spatial-Temporal Arrangement and Levels of Automation

Human factors researchers are well familiar with Sheridan and Verplank’s (1978) ‘levels of automation’. Although this automation dimension has proved useful, the last decade has seen a vast increase of automation in different forms, especially in transportation domains. To capture these and future developments, we propose an extended automation taxonomy via additional dimensions. Specifically, we propose a 4D LINT representation for vehicle operation regarding control across multiple simultaneous dimensions of (1) Location (from local to remote), (2) Identity (between human and computer), (3) Number of agents (degree of centralization of control), as well as (4) adaptive optimization over Time. Our model aims to provide guidance and support in communicable ways to allocation authority agents (whether human or computer) in optimized supervisory outer loop control of complex and intelligent dynamic systems for more efficient, safe, and robust transportation operations.

Christopher D. D. Cabrall, Thomas B. Sheridan, Thomas Prevot, Joost C. F. de Winter, Riender Happee

Study on Estimation of Driver’s State During Automatic Driving Using Seat Pressure

The development of an automatic driving system is accompanied by the increasing importance of driver monitoring. It is necessary to estimate the state of the driver including actions with less load on the driver. In this study, we used the seat pressure as an indicator to assess the status of a driver. In the experiment, we measured the seat pressure during automatic operation under the designated state (forward gaze, cell phone use and sleeping) of the driver. Characteristic changes in the center of gravity position of the driver were confirmed during cell phone use and sleeping. Subsequently, we evaluated seating surface pressure data by calculating the accuracy of state estimation using machine learning. The results show that the accuracy of estimation corresponded to 76.8% in the overall evaluation. This suggests that it is possible to estimate the state of the driver during automatic driving using seat pressure.

Kenta Okabe, Keiichi Watanuki, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Muramatsu

Automated Text Detection and Character Recognition in Natural Scenes Based on Local Image Features and Contour Processing Techniques

A novel effective scheme for automated text detection and character recognition in natural scene images is presented in the paper. The proposed text detection approach belongs to the category of connected component-based methods utilizing Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER) feature detector. Various literature based geometrical and contour oriented filters, used to distinguish between text and non-text MSER regions as well as to group remaining text regions into words and phrases, are applied first. Novel filters, designed to reject remaining non-text regions and words (phrases) that are not in line with assumed properties, are utilized next. Final words and phrases are recognized using an OCR system. Finally, an application of the presented approach within the IMCOP content discovery and delivery platform is briefly described.

Remigiusz Baran, Pavol Partila, Rafal Wilk

Continuous Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) Improvement via Human System Integration and Customer Change

Airbus Defence and Space has a rigorous Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) approach that is utilised on all its projects; however, this process must be able to adapt and improve with new and innovative ideas and/or customer change requirements. This paper highlights the implementation of Human System Integration and Human Views research over the past five years and a potential major customer change in Architecture Development in 2018/19. It will then define two examples of how the Airbus DS MBSE process has adapted to meet new innovations and how it is planning to respond to a potentially large customer process change.

Robert A. Sharples

Injecting Digitized Knowledge into the Technical Support Dialog

This paper is a case study of the journey that the Cisco Global Technical Assistance Center has undertaken to move towards a data driven support organization. The different factors and business functions impacted by this effort will be identified and examined along with the various programs, products, and processes that have been introduced to enable the organization to capture, exercise, and consume digitized knowledge (dK). The efficacy and pitfalls of the process of moving from a grassroots effort to a systemic, structured business operation will be discussed.

Don Allen

Artificial Intelligence and Interaction Design for a Positive Emotional User Experience

Technological progress boosts the object’s functional performance. Artificial intelligence encourages more than the achievement of the function: the delivery of services. However, as much complex and sophisticated the technology is, when the user’ experience is not enjoyable and pleasing the artefact tends to be neglected by the user and forgotten by the market. An emotional user experience depends on the interactions that the artefact encourages which are offered to the user per physical and digital interfaces. At present, the user is more informed than he/she ever was and requests more than the efficiency, effectiveness and user-friendly interactions and expects the satisfaction and delight because of artefact use. The interactions boosted by artificial intelligence can operate as a settlement or a disruptive parameter to achieve a qualified experience. Emotional user experience challenges the discipline of Design as well as the performance of the professional. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of design oriented approach for emotional user experience stressing the opportunities offered by the assemblage of artificial intelligence to the artefact.

Cristina Caramelo Gomes, Sandra Preto

The Cognitive Airport Signage System Design: Comparative Case Study Between American Airport and Chinese Airport

This paper researches the airport signage system design based on human cognition. Taking American airport of San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chinese airport of Hong Kong, Chong Qing as case studies to compare the difference of signage design in form, color matching, icon, intelligent map design, and the evaluate the visibility, legibility, readability cognition items in these four airports by passenger questionnaire and interview. Getting out the results that the Hong Kong airport signage cognition evaluation score is the highest and the lowest one Los Angeles airport signage. The reason is Hong Kong airport alternative horizontal and vertical signage design form of appropriating ergonomics size and color. The problem in Los Angeles airport signage is the weak visibility of narrow striped horizontal signage form. And in the future intelligent map will be applied more as its high efficiency of navigation information providing.

Yan Gan, Zhi Peng Feng

Legal Risks and the Countermeasures of Developing Intelligent Investment Advisor in China

The current Chinese intelligent investment advisor development is still in its infancy, the new formats, business models it brings and the current regulations cannot adapt to each other, which leads to the handicap of market development. In order to solve the legal risks faced by Chinese intelligent investment advisor development, the article thinks that few measures should be taken. Existing barriers in legal system shall be removed and a new solution shall be found based on the balance between “financial security” and “financial efficiency” to facilitate the pace of financial innovation like Robo-advisor.

Cgeng-yong Liu

Reactive Operation: A Framework for Event Driven Low Voltage Grid Operation

This proposal presents a prototypical realization of the “Reactive Operations” concept. The core feature of the “reactive operations” is to present an operator only with information in case this information is required by the operator to identify unsuitable system behavior (e.g. if faults occur) and to bundle the presented information event specific. This contrasts conventional supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems which constantly present an operator with specific system information.

Ralf Mosshammer, Konrad Diwold, Alfred Einfalt, Christoph Groiss

Task Analysis of Diagnostic Ultrasound System Use: Comparison Between Sonographers’ and Physicians’ Use in Different Clinical Applications

Task analysis in diagnostic medical sonography is a difficult topic in terms of definition, description at the practical level and differences between clinical applications. The present work describes the task analysis of 28 Diagnostic Ultrasound systems in several clinical applications, 15 systems used by sonographers (USA) and 13 systems used by physicians (Europe). The tests performed demonstrated the different workflow peculiarities of sonographers and physicians, showing how the former have a more complex workflow, which puts more stress on the system user interface optimization and ease of use. The sonographers’ workflow, characterized by an average 23% longer scanning time per exam and 88% greater number of controls activated per exam, may also have a greater induction to develop work-related musculoskeletal disorders, with respect to physician users of US systems.

Giuseppe Andreoni, Marco Delpiano, Nicola Guraschi, Leonardo Forzoni

Evaluation of the Quality of Internet Breast Cancer Information: Fuzzy VIKOR Approach

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both around the world and in Saudi Arabia. Patients increasingly use the Internet for breast cancer information. However, the quality of the information is questionable. It will be getting worse if solicited information goes wrong, then it tends to have poor consequences on the general public. Assessing the quality of internet breast cancer information is typically challenging yet a rational and systematic approach can be useful in evaluating the quality of the information they provide to public. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the quality of internet breast cancer information by using fuzzy VIKOR approach where linguistic variables are applied to solve the uncertainties and subjectivities in expert decision making. This study benefits breast cancer patients know which websites have the mandate and the competence to educate the public on breast cancer issues. Besides, it helps them in their resolve to ensure the quality of breast cancer information on the internet.

Zuhaira Muhammad Zain

Research on an Improved Fall Detection Algorithm for Elder People

As the proportion of old people of our society grows bigger, the movement safety of old people has become a social problem. For the old people who suffer from harmful falling, one of the best steps he can take is ensuring that reliable and immediate help is available to reach him at all times. So, it is very important to set up a perfect fall detection system that can monitor the daily movement of old people with falling potential. The fall detection algorithm is the key part of fall detection system for old people. To solve the existing problems, an improved fall detection algorithm for old people base on support vector machine was proposed in the paper. Through experimental verification and comparative analysis, we found that the proposed algorithm has better performance than other researcher’s fall detection algorithm.

Qi Luo

Estimating Driver Workload with Systematically Varying Traffic Complexity Using Machine Learning: Experimental Design

Traffic complexity is one of the factors affecting driver workload. In order to study the relationship between traffic complexity levels and workload, a designed experiment is required, especially to vary traffic flow parameters systematically in a simulated environment. This paper describes the experimental design of a simulator study for developing a computational model to estimate the behavior of driver workload based on traffic complexity. Driving simulators allow creating and testing different traffic scenarios and manipulating independent variables to improve the quality of data, as compared to real world experiments. Physiological responses such as heart rate, skin conductance, and pupil size have been found to be related to workload. By adapting a data-driven method, we integrated electrocardiography sensors, electro-dermal activity sensors, and eye-tracker to acquire driver physiological signals and gaze information. Preliminary results show a positive correlation between traffic complexity levels and corresponding physiological responses, performance, and subjective measures.

Udara E. Manawadu, Takahiro Kawano, Shingo Murata, Mitsuhiro Kamezaki, Shigeki Sugano

User Context Query Service Supporting Home Person-Centered Care for Elderly People

Our research group has been studying person-centered care (PCC) support systems for home elderly care, using contextual information of individual users (called user context). Since the current systems individually manage the user context, reusing the contexts across multiple systems is quite different. In this paper, we propose a new service that uniformly manages the user context, and allows external applications to retrieve necessary user contexts efficiently. More specifically, the proposed service gathers heterogeneous data from different systems, and standardizes the data with a common database with general attributes of when, who, whom, where, what, how, and why. Using a practical use case, we show how the proposed service efficiently manages user contexts.

Haruhisa Maeda, Sachio Saiki, Masahide Nakamura

Significance of Social Factors for Effective Implementation of Smart Energy Management Systems in End-User Households

Rising popularity of photovoltaic panels and other equipment allowing the electricity production in households evoke the new challenges – i.e. high energy exchange due to high production or usage peaks. One of the solution to such problems is the Energy Management System (EMS) which is able to monitor and report real-time power consumption. EMS allows for launching a whole range of new features – i.e. flexible tariffs or automatic scheduling of home appliances starting time. In this paper we present the results coming from social research conducted within project “e-balance - balancing energy production and consumption in energy efficient smart neighborhoods” realized within European 7FP. We outline four areas of potential social barriers for EMS adoption: engagement, unwillingness to leave appliances unattended, division of roles in the household and privacy concerns. Concluding, our studies indicate that the inclusion of the human perspective is necessary for the effective implementation of Energy Management Systems.

Jaroslaw Kowalski, Cezary Biele, Marek Mlodozeniec, Marcel Geers

“Intelligent Bathroom” - Intelligent Decision for Health

Contemporary lifestyle changes, improvement in quality of life and new user needs cause that the meaning of a home bathroom, among other housing spaces, is increasingly being emphasized not only as hygienic-sanitary place but also a space for leisure and healthcare function. The new idea of the bathroom is shaped within the context of a changing population profile, which is impacting on the number of people requiring health care. The demands on health-friendly aspects in the bathroom environment are increasing along with health awareness and increasing interest for wellbeing. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a bathroom of various purposes and different characteristics. The integration of smart home technology to support health of users turns out to be necessary to achieve this goal. The purpose of this study is to present the bathroom as a place for healthcare by applying intelligent technology systems, including Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, in a bathroom space. For this reason, it is necessary to define the concept of intelligent bathroom and to demonstrate its potential for smart technology. An important issue in the study is the recognition of the current needs of users in terms of health and well-being manifested in the interest in using IoT technology in the bathroom space.

Anna Jaglarz

Influence of Human Based Factors on Small Neighbourhood vs. Household Energy Load Prediction Modelling

The paper aims at reporting lessons learnt while addressing issues concerning modelling energy load prediction for (1) a real small neighbourhood (circa 70 households) and (2) real individual households. The results should be of concern to engineers designing energy balancing systems for small smart energy grids. The endeavour of modelling and implementing 24 h energy load profile prediction in 15 min resolution turned out successful at neighbourhood level. However, at individual household level the modelling encountered important obstacles of objective nature. The uncertainties introduced into energy load profiles by randomly timed human behaviour at a single level can (1) limit or (2) virtually preclude efficient energy load profile prediction. The paper differentiates between the first and the second possibilities by describing two types of stochastic components representing randomly timed human factor.

Pawel Kobylinski, Mariusz Wierzbowski, Cezary Biele

A Prototype of a Small Tracked Robot for Gas Pipeline Inspection and Maintenance

The gas pipeline networks cover approximately 200,000 km in urban region in Japan. The risk caused by severe leakage, cracking, or corrosion will lead to a big accidence for human. Therefore, the gas pipeline robots for regular inspection and maintenance are very essential for the safe operation and supply of gas. In this paper, as a fundamental study of pipeline inspection robots, a new small wireless tracked robot for gas pipeline inspection and maintenance has been developed. Due to robot’s special kinematics, it is capable of moving in straight pipe, turn at elbow and also climb the inclined pipe flexibly and efficiently. Compared with previous robots, it owns two working modes: self-navigation (automated control) and manual control mode for pipeline inspection. Moreover, a preliminary experiment has been implemented with a typical M-pipeline in 10 cm diameter/4 m length. The experiment results revealed that self-navigation could improve the efficiency of inspection.

Wen Zhao, Mitsuhiro Kamezaki, Kento Yoshida, Minoru Konno, Ryoichi Toriumi, Shigeki Sugano

Human Activity Detection Patterns: A Pilot Study for Unobtrusive Discovery of Daily Working Routine

Information technology is increasingly becoming an integral part of contemporary life. Most tasks that are performed over the course of a day, involve the use of different types of connected devices. About two billion contemporary consumers use smartphones [1]. These smartphones contain a variety of sensors that can collect information about their users such as their mobility patterns, daily activities and occupancy patterns [2]. Occupancy is an important aspect in developing responsive environments and for optimizing building performance. This work investigates the extent to which smartphones can be used to collect occupancy data in a work environment, compared to another method that uses smart power outlets for collecting occupancy data. The resultant data sets are validated against register entries, which are recorded manually by participants each time they change their occupancy state.

Hicham Rifai, Paula Kelly, Yoshiki Shoji, Damon Berry, Matteo Zallio

Eye Movements and Lie Detection

Accurate value-driven attention and lie detection are crucial for psychodiagnostics. Eye-tracking could be a way to improve the reliability and validity of psychological research. Benefits of eye-tracking are its non-invasive, speed recording, consciousness control proof. The first aim was to search for markers of attention to meaningful stimuli. Specifics markers and gaze patterns of value driven attention were found in contrast to the attention of neutral or composed-indented stimulus. The second aim was to find eye movements’ markers of deception. We found a stable complex of markers for reliably lie detection which is stimulus’ and deception’ type free. Also, specific markers allow differentiate any kinds of deception. Selected deception markers together with “value-driven” markers formed the basis of truth-or-lie detection technology for psychological testing. The special software has been developed what measure background of an individual response rate and allow to set flexible criteria for identifying false responses.

Yulia V. Bessonova, Alexander A. Oboznov

What Are the Benefits of Newly Developed Medical Devices When the User Does not Use Them? – An Investigation of Hearing Aid Use

Current prognosis raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Hence, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions becomes more and more important for the future working world. While vision-related impairments are often corrected, the same is, unfortunately, not true for hearing impairment. This results in the situation, that people with hearing impairments often do not own a hearing aid. Furthermore, even if a person owns a hearing aid, it appears that the hearing aid is not used regularly. Interviews with 18 hearing aid users were conducted to identify barriers to purchase a hearing aid as well as barriers of hearing aid use in their daily (working) life.

Verena Wagner-Hartl

Development of an Active Upper Limb Orthosis Controlled by EMG with Upper Arm Rotation

An active upper limb orthosis was developed for patients who cannot move their upper limb. The system has two independent motors that allow flexion and extension of the shoulder and elbow, and in addition, rotation of the upper arm. By incorporating arm rotation, activities of daily living (ADLs) are improved. If the patient is able to move their wrist as in Erb’s paralysis, electromyogram (EMG) generated by the movement of the wrist is processed by an original system and used to control the orthosis. Evaluations were performed on moving range of orthosis by a healthy subject and on ADL tasks by an Erb’s palsy subject. There were tasks that the subject could not complete because of lack of function or range of motion of orthosis. However, tasks that require use of two arms, which the subject could not complete previously, were completed using the orthosis.

Akihiko Hanafusa, Fumiya Shiki, Haruki Ishii, Masaki Nagura, Yuji Kubota, Kengo Ohnishi, Yoshiyuki Shibata

Humans and Artificial Cognitive Systems

Frontmatter

Design and Experimental Validation of Transparent Behavior for a Workload-Adaptive Cognitive Agent

This work describes and validates a concept of transparent behavior for adaptive automation in the field of military helicopter missions. The adaptive automation is implemented as a cognitive agent, to serve as an artificial co-pilot. It dynamically adjusts its level of assistance by choosing from different workload-adapted strategies of assistive intervention. However, adaptive interventions may entail a possible drawback. It might be difficult for the human operator to build up a sufficient and stable mental model of the interaction. For the purpose of creating transparent behavior, this contribution provides an approach for the agent to communicate in a more human-like fashion. To quantify the impacts of the additional transparency information the artificial agent communicated, we conducted a human-in-the-loop experiment. The results revealed an enhancement of situation awareness and an increase of perceivable intelligence and other human-like characteristics of the cognitive agent.

Yannick Brand, Michael Ebersoldt, Daniel Barber, Jessie Y. C. Chen, Axel Schulte

Intelligent Visual Analytics – a Human-Adaptive Approach for Complex and Analytical Tasks

Visual Analytics enables solving complex and analytical tasks by combining automated data analytics methods and interactive visualizations. The complexity of tasks, the huge amount of data and the complex visual representation may overstrain the users of such systems. Intelligent and adaptive visualizations system show already promising results to bridge the gap between human and the complex visualization. We introduce in this paper a revised version of layer-based visual adaptation model that considers the human perception and cognition abilities. The model is then used to enhance the most popular Visual Analytics model to enable the development of Intelligent Visual Analytics systems.

Kawa Nazemi

CPR: Bright Side of Machine-Human Relationship

Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a common procedure at Accident and Emergency Department, especially in the Red Zone or Resuscitation Room. This procedure is done as a method to save patients’ life, especially in the event of cardiac arrest. Medical doctors or nurses do continuous cycles of chest compressions manually in order to ensure the heart keep pumping. This is vital in making sure blood supply to the heart and brain is not interrupted. The external force needed to compress the chest is a result of continuous pressing of the heart at the level of mid chest. One cannot deny, the process can be exhausting and can cause muscular pain to the medical doctors or nurses. However, with innovation and technology, nowadays, CPR can be done using machine. The objective of this study is to justify how the relationship of human and machine, has not only save patients life, but also able to safe the medical doctors and nurses from the risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). This study has been carried out at Red Zone of Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. During this study, 10 medical doctors participated. 8 females and 2 male doctors were voluntarily involved in this study. All of them were asked to perform CPR while standing on the floor and while standing on a stool and patient lying on the bed. Their body postures were recorded and score were given based on Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). This score will determine whether they might have the risk of MSD due to performing CPR or not. For this study, a mannequin was used instead of real patient. Two mechanical CPR device machines were selected in this study, which were LUCAS and AutoPULSE. CPR by these machines was also performed on the mannequin. Result showed, REBA scores are high risk and very high risk. The REBA score when performing CPR while standing on stool were higher compared to REBA score when performing CPR while standing on the floor. Thus, the existing machine-like LUCAS and AutoPULSE in doing CPR not only save patients life, but also have helped the medical doctors and nurses as well. The teaming between machine and human in this study has proven to bring benefits to human life, especially to the medical doctors and nurses.

Shaik Farid Abdull Wahab, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Rohayu Othman

Surface Recalibration as a New Method Improving Gaze-Based Human-Computer Interaction

The main problem of a gaze-based interaction is the correct mapping from an output of eye tracker to a gaze point. In this paper we propose a new method of improvement of the gaze-based human computer interaction using: (a) a procedure to estimate the error introduced by screen tracking algorithms (surface recalibration) and (b) using the obtained error data to transform the eye-tracking data in real-time (data transformation). In order to test the developed method, we conducted initial pilot study using simple target pointing procedure. Initial data gathered during these tests shows that our method may increase the effectiveness (measured as target pointing speed) of the gaze-based interaction using mobile eye trackers. In future studies it is worth testing this method using stationary eye trackers as it can be an effective way of facilitating gaze-based interaction by counteracting calibration errors that would yield gaze-based system unusable.

Cezary Biele, Pawel Kobylinski

A Bionic Sphincter for Stress Urinary Incontinence: Design and Preliminary Experiments

The treatment of severe Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) SUI cases requires the implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS). The current gold standard AUS presents a number of well-reported complications, including: mechanical breakdown, urethral atrophy, and cuff erosion. Patients implanted with AUS have a difficult lifestyle with 60% requiring re-visitation and re-operation [1]. The work reported in this paper provides a promising solution for a smart artificial sphincter that minimizes urethral atrophy through automatic re-adjustment of the pressure applied on the bulbous urethra to provide continence dynamically controls the occlusion of the urethral cuff. The effectiveness of artificial urinary sphincters device in maintaining continence was tested on an in vitro set-up replicating the different parts of the urinary system. The final in vitro test bed consisted of a prototyped silicone bladder, a urethra and a ureter from the same material, along with a support system that houses these components for experimental characterization. The choice of silicone as the material for the phantoms used in the set-up was done after producing several models made from various polymers. It was found that the models made of a specific silicone with Shore hardness 2A were closer in terms of mimicking the mechanical characteristics of the muscles in the parts of interest. The contribution of this work is in providing an in vitro test bed that can be used by researchers to test the AUS systems they develop, by surgeons to practice implantation and by physicians to explain the surgical treatment to their patients. The test bed also represents an option to avoid animal experiments in preliminary testing.

Kenana Al Adem, Sarah S. Bawazir, Khulood Alameri, Gioia Lucarini, Tommaso Mazzocchi, Cesare Stefanini, Paolo Dario, Arianna Menciassi

Experimental Validation of Pilot Situation Awareness Enhancement Through Transparency Design of a Scalable Mixed-Initiative Mission Planner

This study focuses on the increase of situation awareness (SA) in human-agent mixed-initiative mission planning. Complex agent behavior and the failure to comprehend the agent’s proposed actions might result in a loss of SA and a decrease in trust. This study adopted the transparency strategies proposed by the SA-based Agent Transparency (SAT) model to improve the human operator’s perception, comprehension, and projection of the agent’s interventions. The concept was applied to prototype of a planning associate for multi-vehicle mission planning. A human-in-the-loop experiment revealed a higher SA and performance. Subjective trust measures could not verify a change in operator’s trust in the agent. The results and the potential for further research are discussed.

Fabian Schmitt, Gunar Roth, Daniel Barber, Jessie Chen, Axel Schulte

Integrating 3D Facial Model with Person-Centered Care Support System for People with Dementia

Our research group has been studying a speech communication system with a virtual agent (VA), to support person-centered care (PCC) of people with dementia (PWD). The current system uses an unfamiliar avatar for the VA, which causes a limitation in the care effects. In this paper, we develop a novel system that dynamically creates a VA based on a given facial image. The proposed system constructs a three-dimensional model based on facial landmarks within the image. It then stretches and transforms some portions of the 3D model to generate facial expressions. From just a given picture, the proposed system easily generates a communication agent familiar with individual PWD. Hence, it can implement (virtual, but effective) conversations with familiar partners.

Shota Nakatani, Sachio Saiki, Masahide Nakamura

Integration of Cognitive Cybernetics into Intelligent Human Systems

Nowadays, intelligent technologies preoccupy humanity in already congested information space with millions of characters and messages. Their interactivity is superimposed with intelligent systems as persuasiveness. The cognitive dimension as a dominant function of the mind and self-consciousness questions what is happening with the anthropological horizon of a man who disappears within such intelligent human system environment? Development of intelligent technologies firstly focused on the application in technical fields of science has now transcended to all spheres of the modern human life. Questions and doubts that arise from such a reality are presented in this paper with the emphasis that help from cognitive cybernetics is needed in solving latter issues.

Zdenko Balaž, Davor Predavec

Gaze-Aware Cognitive Assistant for Multiscreen Surveillance

Surveillance operators must scan multiple camera feeds to ensure timely detection of incidents; however, variability in scanning behavior can lead to untimely/failed detection of critical information in feeds that were neglected for a long period. Using an eye tracker to monitor screen fixations we can calculate (in real-time) the time elapsed since the last scan of each particular feed, allowing the setting-up of targeted countermeasures contingent on operator oculomotor behavior. One avenue is to provide operators with timely alerts to modulate the scan pattern to avoid attentional tunneling and inattentional blindness. We test such an adaptive solution within a major event surveillance simulation and preliminary results show that operator scan behavior can be modulated, although further investigation is required to determine warning frequency and modality to optimize the balance between saliency and workload increase. Future work will focus on adding a real-time vigilance detection and countermeasure capability.

Sébastien Tremblay, Daniel Lafond, Cindy Chamberland, Helen M. Hodgetts, François Vachon

Computerized Brain Interfaces for Adaptive Learning and Assessment

This paper presents a project, which aims to develop a low-cost Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), whose characteristics may allow educational institutions to improve the learning and evaluation methodologies applicable to a specific student. By collecting reliable electroencephalogram (EEG) data, the system will realize a cognitive state monitoring of the learner and will evaluate its brain activity to adapt the content and visualization of the learning material. Two main objectives have been established in order to determine the success of the investigation: Assess the use of contemporaneous low-cost EEG devices and applications as a proper method to obtain reliable results of the students’ cognitive state. Develop signal-processing algorithms that allow identifying the cognitive state of the students as well as their working memory load (WML).

Rosa María Arnaldo, Javier Iglesias, Víctor Fernando Gómez, Javier Crespo, Luis Pérez, José Félix Alonso, Alvaro Rodriguez Sanz

Recognition of Affective States via Electroencephalogram Analysis and Classification

Understanding and reacting to the affective state of users is increasingly becoming important in the field of human–computer interaction (HCI) research and practice. Recent developments in brain–computer interface (BCI) technology has facilitated improved accuracy in human emotion detection and classification. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using electroencephalogram (EEG) for the detection of four affective states based on a dimensional model (valence and arousal) of emotions. We conduct rigorous offline analysis for investigating the deep neural network (DNN) classification method in emotion detection. We also compare our classification performance with a random forest (RF) classifier and support vector machine (SVM). The data analysis results revealed that the proposed DNN-based classifier method outperformed the methods based on the SVM and RF classifiers.

Abeer Al-Nafjan, Manar Hosny, Yousef Al-Ohali, Areej Al-Wabil

Non-obtrusive Sleep Detection for Character Computing Profiling

The majority of existing Adaptive Systems rely on the user’s current state (affect) without taking the user’s general state (character) into consideration. In order to achieve truly seamless adaptive interactive systems, understanding the user’s character (i.e. Character Profile) is required. This paper presents a non-obtrusive sleep detector, MySleep, which is part of a multimodal lifelogging platform called MyLife. MyLife is designed for the main purpose of enabling building Character Profiles for users, which is a main artefact required in Character Computing. The aim of MySleep is to provide sleep records to be used in character profiling without requiring the user to use any external hardware and with minimal interaction. A study was conducted to test the accuracy of MySleep and compare it to other wearable sleep detectors. For the required purposes, the results provided by MySleep are accurate enough with requiring minimal interaction with the user.

Alia ElBolock, Rowan Amr, Slim Abdennadher

Biological and Social Factors that Exert an Impact on Decision Making During Working-Out of the Convergent Technologies

Authors proved that working out of NBIC technologies and organization of the NBIC-based human-oriented production systems requires applying a number of particular management instruments. These instruments use biological and social factors and parameters as stimuli and criteria. Authors also present concept and methods of applying these instruments that should promote successful reindustrialization processes and harmonic interaction between the humans and technosphere.

Evgeny Kolbachev, Tatiana Kolbacheva

Humans and Color Cognition – Using the Brain to Study Human Behavior

Humans establish personal relationships with Color. However, most of our reactions are unaware. Through recent researches, we know which areas of the brain are activated, as well as we can measure the behavior of humans in what concerns color issues. The visible brain consists of multiple functionally specialized areas that receive their input largely from two brain areas known as V1 and the area surrounding it known as V2. These are currently the most thoroughly charted visual areas, but not the only ones. Through these areas we perceive color and can be more or less stimulated when we see different colors. So, an experiment with users using VR is under development, in order to check brain reactions to the different color dimensions, specially color cognition, comparing the results with those obtained by the other previously used methods, such as survey, direct observation and the literature review. This paper focus on the acquisition of scientific knowledge in the area of color cognition which can serve as a projective tool for designers, as well as a reference to the use of color to users in general. As expected results, we intend to achieve a systematization of scientific knowledge reusable by all within the interaction Color/User; and to produce guidelines serving as a projective tool for the use and application of color in design projects.

Fernando Moreira da Silva

Assessing the Effect of Care Treatment Using Face Emotional Analysis and Cognitive Computing

In the practice of scientific nursing care, it is essential to assess the quality and effect of nursing care services, since the caregivers must know whether or not the care was effective for the target person. Currently, however, the assessment relies on human subjective questionnaire and assessment sheets. Hence, it is difficult to justify the quality and effect as such the evidences encouraged in the scientific nursing care. To cope with the problem, this paper proposes Face Emotion Tracker (FET) that evaluates the effect of care as a transition of emotions of a person under care. The proposed system can produce real-time data quantifying emotions of the target person under care, which is more objective and fine-grained clinical data compared to the conventional manual assessment sheets. We then propose a metric that quantifies the quality of care.

Arashi Sako, Sachio Saiki, Masahide Nakamura

Identify Subconscious Visual Response from Brain Signals

Subconsciously, humans can recognize objects and events from various depths of memory. When such things are experienced, our brain responds with certain signals. In this research, we have identified specific bands of signals that become distinct while experiencing memorized visual objects in short bursts of time. Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of images where recognition time is less than the time taken for conscious visual recognition of target images are about 13 ms/image. Subconscious reflection has a relationship with retinal response particularly in pupil dilation. So, we have assumed that the occipital lobe, that is responsible for our sight, visual stimuli and recalling old memories, gives a retinal response and is associated with the memorized object of interest. A set of 200 grayscale images, including the image of interest, were presented for 6 to 12 ms intervals, in RSVP series, to human subjects. When the target image(s) slides change, subconsciously, the retina responds in connection with neural activities. These neural activities are the action of neurons and generate neural signals. Those were captured through an EEG device. Analyzing the behavior and the amplitude of the EEG signals, we have found that the subconscious visual response has a very high frame rate.

H. T. M. A. Riyadh, Jahangir Hossain Bhuyain, Zehara Zebin, Khandaker Tabin Hasan, A. Z. M. Ehtesham Chowdhury

EEG Analysis from Motor Imagery to Control a Forestry Crane

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems can provide people with ability to communicate and control real world systems using neural activities. Therefore, it makes sense to develop an assistive framework for command and control of a future robotic system which can assist the human robot collaboration. In this paper, we have employed electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded by electrodes placed over the scalp. The human-hand movement based motor imagery mentalization is used to collect brain signals over the motor cortex area. The collected µ-wave (8–13 Hz) EEG signals were analyzed with event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) quantification to extract a threshold between hand grip and release movement and this information can be used to control forestry crane grasping and release functionality. The experiment was performed with four healthy persons to demonstrate the proof-of concept BCI system. From this study, it is demonstrated that the proposed method has potential to assist the manual operation of crane operators performing advanced task with heavy cognitive work load.

Midhumol Augustian, Shafiq ur Réhman, Axel Sandvig, Thivra Kotikawatte, Mi Yongcui, Hallvard Røe Evensmoen

Exploring the Usage of EEG and Pupil Diameter to Detect Elicited Valence

Brain signals are a reliable information source because human beings have limited voluntary control over. We examine EEG readings as a reporting tool concerning human emotions. We examine whether readings from an eye tracker, can enhance the results. We conducted an experiment on 25 users to measure their EEG signals in response to emotional stimuli. All sensors used were off-the-shelf, to test our method using cheap sensors. We used pleasant and unpleasant videos content to elicit emotional responses. Along with Self-Assessment Mannequin (SAM), Alpha symmetry index readings, and pupil diameter, were recorded. Our results show a significant difference in the video clips eliciting different emotions. This implies that EEG can be a valid way to detect emotional state, especially when combined with eye-tracker. We conclude from our findings that EEG can be used as a platform, upon which reliable affect-aware systems and applications can be built.

Yasmeen Abdrabou, Khaled Kassem, Jailan Salah, Reem El-Gendy, Mahesty Morsy, Yomna Abdelrahman, Slim Abdennadher

Integrating Classes from Different Schools Using Intelligent Teacher Support Systems

We present a teacher support system to enable inter-class integration with Cross-Border Public Classes. These are lessons where students from classes in two different countries participate in the same lesson synchronously, while tens or hundreds of other teachers actively observe and record their observations. Later, a panel analyzes the lesson and the teacher reviews the observations. The system presented is a cloud-based teacher support system that allows the teacher to ask open-ended questions, with peer review between students. It also summarizes the students’ answers using automatically generated concept maps, as well as recording and analyzing the teacher’s discourse. Furthermore, the system also receives annotations from the observers. We describe our experience of using this system with Cross-Border Public Classes while teaching a lesson in STEM focusing on energy. The lesson involved two eighth-grade classes from two different countries. We found that Cross-Border Public Classes are an innovative alternative made possible by an Intelligent Teacher Support System.

Roberto Araya

AI Infused Fragrance Systems for Creating Memorable Customer Experience and Venue Brand Engagement

In today’s competitive business environment creating memorable experiences and emotional connections (Creating customer value through service experiences: An empirical study in the hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Management 18, no. 1 (2012): 37–53) with consumers is critical to win consumer spending and long-term brand loyalty [1]. Brands want their customers to be in pleasing subliminal scented (Robert Klara, “Something in the air,” http://www.adweek.com/brandmarketing/something-air-138683/ creation date: March 2012, access date: January 02, 2017) environments because, as research has shown, even a few microparticles of scent can do a lot of marketing’s heavy lifting, from improving consumer perceptions of quality to increasing the number of store visits. Hence, customer venues such as hotels, retail showrooms, casinos, hospitable and other captive audience places employ HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning) based scent diffusion system that delivers a seamless olfactory [2] experience to connect with consumers on a deeper emotional level, resulting in a more memorable experience. Current scent diffusion systems, however, use power hungry deployments and dispense periodically, without accounting social mood, geographic local etiquettes, venue-patron occupancy ratios and sudden changes in foot traffic numbers. Thus, resulting sub-optimal user experience that might lead to a poor brand engagement and could incur higher operational costs and thus reduce over all return on the investment (ROI). In this research paper, we propose an innovative approach to create artificial intelligence (AI) infused Fragrance Systems that improve venue experience and operational efficiencies through the application of data science, Big Data Technologies, Edge processing, Supervised machine learning and IoT Sensing. Our system combines pragmatic data science and machine learning algorithms with arty social and mood drivers, albeit data science computed, to create adaptive and artistic fragrance system. The amalgamation data science with human mood influencers is our formula to the innovation that we propose and present a prototyping solution design as well as its application and certain experimental results.

Anitha Ilapakurti, Jaya Shankar Vuppalapati, Santosh Kedari, Sharat Kedari, Rajasekar Vuppalapati, Chandrasekar Vuppalapati

Will Sketching Survive with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Tools?

As the designer has to conceive and develop solutions for specific problems which may be of different nature, sketches may present themselves as an operative support for conceptual reflection, problem solving and critical analyses within the several phases of the design process. One of the main questions we would like to find answers is if the nowadays wide use of new technologies doesn’t invalidate the important role played by hand drawing as a stimulating instrument when sketching the first ideas and as a critical verification of the hypotheses. Sketching survival facing nowadays artificial intelligence growing importance is this research main issue.

Ana Moreira da Silva

Research on the Construction of the Hierarchical Classification Model of the Urban Intelligent Lighting Appliance (UILA) Based on User Needs

Urban Intelligent Lighting Appliance (UILA) refers to the technological terminal device which achieves the functions of intelligent city in the environment of big data interacting, including intelligent control, energy-saving lighting, charging of electrical vehicles, WIFI, environmental monitoring, audio broadcasting and so on, based on the function of urban street lamp LED. At present, the practice and application of UILA at home and abroad are basically in the stage of pilot run, and are short of design as well as research and development (R&D) which take different user needs in various environments. The paper will summarize and analyze the intelligent functional requirements of UILA through the methods of market research, literature consultation, expert opinion, brainstorming, etc. In addition, with the combination of AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method, the hierarchical classification model of UILA user needs will be established, based on which the hierarchical classification model of user needs in urban institutes and colleges district will be built and the weight as well as priority degree of user needs from all hierarchies will be determined. The conclusions of the research can provide quantitative basis and reference for the design, R&D of UILA products based on user needs in the future.

Junnan Ye, Jianxin Cheng, Chaoxiang Yang, Zhang Zhang, Xinyu Yang, Lingyun Yao

Influence of Personal Characteristics and Device Properties on Wearable’s Rank Order

Emerging sensor technology and mobile devices offer the possibility to capture users’ current state more easily. However, the registration of users’ biosignals is still a challenge because of the lack of user acceptance.In this article, we focus on users’ perceptions about wearable devices for registering the electroencephalogram (EEG). We consider subjects’ rankings of the wearable devices and relate them to personal characteristics on the one hand and device properties on the other. Finally, we show for each device separately which evaluation criteria accounted for the given ranking.Thereby, our results indicated that subjects’ preference is influenced the most by the properties of the devices and to a lesser extent by the personal characteristics of the user. The results can contribute to the understanding of users’ device preference and advice developers of wearable technology regarding users’ needs.

Thea Radüntz, Uwe Rose

Comparative Analysis of the Quantitative Parameters of the Different Shapes of the Heart in Human Fetuses

The study of morphogenesis of the heart and its shape in the early stages of development is important. The aim is to study the parameters of heart, its structures, the interrelations with its shape, age and size of fetus. On 149 preparations of human fetuses 12–32 weeks, parameters of the fetus, its heart, intracardiac formations were determined. Statistical processing of received data was made. In the fetuses of one gestation period, it is possible to distinguish three form of the heart: narrow long, transient, wide short. In the fetuses 12–32 weeks, the relationship between sizes of different parts of the heart, independent of age, but related to shape of organ, appears. The heart of the transitional form has a more harmonious sizes ratio. In the construction of the heart and its chambers, the principle of conformal symmetry is realized, determining the similarity in the variety of organ shapes.

G. A. Spirina

A Practice of Flight Deck Evaluation in Civil Aircraft

The cockpit is the primary interface between man and aircraft. The cockpit equipment provides the capabilities of the aircraft in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system and the cockpit equipment determines to a large extent the safety of flight operations. The increased utilization of automated systems, coupled with the increased workload of operating sophisticated aircraft in the modern international airspace system, has made the proper application of human-factors design principles more important than ever. The unique aspect of rule 25.1302 is that it considers the flight crew task as the guiding element for assuring safe operation of the aircraft. It applies to installed systems and equipment intended for flight crew members use in operating the airplane from their normally seated positions on the flight deck. The applicant must show that these systems and installed equipment, individually and in combination with other such systems and equipment, are designed so that qualified flight crew members trained in their use can safely perform all of the tasks associated with the systems’ and equipment’s intended functions. In this paper, a methodical was introduced for civil aircraft flight deck interface design evaluation, which include: Paper & pencil concept evaluation, Static design mock-up evaluation, Dynamic design mock-up, Design prototype, Prototype/final HW/SW evaluation, in-flight demonstration. The flight deck evaluation should be conducted by experienced and qualified pilots against the applicable regulations and guidance material on cockpit HMI interface. The flight deck complete design, validation and evaluation chain have been successfully used in single aisle civil aircraft flight deck design in China.

Haiyan Liu, Baofeng Li, Dayong Dong, Hongtao Liu, Zhefeng Jin, Yinbo Zhang

Operator Response to Failure of a Computerized Procedure System

Computerized Procedure Systems (CPS) are a key operator interface in modern digital control rooms and are becoming more commonplace as part of traditional control room modernization efforts. As a result, the potential failure modes of such systems, and how these affect operator performance, are important areas of consideration for key stakeholders. A pilot study conducted in 2016 at a training simulator evaluated three failure types of the CPS including: (i) failure of the automatic step evaluation function; (ii) failure of the automatic place-keeping function and (iii) total loss of the CPS. The purpose of the study was to explore operator response to these three failures and to identify key research topics for future studies in this area.

Claire Taylor, Michael Hildebrandt, Niav Hughes, Robert McDonald

Human-Human Interaction: A Neglected Field of Study?

This paper presents an overview of Human-Human Interaction field that would be dedicated to tackling problems that occur while interacting with other people. There are many domains, in which researchers conduct studies regarding interaction between people and electronic devices. However, while doing such research, the problems of human-human interaction tend to be neglected. This type of interaction has only been studied in fields connected to psychology/sociology (human behaviour) and medicine (epidemiology). This article proposes a model of interaction between people based on well-known Human-Computer Interaction models and presents some issues that might occur during the process of communication between people. Furthermore, it presents some possible solutions to improve this interaction effectiveness, by applying various devices and interfaces.

Piotr Chynał, Julia Falkowska, Janusz Sobecki

Computational Modeling, Simulation and Design

Frontmatter

Smart Palletisation: Cognitive Ergonomics in Augmented Reality Based Palletising

Palletisation is recognized as a central logistics process which largely depends on employee’s performance and expertise. To assess potential advantages of augmented reality (AR) in palletisation, an AR device was compared with a conventional paper-based pick list and a tablet computer. Usability measures show that the usability of the tablet computer surpassed the AR device and the pick list, whereas task load measures suggests that the AR device provides the less strenuous method to assist participants in palletisation. Thus, we conclude that AR devices are appropriate to assist logistic workers in palletising, however usability has to be improved considerably.

Veronika Kretschmer, Thorsten Plewan, Gerhard Rinkenauer, Benedikt Maettig

Augmenting the Evaluation and Mapping of Progress in Scientific Research – A Human-Machine Symbiosis Perspective

In this paper we propose and demonstrate a software tool for symbiotic human-machine analysis, applicable for structured literature reviews (SLR). We present a seed-based search of bibliographic information, resulting in document clustering and graph visualization. Through a collaborative human-machine effort we show how to detect potential bridging articles and paradigm shifts. The overarching goal is to support the SLR process, especially for developing fields of science, as well as interdisciplinary fields, where similar concepts can be overlooked as they are associated with different keywords and belong to different groups, yet share common ideas. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the tool with two literature search and visualization examples.

Andrej Dobrkovic, Daniel A. Döppner, Maria-Eugenia Iacob, Jos van Hillegersberg

Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Reality Grocery Shopping Application Using a Multi-kinect Walking-in-Place Approach

With the current hype in virtual reality (VR) technology, there has been consistent development and research in a wide range of application areas. One such application areas, is the use of VR to improve the remote shopping experience. In this research, a VR grocery shopping application was developed and verified. The work presents two main contributions to the status quo. First, suitable navigation methods within the shop as a key activity of grocery shopping were researched. Hence full body tracking, using multiple Microsoft Kinect v2 sensors, were integrated in the VR application allowing natural navigation in the virtual environment (VE) by a walking-in-place approach. Second, a qualitative usability evaluation of the solution was conducted. While the findings of this study support previous studies on important features for remote grocery shopping, it reveals specific requirements for VR grocery shopping.

Vix Kemanji Ketoma, Philip Schäfer, Gerrit Meixner

Influence of VR-Based Slope Images on Walking Pattern

In this paper, we proposed a walking training system in which a trainee walks on a treadmill while viewing virtual reality (VR) images using head mounted display (HMD) for the purpose of developing a more continuous and effective walking training. Furthermore, the walking patterns when walking on the treadmill while viewing VR images of walking on a slope and level ground were determined and compared. Consequently, the braking force when viewing a VR image that walking on a downward slope was larger than when walking without viewing a VR image. Therefore, the same tendency as walking on an actual downward slope was obtained when subjects walked while viewing a downward slope image, and it was shown that the walking pattern can be changed by the proposed walking training system.

Yusuke Osawa, Keiichi Watanuki, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Muramatsu, Norihiro Ishizaka

The Concept of Narrative as a Fundamental for Human Agent-Based Modeling

This paper introduces the concept of narrative and its construction into the structure of agent-based modeling, as an effective mechanism for representation of stochastic behavior by agents in the context of social phenomena that are governed by fundamental random processes. A theoretical foundation is offered, citing authorities from the narrative community and related biological, sociological and psychological fields. The fundamental properties of narratives and their relationships are described, and potentially useful lines of further research are posited.

Roger A. Parker

An Agent Based Model of Saudi Household Electricity Consumption

Electricity demands are growing rapidly in Saudi Arabia and would continue to increase as the population grows. Due to the harsh weather conditions in Saudi, half of those demands originate from the residential sector where they rely heavily on air conditioning systems. In order to lower overall consumption, the Saudi government launched several public awareness campaigns to promote responsible electricity use and encourage consumers to acknowledge the electricity consumption label when buying household appliances. They also encouraged insulate houses where it would reduce electricity consumption significantly. To address these issues, this paper presents an Agent-based model (ABM) of domestic electricity consumption. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a technique that incorporates social factors that are focused on the individual, to simulate the interaction of the individual with its environment. It aims to simulate household electricity consumption with consideration of the household members activities. With the household members behavior as a context and rich data, we aim to investigate the benefits of a more efficient household on the overall Saudi energy consumption.

Yosef Alsuhaibani

Digital Human Modelling Method for the Evaluation of the Ultrasound System and Transducer Design Adherence to the SDMS Industry Standards

The problem of work related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMSD) among sonographers is of great importance. The term WRMSD is used to describe conditions that are caused or aggravated by workplace activities. The updated Industry Standards for the Prevention of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Sonography, published recently by the Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography (SDMS), recommends a set of points concerning the ergonomics, design and workflow characteristics, which Diagnostic Ultrasound (US) system manufacturers must follow in terms of design and development of the US system console and scanner body, control panel, monitor and transducers. The present work describes an innovative design methodology utilizing Digital Human Modelling (DHM) to simulate the degree of adherence to the SDMS updated Industry Standards for the Prevention of WRMSDs in Sonography of an US system, monitor and transducer design at the Computer aided Design (CAD) level.

Giuseppe Andreoni, Carlo Emilio Standoli, Fabio Rezzonico, Luis Rojas, Leonardo Forzoni

UX Design in the Localization and Internationalization of NASA’s Eyes on the Earth

In this study, we describe a user experience (UX) design case study for the localization and globalization of NASA’s browser-based visualization technology, “Eyes on the Earth.” The application was developed to display the location of all of NASA’s Earth-observing missions in real time. Visualizations include data streams from missions that constantly monitor the Earth’s vital signs (e.g. global temperatures, concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, sea level height). In the localization of the platform, we describe the design considerations for adaptations of “Eyes on the Earth” to meet the language, cultural, and social requirements of a specific target audience for native Arabic speakers. We discuss the comprehensive rethinking of logic, visual design, and presentation to align the concepts and metaphors with the accepted paradigm for learning (e.g. focus on individual vs. group) and exploration in a given locale, when it differs substantially from the originating culture. In the internationalization aspect of the UX design process, we describe the design and development practices that facilitate migration in the localization process, such as adding markup in document type definitions (DTDs) to support bidirectional text or style sheets for typographic features and for enabling coding to support local, regional, and culturally related preferences. Insights from the UX design process and methodological considerations for localization and globalization are discussed.

Lamees Alsuhaibani, Amal Alabdulkarim, Kevin Hussey, Areej Al-Wabil

Digital Media Art Utilizing Traditional Animation Digital Video Expression Using Projection Mapping and Multi Screen Technique

Recently, the development of animation display has not strongly changed. Most of the traditional 2D display were used old method like screen in theater, so author argues that it is needed a new way to solve this problem. Therefore, the objective this paper is proposed new method of 3D technique display based on the combination of projection mapping and multi screen technique. The author hopes this propose method can improve viewer’s feeling immerse in the environment of 3D display.

Zhipeng Feng, Kiyoshi Tomimatsu

Guidance of Enterprise Team Division Based on Security Awareness and Interaction

In order to reduce the occurrence of unsafe behavior and aggregate the personal employee safety consciousness, a personal security awareness model based on social cluster self-organization is presented. First of all, according to the individual number of employees N, the number of topology K between individual employees is traversed, and the dynamic trend of individual security awareness of employees is simulated by using Matlab software. Then, using the statistical data analysis software package SPSS, the obvious tendency of aggregation when N and the minimum number of topology K are analyzed, we get that there is a linear relationship between N and K by fitting. Thus, it can combine the Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) theory and the enterprise scale to guide the security partition of the enterprise teams and groups, so that the individual safety awareness of employees can reach the same level.

Yun-lu Zhang, Xue-bo Chen

Applying Process Mining Techniques to Learning Management Systems for Educational Process Model Discovery and Analysis

Based on the event logs gathered from the learning management system in use at the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, this study attempts to discover frequent behavioural patterns in event logs. The process mining tool Fluxicon Disco was used to create, clean and prepare the event log. The discovered process model represents the starting point for the assessment of the usage behaviour of the Moodle LMS. A procedure was developed in R (R-project) to analyse the process model by using various R based packages for business process analysis (bupaR, edeaR, processmapR). By applying process discovery, a subset technique of process mining, a process model is obtained, describing the usage behaviour based on real facts and evidence. This obtained educational process model can be used to tailor the Moodle LMS to the specific needs of the individual courses. Customized workflows for specific courses can be modelled based on the results of the analysis, improving the usability of the learning management system. The significance and importance of this study is achieved by applying process discovery as a rather new approach to improve the Moodle LMS usability with evidence and actual workflows, rather than to assess the learning management system usage by other techniques, e.g. based on users’ perceptions.

Darko Etinger, Tihomir Orehovački, Snježana Babić

Explorations into Deep Learning Mobile Applications

This paper presents a feasibility study into a deep learning image recognition system that is embedded into a prototype mobile test-bed application designed to help users maintain healthy eating habits. A natural multimodal interaction is favored allowing a user to take photos of the food ingredients she has at her disposal for preparing a meal. The application utilizes the image recognition system to recognize a variety of fruits, vegetables and other food products as a basis for suggesting well-balanced dietary alternatives. The paper presents our initial explorations with several convolutional neural networks (CNNs) architectures of varying depth and structure. We compare the recognition accuracies and performance of different combinations of the model hyper-parameters complemented with few data augmentation techniques.

Alisa Krstova, Alek Petreski, Sonja Gievska

Theoretical Propositions and Practical Implementation of the Formalization of Structured Knowledge of the Subject Area for Exploratory Research

Today, the choice of the method for solving a scientific problem from any subject area is done using scientist’s natural intelligence that takes much time and is not systematized. Existing formal models of knowledge description are not suitable for the subject area presentation of exploratory research as they use a completely different decision algorithm which results either in the strongest solution from the known or in the strongest inventive one. To solve the problems arised, a method of efficient knowledge structuring has been developed to represent the subject area of the exploratory research that corresponds to the processes occurring in the human intellect. Therefore, it is used in a new formal model of knowledge description. As a result, theoretical provisions for knowledge formalization of the subject area for the exploratory research were developed and a practical implementation of the formalization for the subject area “optimization methods” was carried out. The software product Optimel: Software for selecting the optimal method was obtained; it uses a subject area in the form of a binary tree with questions-answers system.

Olga Popova, Yury Shevtsov, Boris Popov, Vladimir Karandey, Vladimir Klyuchko

Bayesian Network Construction and Simplified Inference Method Based on Causal Chains

A Bayesian network (BN) is a probabilistic graphical model that represents random variables of causal relationships as a directed acyclic graph. There are many methods to construct BNs. These methods decide a BN structure whose likelihood is best in candidates. However, the edges expressing causal relationships tend not to match the one manually obtained by a human, because it reflects the causality between events that do not occur. We should focus on causal relationship of events that occurs in the most of cases. Therefore, it is convenient to generate a BN based on causal chains. To generate a BN from causal chains, we propose an approach to get events and causal chains from diagnostics reports and infer events by using BN. Since causal chains in the report are definitive, probabilities in BNs can be limited to zero or one. Thus, we also propose a simplified algorithm for BN inference.

Yohei Ueda, Daisuke Ide, Masaomi Kimura

Image Super Resolution Using Wavelet Transformation and Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Super resolution is a process of getting high resolution image from more than one low resolution images. Because of its qualitative approach many branches of science and engineering have opted the method for use it in several applications. In this paper we have used the Wavelet Transformation with Swarm Optimization Algorithm and got better optimum super resolution image as compared to our previous work where we used a combination of Wavelet Transformation followed by Genetic Algorithm.

Gunamani Jena, Sudam Sekhar Panda, Bonam Venkata Rajesh, Subhashish Jena

Human Posture Tracking System for Industrial Process Design and Assessment

One of the critical issues characterizing the manufacturing industries, which within Industry 4.0 era are experiencing the new human-centered approach in design, is related to working postures assumed by the workers in assembly activities.In order to study the motion of human body, the research team developed an inertial MoCap system, composed by IMUs. The system allows to estimate the attitude of the fundamental segments of the human body, by using a Kalman filtering, and to evaluate the posture angles assumed during the motion. The system is modular, composed by 4 modules, made of 4 sensors. From acquired data it is possible to code algorithms to online assess the desired ergonomic scores, making the system able to take decisions for the workplace design optimization.In this paper, the full body inertial MoCap system is presented, supported by a test case to prove the reliability of the system in industrial environment.

Francesco Caputo, Egidio D’Amato, Alessandro Greco, Immacolata Notaro, Stefania Spada

Instrumentation of an External Fixator for Force and Bone Healing Process Monitoring

The aim of this project is to design a system capable to quantitatively monitor the healing process. A simple harmonic vibration motion is applied to the system in three conditions (the healthy bone, the completely fractured bone and the intermediate (healing) bone). The system response is recorded and used to calculate resonance frequency as an indication of the system stiffness. The results show that the healthy bone had the highest resonance frequency indicating the highest stiffness and the completely fractured bone was the opposite (lowest). The healing bone is expected to be somewhere in between. This indicated that the system could be used to monitor in the future.

Fatima Ba Fakih, Cesare Stefanini, Paolo Dario, Stefano Mazzoleni

Study of Visual Symbols Used in Food Packaging Identification for the Elderly Affected with Chronic Diseases

With the progress of society, people grew more demanding for the quality of society. Design is an important means and methods to enhance the quality of life, in addition to meeting the life demand value of normal people, the contemporary society has highlighted the trend of globalization of the elderly. In this paper, four aspects of disciplinary interdisciplinary, cognitive psychology, general design, ergonomics and so on are used to find out the improved method and basis for visual symbol recognition. It is important that four methods used in the research: 1. the questionnaire collection of data for the elderly. 2. literature review of the elderly physiological cognitive and cognitive psychology research. 3. universal packaging symbol card. 4. the identification of the elderly identification, take the corresponding Sample to the elderly to do the interview results finally.

Jiajie Lyu, Delai Men

Research of a Falling Detection System for the Elderly Based on Three-Dimensional Acceleration

Elder and senior people living alone have become more and more commonplace, nowadays, with the development of our society. Falls can cause serious injury, especially to the elderly who live alone. The psychological burden, after the fall, and other environmental factors can result in serious harm when the elderly cannot get timely help. The main purpose of the fall detection system is to detect the fall of the elderly in a quicker time. A fall detection system for the elderly, based on three-dimensional acceleration was proposed in the paper. The system was based on three-dimensional acceleration transducer MMA 7260QT and microprocessor MSP430F149. Through experimental verification we found that the proposed system has better performance, higher accuracy and a lower error rate.

Qi Luo

A Qualitative Model to Estimate Users’ Fear of Environmental Conditions for Evacuation Route Guidance

Fear has a great impact on a decision-making phase of evacuees in hazardous situations. Even if it is a safe route, evacuees may find difficulty in passing there. The aim of this study is to clarify physical conditions along roads that make evacuees have fear, and to develop an estimation model quantifying the degree. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing the subjective evaluation of the fear by the participants with the estimated value by the model. We will develop a route planning method incorporating this model. It is expected that the navigation system with the method can provide routes where users evacuate with reassured, avoiding places where they may feel great fears.

Hiroshi Furukawa, Zhihuan Liu

The Effects of Enterprise Staff Safety Consciousness Based on Cellular Automata Model

Accidents are mainly caused by unsafe or improper behavior. In this paper, we analyzed the spread of individual safety awareness in order to improve the overall security awareness based on cellular automate model. The individual safety awareness consists of two aspects which includes internal factors and external factors. The internal factors have to do with the effects of personal benefit, emotion and attention. External factors influence and support the spread of safety awareness within neighborhoods. First, we simulated a set of conditions and prioritized those conditions. Then we investigate individual safety awareness, in order to analyze the relationship between the increase of a high safety awareness and overall safety. Finally, combined with the behavior-based safety management system concept and the key factor above, some specific measures, such as education and increased communication with others, are put forward.

Min Yang, Xue-Bo Chen

Machine-Man-Task System Approach and NR-17 Regulatory Standard

The standard for ergonomics sets parameters for the working conditions to the psychophysiological characteristics of workers to provide comfort, safety, and efficient performance. The machine-man-task system approach allows the voice of the worker to be included in the design of the production system, the steps of implementation and validation. The aim of this work is to assess the tasks of postman in their jobs and propose suggestions to minimize the risks of accidents, injuries and illnesses. The approach used four ergonomics phases: diagnosis, assessment, design, and validation. The diagnosis showed the levels of illuminance, effective temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, and fire extinguishers coverage met the requirements of standard. The noise level and comfort, according to anthropometric measurements did not met the requirements of the standard. The excessive ambulation of workers was reduced with the new layout and validated by the workers as well as labor gymnastics performed.

Norma de Melo Pinto, Kazuo Hatakeyama

Ambient Intelligence and User Experience

Frontmatter

User Centered Ecological Interface Design (UCEID): A Novel Method Applied to the Problem of Safe and User-Friendly Interaction Between Drivers and Autonomous Vehicles

User Centered Ecological Interface Design (UCEID) is a novel Human Factors method that integrates relationships between Ecological Interface Design (EID) and inclusive Human Centered Design. It combines existing methodology from the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework [1–3] and Inclusive User Centered Design [4, 5]. This paper offers a practical guide to UCEID by providing a high-level summary for practitioners using the example of vehicle to driver handover in a BASt Level 3 autonomous vehicle.

Kirsten Revell, Pat Langdon, Mike Bradley, Ioannis Politis, James Brown, Neville Stanton

Statistics-IDE: Supporting the Design of Empirical Experiments for Non-experts During Early Stages of Research Projects

Empirical experimentation and inferential statistics are often perceived as challenging among students and researchers. Yet, empirical experiments are highly relevant and appropriate methods in several areas of ergonomics and human computer interaction. This paper argues that the traditional research proposal written in prose is an ineffective mechanism for ensuring sound experiments. This paper discusses the idea of tool-based support for the design of quantitative experiments. The objective of an experimental design tool is to help the experimenter make correct and wise decisions early in the process by providing feedback on ideas at early stages. We discuss the benefits of the IDE (Integrated Development Environment) paradigm as a platform for designing quantitative experiments.

Frode Eika Sandnes, Evelyn Eika

Measuring User Experience of Seniors in Battery Swapping Interactions

Taiwan is an island nation with the highest density of scooter-riding populations in the world. In addition, Taiwan will have to deal with the consequences of increased longevity and falling birth rates. This study aims to understand how using a self-service battery swap station (BSS) affects experience of seniors in their interaction with the BSS and, furthermore, whether providing such service may increase their willingness to accommodate E2Ws. Here, seventeen seniors had experienced a BSS and filled out questionnaires. The results showed that approximately 82.4% of the participants like the BSS design, more than 94% of the participants satisfied with the BSS’s service, and more than 45% of the participants were willing to recommend BSS and to own an E2W. This study also future discuss the problems that identified by participants, and recommend ways of resolving them to have better BSS adoption and purchase intention.

Fei-Hui Huang

Web Page Graphic Design Usability Testing Enhanced with Eye-Tracking

The aim of the study was to present and verify the methodology used in usability tests for web pages graphic designs with the use of: eye-tracking registration and first click tasks with participation of users. The usability analysis is based on both the observation of the user performance as well as the user feedback from the performed task. In this paper we propose and verify the usability testing method of the web page graphics static design, which allows rapid and repetitively performed usability user test before system implementation.We verified our methodology with web-based e-commerce application SimplyTick with using eye-tracking data that was registered using Tobii X2-60 eye-tracker and Tobii Studio software. For the analysis we have used the registered gaze fixation heat maps and AOI (Area of Interest) statistical data analysis.

Piotr Chynał, Julia Falkowska, Janusz Sobecki

Preliminary Research on Competency Model for High Plateau Airline Pilots

A competency model is a framework for defining the skill and knowledge requirements of a job. It is a collection of competencies that jointly define successful job performance. Competency models are widely used in business for defining and assessing competencies within organizations in both hard and soft skills. Competency models are also used in Airline Company. It is the more effective measure to employ the qualified high plateau airline pilots for airline, which can reduce the risk of operation. Basing on it, the competency model of the high plateau airline pilots has proposed in the paper by using questionnaire survey. After testing the model by experiment, the competency model of high plateau airline pilot has good reliability and validity.

Qi Luo

User Interface Design in Remote Aerodrome Flight Information Service

Recently, air traffic volume is increasing more and more due to strong air travel demands. Airport control operation needs to keep safe and smooth traffic condition. On the other hand, air navigation service provider (ANSP) faced up to provide mode large traffic capacity and make higher efficiency. Therefore, ANSP attempt to exploit not only large-scale airports but also small class airports. Remote Air Flight Information Service will be provided to under the middle size airports. User interface design is also an important factor to improve remote AFIS operation performance. In this research, we propose an idea of interface for remote AFIS which is designed as an easy-to-use interface concept for AFIS operators’ work. We also discuss the design process and technique based on User Experience (UX) approach. At last, we show our prototype concept design based on analysis.

Shoka Nagata, Kazuhiko Yamazaki, Satoru Inoue

The Robot Brain Server: Design of a Human-Artificial Systems Partnership

The global demand on technological services that make people independent of others is growing. Social robots seem an outstanding candidate to offer services for self-management and companionship because they can deliver abstract information in an understandable way and are treated as trusted partners. Recently, I initiated the Robot Brain Server (RBS) project, which handles the data, data security, and Artificial Intelligence that drives the robots. RBS takes a hybrid-centered design approach in which software developers work with the public at large to produce a new generation of artificial cognitive service systems to support specialists in care, education, hospitality, and other service professions.

Johan F. Hoorn

Act like a Human: Teach an Autonomous Vehicle to Deal with Traffic Encounters

Human drivers will be driving with autonomous vehicles for a long time during the transition to fully automated driving. Recent studies revealed the inability of autonomous vehicle to “socialize” with other human road users. In this paper, we try to provide insights for developing socially acceptable autonomous vehicles through observing human’s strategy for dealing with traffic encounters. We suggest that autonomous vehicles should be empowered with the ability to understand human partners and the ability to percept context, so that it could fit in social road.

Jianmin Wang, Jiawei Lu, Fang You, Yujia Wang

Design Approach for Sanpoyoshi Principle and Case Study

Author propose design approach for user, business and social. “Sanpoyoshi principle” is a Japanese term which means “for all three patties” and “to be good”. For this paper, author propose design approach based on “Sanpoyoshi principle” as good for user, company and social. The proposed approach is including Sanpoyoshi stakeholder map and Sanpoyoshi business model. Author conducted case study based on proposed approach.

Kazuhiko Yamazaki

Identifying Significance of Human Cognition in Future Maintenance Operations

Industrial maintenance in future will operate heavily with intelligent systems. Advanced sensor networks on machines will enable them communicate and learn about failure types, predict consequences and share solutions. Humans on the other hand are equipped with intuitive cognition that facilitates acquisition of knowledge about unique characteristics of individual machines, and use this knowledge in maintenance problem solving. In this article, we identify two major opportunities to collaborate human intuitive cognition with intelligent systems for future maintenance solutions.

Prasanna Illankoon, Phillip Tretten, Uday Kumar

Collaborative Human-Machine Interaction in Mobile Phone Support Centers: A Case Study

Otto is a call center agent designed to help cell phone and mobile provider customers. It has the twin goals of automating call center operations while maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. It is intended to engage with human users in mixed-initiative dialogs to answer questions, explain procedures, and help with diagnostic troubleshooting. Within the domain of mobile devices, it collaborates with customers on specific tasks but maintains a degree of flexibility and naturalness in the interaction. The development of Otto incorporated aspects of human conversation to improve the quality and likelihood of the success of its interactions.

Kyle Dent, Luke Plurkowski, John Maxwell

Crew Resource Management Doctrine Applicability to Human-Machine Interaction in Commercial Aircraft

Automated systems are quietly entering our lives in many different forms. These include speech recognition, smart home systems, intelligent assistants, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), highly automated aircraft, trains, nuclear power plants, and cars. Automation has many potential benefits. It can limit human operator error and improve efficiency. What happens when automated systems reach the limits of their capabilities? Current automated systems typically have performance limits and need operators who are in the loop in all modes of automated control. If humans cannot be removed completely from these automated systems it is essential to help the human monitors of these systems. One method to improve the human/machine interaction seen in commercial aviation could be to develop requirements to regulate and monitor these systems in regards to how they adhere to crew resource management (CRM) rules that human pilots are required to meet. This could reduce the risk of catastrophic loss in the event of an automation failure in an airliner that requires human pilots to suddenly take manual control of their airplanes. A survey [1] found the majority the pilots agreed that automation should adhere to CRM rules.

Aysen K. Taylor

The Role of Monitoring and Evaluation in Construction Project Management

This paper seeks to give meaning to the monitoring and evaluation practice in construction project delivery. The practice of monitoring and evaluation in the building and construction industry appears to be side-lined whereas other project management areas are given much attention in project delivery. Hence resulting in the neglect and the less attention given to the monitoring and evaluation of the entire project implementation process to ensure the successful completion of projects. The study adopts an extensive desk review approach to explain the role of monitoring and evaluation throughout the life cycle of project delivery. The study revealed that monitoring and evaluation is the only project activity which begins with the initiation of the project until project closure. Some project scope requires monitoring and evaluation to be practised beyond project implementation to ascertain the impact of the implemented project on beneficiaries and end users. The study concludes that effective M&E plays a critical role in construction project implementation given the needed attention by the project implementors/team by providing adequate resources, technical capacity building and providing a conducive project environment and the involvement and participation of stakeholder in M&E will see project performance improved.

Tengan Callistus, Aigbavboa Clinton

Transformations in Mass Society and Emergent Properties of Human Behavior in Contemporary Media Space

There are several fundamental changes related to the communication transformations in modern society resulting from the interaction between communication technologies and society. Chronologically, the transformation of communications into mass communications is one of them. Their appearance began to be seen as a panacea for its “healing”. Labels such as the new “hammer and anvil” of social solidarity are the new socializers and trainers. Mass communications are interpreted as a strong bonding mechanism with socio-cultural consequences. They are associated with a natural cultural bridge between the past and the present, between the national and the world heritage. The mass media, however, often destroy traditional cultural and political values and norms, lower aesthetic taste, profane culture. In today’s society - the 21st century society there have been other types of complications. In the paper, based on media content analysis, an emphasis is placed on these negative aspects, which we perceive as a pollution of the media environment and as “non-ecocultural” effects.

Dobrinka Peicheva, Lilia Raycheva, Valentina Milenkova, Boris Manov

Modelling the Perceived Pragmatic and Hedonic Quality of Intelligent Personal Assistants

This paper represents one of the first attempts to define a quality model capturing the peculiarities of intelligent personal assistants (IPAs). Driven by the results of current studies, we took a better look at the features of IPAs and identified pragmatic and hedonic dimensions that reflect the quality of such applications as perceived by the end users. As a follow up, we experimentally assessed the relevance of the determined quality dimensions. Taking into account the number and strength of differences in pairwise comparisons that was found between evaluated IPAs, the proposed set of attributes was classified into five different groups. Findings reported in the paper can be used by researchers as a foundation for future advances in the field as well as by practitioners as a framework for evaluating existing and developing new intelligent personal assistants (IPAs).

Tihomir Orehovački, Snježana Babić, Darko Etinger

The Brave New E-world of the Human-Centered Media Ecosystem

Using the PEST analysis, the proposed paper examines the political, economic, social, and technological aspects of the demographic and literacy trends and disruptions in the media and communication ecosystem (with regardto Bulgaria). It concentrates on: the political and regulatory commitment to the fundamental values in the process of developing new trajectories in technology, business and governance; the transformation of the business models for personalized interaction at all points of the consumers’ experience; the scaling up of human-centered technologies as phenomenal opportunities for human progress, that also create serious societal challenges.

Lilia Raycheva, Dobrinka Peicheva

Identification of Visually Impaired Person with Deep Learning

The purpose of this study is to identify visually impaired persons by analyzing still pictures of walking of a visually impaired person and that of a healthy person using deep learning. Still images of walking are taking still pictures from video images. Shoot from sideways and diagonally with two video cameras. The number of images (with 1000 or 2000) and the dropout (three, two, or one time) was changed and analyzed. Because the study focused on only visually impaired persons (totally blind persons) and the healthy person’s study machines of two patterns in the experiment, a correct answer rate of 99.9% for every 2000 images and 2 times of the dropout number was obtained.

Shoichiro Fujisawa, Ranmaru Mandai, Ryota Kurozumi, Shin-ichi Ito, Katsuya Sato

The Role of Mental Model in Graphical Password Selection and Design

The aim of this paper is to present conceptual foundations for an ongoing comprehensive study on the effects of Mental Model and culture on the selection and the design of the Recognition-Based Graphical Password (RBG-P). A flexible Security, Usability, Mental (SUM) meta-model has been proposed to provide better insights on designing a usable RBG-P through manipulating the optimal equilibrium solution expanse (δ) without compromising security. This manipulation results in the design requirements, which is a consequence of the combinative effects of both the user and the designer mental models as constituted by the culture. A cognitive map has been produced to explicate the relationship between constituents of usability and security provided by the RBG-P. The development of the mental model process necessitates the building of new mindset and culture. This multifaceted relationship of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) development is represented by extrapolating of Metcalfe’s law to social networks.

Mona A. Mohamed, Joyram Chakraborty, Josh Dehlinger

Tablets and Smart Glasses in Modern Production Environments – A Lab Study on Distracted Walking

Mobile use of ICT like tablets or smart glasses increases steadily. Whether new risks result, caused by distracted walking in working environments, is a topic for occupational safety and health. A lab study was conducted with 36 participants using a tablet, smart glasses and a clipboard for a reading task while walking. Results showed few walking errors. Mobile reading was worse for both digital conditions. Equal strain levels were found in all dual task conditions. Nevertheless, if possible, dual task settings using ICT while walking should be avoided, using a different workflow design.

Patricia Tegtmeier, Sascha Wischniewski

A Perception Study of a New Set of Usability Heuristics for Transactional Web Sites

The heuristic evaluation is one of the most recognized and used methods to measure the usability degree of software products. However, given the current emergence of new categories of software, the traditional heuristics are no longer appropriate. This fact has led the authors to develop a new set of fifteen heuristics that can be used to measure in a more accurate and effective way the usability level of transactional websites. In this study, we present a perception study to demonstrate that our proposal is perceived as easier to use and more useful than the traditional approach. For this purpose, ten undergraduate students who were divided into two teams were requested to perform a heuristic evaluation to an E-Commerce website employing a specific set of usability heuristics. After the activity, the students completed a survey in which three perception variables of the Method Adoption Model were measured. The statistical analysis of the results allows the authors to conclude that the new proposal is better perceived.

Freddy Paz, Freddy A. Paz, Juan Jesús Arenas, Carmen Rosas

On User eXperience Evaluation: Combining User Tests and Psychometrics

The ISO 9241-210 standard defines User eXperience (UX) as a person’s perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service. One of the main perspectives on UX is the psychological one, being fundamental in all user studies. Psychometrics as a psychological phenomena measurement tool could be helpful in UX studies. The paper explores how user testing, query techniques and psychometrics may complement each other when assessing UX. We analyze empirical evidences, using the World Digital Library (www.wdl.org) as case study.

Virginia Zaraza Rusu, Cristian Rusu, Pablo Cáceres, Virginica Rusu, Daniela Quiñones, Patricia Muñoz

Research on Parent-Child Interaction System of Intelligent Children’s Furniture Based on Application Behavior Analysis

At present, children’s intelligent furniture available in market are lack of deep interactivity. To enhance parent-child interaction over children’s intelligent furniture, taking a smart children’s game table as an example, this paper tries to build a multi-modal parent-child interaction system based on applied behavior analysis. This topic has great practical value. At the appropriate time, it can be applied to the market. Combining scientific research with actual production, scientific research will take a positive action in economic production.

Ting Deng, Wei Sun, Ruiqiu Zhang

Adaptive Edge Analytics - A Framework to Improve Performance and Prognostics Capabilities for Dairy IoT Sensor

Edge analytics is an approach to data collection and analysis in which an automated analytical computation is performed on data at a sensor, network switch or other devices instead of waiting for the data to be sent back to a centralized data store. The data collection merits for normal edge operations but limits for the handling of anomaly events and prediction of prognostics conditions. In this paper, we propose an innovative machine learning edge approach that extends Kalman filter for anomaly detection so as to (a) allow the edge to adaptively collect granular data when abnormal or anomaly data markers witnessed for prognostics and (b) relaxes the data collection frequency for normal device operation cycles. In summary, the adaptive edge analytics fine-tunes the data collection and analysis so that overall health and longevity of the device can be improved. The paper presents prototyping dairy IoT sensor solution design as well as its application and certain experimental results.

Santosh Kedari, Jaya Shankar Vuppalapati, Anitha Ialapakurti, Sharat Kedari, Rajasekar Vuppalapati, Chandrasekar Vuppalapati

Evaluation of Legibility and Visual Fatigue Caused by Luminescent Text Displays

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for backlighting text indicators in vehicles. It is desirable that such text indicators have high legibility and low fatigue-inducing qualities. Suitable spectral distributions for text presentation in vehicles have not yet been clarified. This study examined legibility and fatigue when participants read Japanese sentences presented through backlight emission for 10 min in a dark room. The backlight indicators employed four type of white LEDs. The participants were asked to answer questionnaires to evaluate legibility and fatigue. Moreover, the critical fusion frequency and brain activity were measured to evaluate fatigue objectively. The questionnaire results show that all colored backlighting displayed almost an equal legibility. The overall result suggests that participants were most and least fatigued when viewing text illuminated by high color-rending and greenish white backlighting, respectively. Thus, fatigue can be reduced using LEDs with different spectral distributions.

Daiki Saito, Keiichi Watanuki, Keiichi Muramatsu, Kazunori Kaede, Masutsugu Tasaki, Takashi Kanahira, Eiji Ishiguro, Naoya Mashiko

Multimodal Interactive Payment Based on Biometrics

Mobile payment has gradually become an integral part of Chinese people’s lives in the “Internet+” age. But people have higher requirements for the security and convenience of payment method with the maturity of mobile payment. Biometrics is provided with its unique superiorities such as portability, usability, difficult to counterfeit and lose. This paper is divided into three parts to analysis the payment of multimodal biometrics. Firstly, the basic concept and development of biometrics are briefly introduced and the advantages of multi-channel biometrics are pointed out; Secondly, take the subway gate system as an example, the author analyze the path, behavior and interaction characteristics of people in payment, and find out the key link of poor-interactive experience. Finally, prototype design of subway gate system with multichannel interactive payment based on biometrics has been confirmed. At the end of the article, the author sums up some design rules for multichannel interaction and makes predictions and prospects for a more intelligent biometric payment approach in the future.

Shuxian Liu, Huaming Peng

Re-modeling the ‘Phonebook’ in a Smart Phone: Personalization Based on Intimacy and Immediacy

With rapid innovations taking place in smartphone technologies, features in the phonebook has evolved significantly to provide us more options for managing our social network. Personalization of these kinds of intimate social networks with the closest, most meaningful ties, such as between close friends, family, relatives and even close colleagues, are characterized through classification based on high frequency of interaction, but also by an inherent need to feel connected, to be in touch. In a qualitative study following ethnographic research and analysis of phone call logs revealed that, people interact with only a small fraction of the people actually present in their phonebook contact list. Our experiments examined the manner in which the users manage the phonebook and their co-relation to the frequency of interaction and intimacy and immediacy of need with the people they contact. Based on the research conducted, we propose a design approach that enhances the personalization of the mobile phonebook to provide the user with option of reordering hierarchies of their own intimate networks. In the paper, we also study the efficiency and usability of such a personalization tool.

Ravi Mokashi Punekar, Shivani Holkar, Abhishek Yevalkar

Society, Governance and Smart Systems

Frontmatter

Smart Shopping Experience. New Materials and Technologies for Social Inclusion Through Daily Activities

Materials are increasingly becoming one of the key elements to obtain innovative design solutions that can generate new sensory paradigms and expressive languages. In particular, the growing development of new materials and the pervasive diffusion of digital technologies offer insights and opportunities to respond with unprecedented solutions to the needs expressed by specific user targets, even in areas related to traditional daily activities. Among these is “shopping”, which can also become an impressive tool for pursuit inclusion in everyday life, even more when design attention is focused to the needs of individuals with the bigger difficulties to buy something autonomously. Here are presented the results of a design experience aimed to facilitate the choice of an item of clothing during the shopping experience, starting from the needs of people who have the greatest difficulties. Based on the Design for All approach, a complete system of information/display elements was developed, characterized by specific morphological, sensorial, and technological features.

Stefania Camplone, Giuseppe Di Bucchianico

Next Smart Design: Inclusion, Emotions, Interaction in the Concept of Baby Soothing, Caring and Monitoring Smart Solutions

This paper aims to trace back the didactic experience applied while developing the concepts of IOT baby/parents-custom solutions, during a Final Design Lab at the Design School of Politecnico di Milano. Three projects, respectively dealing with baby tubs, monitoring systems and electro smog shielding, will be analyzed in relation to the applied methodologies, the emotional involvement and the questioning generated. If Smart Technologies get increasingly central in our lives, how far can we go even in a context, such as that of baby soothing, caring, and monitoring solutions? How are IOT environments likely to impact on parental life? The outcomes will be of help to observe how design students responded once challenged with the inclusion of smart solutions to baby design products, and to detect the importance of implementing Intelligent Systems while encouraging the flow of emotions, in a new framework of Everyday Aesthetics.

Marinella Ferrara, Anna Cecilia Russo

Applied Semiotics in the Context of Open Government Data (OGD) Portals in the Arab Gulf

Theories of semiotics and how they relate to the use of web interfaces have been a topic of research for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the perception of semiotics from the perspective of technology users in the Arabic speaking populations. In this paper, we delve into interpretations of semiotics in icons used in open government data (OGD) portals from the perspective of native Arabic speakers in the Arab Gulf. We consider how semiotics are used and understood in technology-mediated OGD environments among this population, paying particular attention to the role of social and cultural norms in the visual design of symbols and semiotics. We then offer culturally sensitive design principles and suggestions for future research that incorporates previously unexplored characteristics of semiotics, which play a role in how users perceive icon-based navigation schemes in open data portals. Implications for the design of intelligent OGD portals, and translation of applied semiotics into technological innovations for intelligent navigation in complex OGD portals are discussed.

Furat Aljishi, Arwa Alsaati, Areej Al-Wabil, Anas Alfaris

Cyclotourism and Social Inclusion: From Service to Product for a Smart Extra-Urban Bike Sharing

The theme of social inclusion is increasingly assuming strategic strength in the design of products and services, dictating the guidelines for implementing a context that takes account of human diversity. Watching reality from this point of view brings to consider the multiplicity of needs as a wealth and a stimulating opportunity for new design solutions and innovative ideas, considered as the integrated and coherent system-product set. This approach is crucial when deals with issues such as ecotourism and, more generally, with alternative and sustainable mobility for which it is necessary to deepen the distinctions and different needs of “all”. The possibility to develop new paradigms and expressive languages is also due to the diffusion of new materials and digital technologies that enable systems and products to become smart, closely interconnected and able to develop and to change to adapt as best it can to the users’ needs. This contribution presents the results of a research experience conducted within the Design Thesis Lab at the Department of Architecture of the University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), which has developed a new smart extra-urban bike sharing system. In this particular case, an e-bike product is described with non-common adaptability to different users and designs, resulting from the application of Design for All’s inclusive design principles and at the same time as innovative technologies and materials.

Ivo Spitilli, Stefania Camplone, Giuseppe Di Bucchianico, Antonio Marano

Service System-Based Urban Mobility System Design for Chinese Metropolis

Currently, many Chinese metropolis is facing severe traffic problems. And affecting-factors of these issues are becoming more and more complicated. To cope with this increase of complexity, from perspectives of service system design, building an urban mobility service system can be a new method. In this paper, three primary urban mobility problems of Chinese metropolis are stated and an urban mobility service system, construct in the logic of service system design and with three designing approaches of service system design, can give these three problems good solutions. Also, this urban mobility service system from individual vehicle traffic, group vehicle traffic, and urban slow traffic three perspectives to give a comprehensive solution. Directing at different passengers, unique situations of Chinese metropolis, and based on efficient use of existing urban mobility resources, this mobility service system generates multiple types of mobility services. It aims at providing diverse modes of promising mobility services, to meet people’s mobility needs, to create new profitability for some companies and to relieve traffic pressure for cities.

Jintian Shi, Xiaohua Sun

Smart Cities-Smart Societies

The concept of smart cities and smart societies should start from the base up, from the individuals and not the other way around. The 21st century should be about developing the new smart concepts about a smart transportation system combined with the smart energy one. In these concepts, smart technologies like phone apps that provide people with quick information about how to move, where to park, what areas to avoid due to congestions etc., should be affordable for everybody.Apps that interconnect people and cities around states or the European Union with functions like booking a sharing bike or a sharing car should also be available for each individual. Smart transportation, from cars to trains, bikes or planes, all interconnected by a new technology should serve in the future the citizens around the globe.

Gianmarco Cifaldi, Ionut Serban

City of Future

The city of future represents either a dystopian or a utopic society depending on times or on different points of view of different thinkers. Dystopian literature talks about unknown and bad things, which are regarded with fear meanwhile utopic literature talks about an imaginary future society.Our article takes us in a historic voyage into the two concepts and reveals the differences between the two.

Fabrizio Fornari

Between a Smart City and Smart Society

The concept of smart cities and smart societies should start from the base up, from the individuals and not the other way around. The 21st century should be about developing the new smart concepts about a smart transportation system combined with the smart energy one. In these concepts, smart technologies like phone apps that provide people with quick information about how to move, where to park, what areas to avoid due to congestions etc., should be affordable for everybody. Apps that interconnect people and cities around states or the European Union with functions like booking a sharing bike or a sharing car should also be available for each individual. Smart transportation, from cars to trains, bikes or planes, all interconnected by a new technology should serve in the future the citizens around the globe.

Gianmarco Cifaldi, Ionut Serban

Hemp for a Healthy and Sustainable Building in Abruzzo

We present a research work concerning bio and eco-compatible materials and focused on the use of hemp in building. The work is developed both in the research and training activities, in relationship with the local market. Hemp is a biomaterial with high characteristics of eco-compatibility, but in the considered contest (the Abruzzo region) these potentialities for a highly sustainable life cycle cannot be exploited because there aren’t local productions. Therefore, the principal purpose of our work is to promote the diffusion of a healthy architecture (through an appropriate redevelopment of the existing buildings) and a real local production able to give economic repercussion, in an agricultural-industrial-building symbiosis. This will be done by specifying the well-being performance of hemp products and individuating and overcoming the criticalities of the current practices. So we want to develop a model aiming to the human health safeguard and the economic and social sustainability (circular economy).

Donatella Radogna, Luciana Mastrolonardo, M. Cristina Forlani

The Creative Space of University as a Cognitive-Generative System

The article presents the theoretical approach to design of university’s cognitive environment, which is based on the author’s conception of “creative space” notion. It is based on the idea of generativity as a trigger motivating to learning, creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic application. The term “generative” is an epistemic-didactic feature of both learning and teaching environment. The creative space is defined as a cognitive-generative system stimulating creativity and progress in the creative thinking function via a link between cognitive activity and epistemic-active environment.

Alexander O. Karpov

The Emotional Side of Smartness: Intelligent Materials and Everyday Aesthetics

Every object discloses its true essence through the material it is made of, engaging with the user specific interactions that imply several aesthetics outcomes. But what if the everyday world turned into a smart hub of intelligent materials, endowed with unedited properties, designing a sort of next scenario? Smartness in general amplifies the palette of senses, challenging human perception also in terms of temporal dimension and personal space. Based on Everyday Aesthetics premises, this paper aims to outline this new emotional involvement with intelligent materials, investigating further the potential of what we can refer to as a new artificial, impacting on “body/mind comfort” issues. Exploring the prelude of a next material and design scenario will provide with a wide mapping of the sensory inputs humans are likely to go through while experiencing a new level of engagement with objects of common use.

Anna Cecilia Russo

Mapping ICS Materials: Interactive, Connected, and Smart Materials

In the last years, new classes of advanced materials are emerging, influenced by computing, Internet of Things, and hybridization of design with science. These materials are overpassing conventional smart materials, by presenting additional degrees of intelligence. These are ICS Materials, an acronym for Interactive, Connected, and Smart Materials. While research centers around the world are experimenting with these new materials, there is the need to reflect on their definition, develop a classification, and identify constraints, potentials, and their impact on design. This paper is a step in this direction and provides the initial results of a basic research project focused on studying ICS Materials. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations and present a tentative map for them. This map is the result of an ongoing process of analysis of about one hundred best examples and practices. In conclusion, emerging issues and questions arisen from this study are presented.

Stefano Parisi, Davide Spallazzo, Venere Ferraro, Marinella Ferrara, Mauro Attilio Ceconello, Camilo Ayala Garcia, Valentina Rognoli

Bio-smart Materials: The Binomial of the Future

This paper joins the debate on emerging materials and on the attention that design reserves for scientific innovations, interpreting them in terms of the trends and application scenarios being opened for design research. The two main trends in technical and scientific evolution – intelligence and bio – are considered in order to propose a new definition of Bio-smart Materials that takes into account the development of scientific research with its advances and the influence it has in industrial product scenarios. “Bio-smart” defines the new quality criteria of design, in which materials will play a priority role.

Sabrina Lucibello, Marinella Ferrara, Carla Langella, Cecilia Cecchini, Rossana Carullo

Exploring Scenarios for ICS Materials in the Yacht Design Framework

The yacht market is growing with an ongoing positive trend since 2014 with motor yachts constituting the major segment. The growing size of yacht and the technological advances in material and construction techniques enable experimental design practices. As superyachts evolve into megayachts, the yacht design project is involving more and more “soft” features for higher sensory expression, moving away from the past ergonomics based on the use of space. In that framework, yacht design may also be an experimental platform for interactive, connected and smart (ICS) materials. Based on the experience of ICS Material research project, new backdrops for yacht design framework are built through focus group and card-sorting workshops. The research is addressed by collecting best practices to build a framework as the starting point to exploring different scenarios. Materials experience is a key notion in considering new practices of interaction between yacht, sea and human behavior.

Arianna Bionda, Andrea Ratti

Advanced Materials Empowering Inclusive Engineering Design Processes

The purpose of this research is to identify advanced and smart material solutions suitable for the design of environments, systems, experiences and products according to design for all criteria, an inclusive methodology whose principles state that products and services should be respectful of diversity, safe, functional, healthy, understandable and aesthetic. While designed smart materials have the ability to respond to external stimuli and reversibly and repeatedly change their properties and functions, thus adapting to a wide variety of environments and purposes, a significant number of common manufacturing technologies and materials has proven to be insufficiently performing or feature inadequate sets of physical and technical properties for the engineering of tailored objects, surfaces and devices aiming to match human diversity. This study suggests that state-of-the-art material solutions, among which are nanomanufacturing and advanced AM technologies, represent cutting-edge design tools for the devising and engineering of human diversity-tailored intelligent systems and environments.

Micol Costi, Emilio Genovesi

Interactive, Connected, Smart materials: ICS materiality

This paper defines the ICS materiality analyzing behaviors and components of Interactive, Connected, Smart materials. The authors propose a de-structuring analysis of the complexity of intelligent systems to find out the various elements that constitute ICS materiality. Thus, they become easily understood as working systems made of components that can be assembled for a complex and “augmented” whole. In this scenario, traditional materials act as the primary element of physicality, with the related sensory and emotional dimension, i.e., experiential. Depending on the complexity of the composition, their behavior can change, ensuring a level of increasing intelligence. ICS materials can be designed both in its physical and computational dimension, pending the development and diffusion of new additive manufacturing systems that will integrate the components into a unit where their composition will be difficult to trace, opening up to a more interactive, connected and smart dimension of life experiences.

Marinella Ferrara, Valentina Rognoli, Venanzio Arquilla, Stefano Parisi

Study of the Ergonomics Applied to the Reuse and Recycling of Materials

With the need for workers to find new sources of income, new possibilities for organizing work and the disposition of the working class emerged in Brazil at the end of the twentieth century. This study addresses the application of ergonomics, in different contexts, to a solid waste recycling and commercialization association located in the central region of Brazil. The use of ergonomic hangers, along with routine follow-up by the cooperative, provided suggestions for improvement that were mainly based on applications of physiology and biomechanics, which are fundamental to an ergonomic analysis of work. It is concluded that several aspects of the cooperative could be improved, requiring the participation of the cooperative in this process of change in order to improve postures, methods, and work dynamics.

Hebert Robert da Silva

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