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## Über dieses Buch

This book includes best selected, high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Manufacturing and Energy Sustainability (ICIMES 2020) held at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology (MRCET), Maisammaguda, Hyderabad, India, during August 21-22, 2020. It covers topics in the areas of automation, manufacturing technology and energy sustainability and also includes original works in the intelligent systems, manufacturing, mechanical, electrical, aeronautical, materials, automobile, bioenergy and energy sustainability.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Metallographic Analysis of the Percentage of Carbon in the Test Tube Based on Artificial Vision

This research was born with the purpose of accrediting metallographic analysis tests aimed at microstructure composition techniques and morphological analysis of metallic materials, which is mainly used in the national vehicle bodywork industry. It is based on the use of artificial vision tools. It is necessary to have the requirements of the NTE INEN ISO / IEC 17025: Standard 2006 that stipulates the General Requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. An intercomparison test of results is implemented to validate the traceability of measurements and to allow technical analysts to demonstrate knowledge of how results are obtained through commercial metallographic analysis software. The comparison of an acquisition, post-processing and results generation protocol of a commercial image processing tool, with another one developed in-house using free software is known as OpenCV.

Luigi O. Freire, Luis M. Navarrete, Byron P. Corrales, Jefferson A. Porras

### Chapter 2. Machinability Study of “Nickel Material” in Deep Micro-holes Fabrication Through μECM

In current years, demands of parts and products with deep micro-holes have fast raised. Micro-electrochemical machining (μECM) is one of the cost-effective techniques and a better alternative for the fabrication of deep micro-holes in hard-to-machine materials with precise dimensions and good surface finish. Selection of suitable electrolyte material plays most important role in μECM of a particular material. Quality of deep micro-holes can be highly controlled by selecting suitable electrolyte material as well as its concentration. In this research, aqueous solution of H2SO4 electrolyte (acidic) is used for the study of machinability characteristics of “nickel material” in deep micro-holes fabrication through the process of µECM. To the best of author’s knowledge a very few studies has been attempted in deep micro-holes fabrication in “nickel material” through µECM. In this study, all experiments are conducted using Taguchi L9 (33) OA design with fabricated cylindrical tungsten micro-tool electrode of diameter 108 µm. Machining parameters are optimized using Taguchi technique, and ANOVA is employed to investigate the influence of these parameters on the response outputs such as average diameter (Dh), overcut (OC), and diameter difference (Dd). In last, the dominant machining parameters for the responses have been found out, and the regression models have been developed.

Md. Zishanur Rahman, Alok Kumar Das, Somnath Chattopadhyaya

### Chapter 3. Three-Dimensional FEM Analysis of Nanoparticle-Assisted Radiofrequency Ablation of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive procedure to damage the cancer cells. In RFA, heat is generated only at the center zone of the tumor, and this heat has to propagate up to the periphery of the tumor. Since the thermal conductivity of phantom is low, it reduces heat transfer rate, and time required for complete ablation of tumor will be more. Since the ablation time is one of the main concerns, it is required to reduce it below the standard time (≈7.3 min). The ablation time can be reduced by injecting the nanoparticles into the tumor. In this paper, numerical studies are conducted on PAG phantom to analyze the effect of nanoparticle assisted RFA on the ablation time. Results indicate that in case of nanoparticles assisted RFA, heat conduction rate increases and takes lesser time (17.56% less) to ablate the tumor completely than that in conventional RFA.

Santosh Shiddaling Naik, Bhanu Prakash Bonthala, Ajay Kumar Yadav

### Chapter 4. Investigations on Electrochemical Discharge Machining of Al2O3 Ceramics

The machining of ceramics materials in the conventional machining process is a tedious one. This research work attempts the investigations on electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) used to material removal of ceramics such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with the working medium of the NaOH electrolyte. This machining method will be a better alternative method for industrial applications. The key effort of this work is to attain better material removal rate (MRR) and to minimize the overcut problem. The process parameters are selected for machining such as applied voltage, electrolyte concentration with three different levels. The results reveal that machining of ceramics can be done by electrochemical discharge machining, and the maximum material removal rate is obtained by using the higher concentration of electrolyte.

M. Vijay, T. Sekar, N. Muthukumaran, K. Vijayakumar

### Chapter 5. Design and Numerical Simulation of PCM-Based Energy Storage Device for Helmet Cooling

Thermal energy storage systems have gained importance in the designing of cooling system for micro-electronic and energy-efficient devices. An attempt has been made for designing cooling technique in the helmet namely PCM packet and its performance analysis was carried out numerically. The PCM packet consists of PCM filled pipes and passage for air. The device is intended to provide thermal comfort by reducing the outside air temperature to comfort temperature with the help of latent heat storage PCM material. Two PCM packet positions vertical, horizontal and PCM pipes are filled with paraffin (RT50) PCM. The results of both the systems are presented in terms of liquid fraction, local temperature distribution of PCM, and average air outlet temperature. It is predicted from the results that outside air temperature decreased with the PCM packet held in horizontal position.

Nagaraju Dora, Ch Ramsai, Ch Srinivasa Rahul

### Chapter 6. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Tank Filling Time and Flow Sequence

The tank filling problem can be put under a broad umbrella of free surface flows. Free surface flows are characterized by phases separated by a distinct interface. In this paper, we present a discussion on tank filling problems, wherein a tank is filled by the liquid entering from two in gates. Parametric studies are performed by varying the inlet velocity and orientation of the ingate to predict the fill time, flow sequence, and track the velocities at different positions in the tank, using ANSYS Fluent. An optimal velocity was chosen to ensure there is no rapid flow movement and overflow. Providing the orientation to the ingates helped to improve the volume fill rate, though some cases showcase rapid bubble formation, and receded flow movements.

Akshay Saxena, Mayank Parasher, Mukul Anand, Nikhil Garg, Supradeepan Katiresan, P. S. Gurugubelli

### Chapter 7. GA-Based Tuning of Integral Controller for Frequency Regulation of Hybrid Two-Area Power System with Nonlinearities and Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a new step toward the planning and efficient control of power grids with its vehicle-to-grid capability. It serves as a reliable backup for frequency control (FC). This paper aims to analyze the FC using automatic generation control (AGC) in a hybrid two-area system incorporated with EVs, which act as controllable loads along with conventional generating units under abnormal conditions. Integral controller of AGC is the key factor of the system, in which the controller parameters are to be optimally tuned with the help of suitable tuning method to arrive the frequency deviation as zero. Physical limitations or nonlinearities are added in the analysis of this system, to obtain a realistic and accurate result. Potential of the control technique is analyzed in MATLAB/Simulink environment in view of transient response parameters and deviations in tie-line power under perturbations.

K. R. Roshin, E. K. Bindumol

### Chapter 8. Design and Analysis of Vehicle Tyres with Phase Change Material for Anti-freezing

In transportation, automobiles run on tyres for their movement on the road ways. There are various problems faced by the tyres, one of them is cold weather conditions especially in countries and places where temperatures drop below 0 °C and where the roads are covered with layers of ice or snow which clogs in the treadings of the tyre decreasing their grip on the road and also reduces tyre pressure due to change in density of air. These factors not only affect the tyres performance, but are also responsible for the fatal accidents occurring on the roads due to skidding and slipping of tyres. This work deals with the problems faced on account of tyres in cold weather conditions and tries to eliminate them with a different approach by employing phase change materials (PCM) which release high amounts of heat while freezing and absorb heat when they are melting. Embedding these PCMs in the vehicle tyres generate sufficient heat that can reduce the clogging of ice on the tyres. The present work analyses the effect of the position of the PCMs on the performance of the tyres. The PCMs are embedded around the circumference of the tyre such that angle between PCMs is 90°,120°,180°and 360º, respectively, on four different tyres. Theoretical and simulation analyses are carried out to study the effect of PCMs on the temperature difference generated. From the analysis, it is observed that PCM is quite effective in transfer of heat to tyres in cold conditions, and it is effective and efficient when positioned at 360°, i.e. when attached on complete inner wall of a tyre.

P. Venkata Ramana, Sai Rohan Gogulapati, K. Adithya Sharma, K. Sanjay, N. Varun Raj

### Chapter 9. Experimentation and Mathematical Modelling: Indirect Forced Convection Solar Drying of Tomato with Novel Drying Chamber Arrangement Using Phase Change Material as Thermal Energy Storage

The scope of indirect forced convection solar drying is better than other methods due to reduction in drying time and better quality of dried products. The current work focuses on experimental and mathematical modelling of tomato drying using the method at two different flow rates of 0.153 and 0.077 kg/s. Experimentation on drying of tomato is performed using a novel drying chamber arrangement with phase change material used as thermal energy storage in solar collector. With the experimental data, mathematical modelling is considered in the present study. There is a reduction in drying time by 6 h at a flow rate of 0.153 kg/s compared to open sun drying, and at a flow rate of 0.077 kg/s, the drying time gets reduced by 5 h. The best model is found to be the parabolic model for drying tomato with $$R^{2}$$ R 2 = 0.9806 and RMSE = 0.03175.

V. Sabareesh, K. John Milan, C. Muraleedharan, B. Rohinikumar

### Chapter 10. Effect of Indoor and Outdoor Conditions on the Performance of SHVCR System—An Experimental Study

This paper presents an experimental study on the solar hybrid vapor compression refrigeration (SHVCR) system in indoor and outdoor conditions. This system was tested in indoor condition and compared with the outdoor condition. The energy consumption and temperature variation inside the refrigerator were recorded in both conditions. The effect of meteorological parameters on the performance of SHVCR system was analyzed. The results showed that the performance of this system was depended on indoor and outdoor conditions. The refrigerator cooling rate in indoor condition was faster as compared to outdoor condition. The per day energy consumption of this system in the outdoor condition was 112 Wh to maintain average lower temperature −12 °C inside the refrigerator chamber. The per day energy consumption of this system in the outdoor condition was recorded 78 Wh. The energy consumption of this system was 30% lower in indoor condition as compared to outdoor condition. The proposed SHVCR system was able to store lifesaving vaccines and perishable foodstuffs.

Surender Kumar, Rabinder Singh Bharj

### Chapter 11. An Integrated Switching Pattern and Sensorless Speed Control for BLDC Motor Drive in Electric Vehicles

The vital area in brushless direct current (BLDC) motor drive used in electric vehicle drive is motoring, regenerative braking, battery charging, and speed control. To attain these, separate circuits should be used. Switching pattern for the first three modes integrated with sensorless speed control for which finds application in electric vehicle is highly warranted in the present scenario. This paper addresses in detail these four areas. The proposed switching pattern enables the same converter for motoring operation of BLDC motor to be used during regenerative braking as well as rectifier in charging mode of battery from the AC grid. Line voltage detection-based sensorless speed control method is also discussed in the paper so that reliability of the system can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using simulation and also virtual hall sensor signals are compared with actual hall sensor signals experimentally under variable speeds.

M. U. Deepa, G. R. Bindu

### Chapter 12. An ANN Approach for Predicting the Wear Behavior of Nano SiC-Reinforced A356 MMNCs Synthesized by Ultrasonic-Assisted Cavitation

Artificial neural networks (ANN) are a science that attempts to mimic the system of human mind in tackling issues. Many researchers have been conveyed for modeling and forecast of wear properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs) by ANN method. But this technique is not yet used for metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) so far. ANN is an incredible asset to foresee properties of MMNCs, if it is properly trained. In the current work, a back propagation neural network model for assessing wear characteristics of MMNCs is proposed, in which aluminum (A356) reinforced with different weight percentages (wt.% of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) of nano-silicon carbide (SiC) MMNCs is fabricated with ultrasonic-assisted cavitation. Taken the tested results of wear characteristics using pin on disk apparatus at different loads of 30 and 40 N, which are utilized to develop and test the model. Compared to pure aluminum alloy, the wear resistance of MMNCs is increased (Donthamsetty S, Babu PS, in Int. J. Autom. Mech. Eng. 14(4):4589–4602, [1]) and able to predicting the wear within minimal error by using ANN.

Suneel Donthamsetty, Penugonda Suresh Babu

### Chapter 13. Multi-response Optimization of FSW Process Parameters of ZE42 Alloy Using RSM-Based Grey Relational Analysis

This study presents the multi-objective optimization using grey relational analysis (GRA) of friction stir welding (FSW) parameters of ZE42 alloy utilizing of 1.2 mm diameter H13 wire. Input parameters for welding process perform a predominant part in calculating expected quality in weld. The research has been carried out in accordance with the response surface methodology (RSM). The input parameters preferred were the welding speed, axial force, tool pin profile, and tool speed. The responses for quality targets preferred are the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness strength. Grey relational analysis has been preferred in optimizing the input parameters instantaneously allowing for output variables in much variable. Determination of optimal parameters combination is stated as A3B3C3D3 when welding speed at 1150 rpm, tool speed at 60 m/min, cylindrical tool pin profile at zero, and axial force at 5 N. ANOVA method finds its total weldment quality over different level of input parameters.

Ramanan Gopalakrishnan, Darwins Anantha Kanakaraj, Bino Prince Raja Dennis, Ajith Raj Rajendran

### Chapter 14. Analysis and Modeling on Defects of Deep Micro-holes Fabrication in Stainless Steel Through μECM

Fabrication of micro-holes in difficult-to-machine and exotic materials is a routine requirement for various products such as wire drawing dies, miniature oil sprayers, turbine blades, miniature mixers, cooling channels, spinner holes, miniature oil atomizers, inkjet printer nozzle, diesel fuel injection nozzles, and drug delivery orifices. Electrochemical micro-machining (µECM) is one of the cost-effective techniques and a better alternative for the micro-holes fabrication in such difficult-to-cut materials with good surface finish. In view of minimizing the defects of deep micro-holes fabrication, an analysis and regression modeling on defects of deep micro-holes fabrication in stainless steel plate through µECM process has been done. In this study, three defects such as “depth of curve formed at entrance of micro-hole”, “overcut”, and “diameter difference in micro-hole” have been analyzed in deep micro-holes fabrication through µECM process. All experiments are conducted using fabricated cylindrical tungsten micro-tool electrode of diameter 108 µm. Machining parameters are optimized using Taguchi technique and ANOVA is employed to investigate the influence of these parameters on the response outputs, i.e., “depth of curve formed at entrance of micro-hole”, “overcut”, and “diameter difference in micro-hole”.

Md. Zishanur Rahman, Alok Kumar Das, Somnath Chattopadhyaya

### Chapter 15. An Iot-Based Smart Pet Food Dispenser

In the modern era, people are very fond of their pets. But having pets has become a problem for today’s working individuals as they must leave them alone at home throughout the day and must travel very frequently. Continuous monitoring of the pets is also a tedious task for the pet owners. Some pets are even overfed or underfed due to lack of proper monitoring of the feed which results in ill-health, obesity and malnutrition. The aim of our project is to develop a smart pet feeding mechanism which dispenses the food based on user requirement so that pet’s dietary plans are met. The dispenser works on the principle of IoT as it can be operated by the user from anywhere in the world.

### Chapter 16. Dynamic Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Tricycle by Design of Efficient Transmission System

The revolution from gasoline-powered vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) has been a gradual process to stabilize climate change due to global warming and maintain our standard of living. Zero emission of harmful exhaust gases is a good sign for our health. EVs have several benefits than petrol/diesel vehicles like less noise pollution, low maintenance cost, and low cost of fuel per km. Efficycle is a sustainable hybrid eco-friendly trike which can be driven by human power by pedaling and/or by power from an electric motor. It has a tadpole configuration having a capacity of two commuters. In this paper, we focused on enhancement of vehicle dynamic performance by optimum selection of transmission system components. Proper design of electric drive to overcome required torque on all terrains and comfortable drive is vital to maximize battery discharge time.

Amol Waddamwar, Suyog Kulkarni, P. R. Dhamangaonkar

### Chapter 17. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting Potential in Lead-Free BZT-BST Ceramics

In the present work, pyroelectric energy harvesting potential in 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 (BZT-BST) ceramics is studied. The pyroelectric coefficient was obtained by the Byer–Roundy method. The pyroelectric figures of merit for energy harvesting applications are also estimated. The pyroelectric performance in terms of measuring voltage is obtained by subjecting the material to thermal fluctuations. To increase the energy harvesting potential from waste thermal/heat energy to electrical energy, the synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is used. The SSHI technique findings reveal that this concept can considerably enhance the amount of power extracted from the pyroelectric materials.

Satyanarayan Patel

### Chapter 18. Implementation of Online Self-Tuning Fuzzy-PI (STFPI) Controller for Conical Tank System

In the chemical process industries, the control of liquid level of a conical tank system is a difficult task due to variation present in cross-sectional area with respect to height. In the proposed research, the conical tank is categorized into three operating regions such as lower, middle, and higher regions. The tuning of PI controller parameters using conventional method is complicated, due to the presence of the inherent nonlinearities in the plant dynamics and various uncertainties, measurement noise. In this research work, the conventional ZNT method has been utilized to tune the PI controller parameters to maintain the liquid level of conical tank system. A model free controller is required and it automatically tunes the PI controller parameters such as proportional gain Kp and integral time Ti, respectively. Hence, a self-tuning fuzzy-PI (STFPI) controller has been proposed. The property of STFPI controller has greater flexible than the conventional controllers and it is also growing very fast because of its simplicity and versatility. In servo operation, the performance of the PI controller is tested in terms of performance indices values such as IAE and ISE.

M. Lakshmanan, V. Kamatchi Kannan, K. Chitra, S. Srinivasan

### Chapter 19. Smart and Sustainable Shopping Cart for the Physically Challenged

This paper discusses the design and development of a prototype working model of an automated shopping cart. The project aims to make shopping easier, especially for the elderly. In addition, this shopping cart promotes sustainability by completely eliminating the paper used for billing and plastic used as take away bags. The shopping cart is fitted with a camera connected to a Raspberry Pi module. It also consists of an inbuilt barcode scanner attached to a NodeMCU module that enables billing to be carried out by the customer and the final bill is sent to the central billing system using Wi-Fi communication technology. The trolley also has a weight tracking system that helps prevent possible theft. Upon exiting the shopping arena, the trolley follows the customer until his vehicle, and then it can be set into a mode where it returns to its designated location using a five infrared (IR) line follower array sensor mechanism.

Prashant Kumar Soori, Kiran Mathews Abraham, Mohamed Al-Mujtaba Ali Idris Osman

### Chapter 20. Investigation of Surface Roughness in MQL Aided Turning of Al/Cu/Zr Alloy Using PCD Tool

Surface finish is one of the vital elements in engineering applications as it directly affects tool wear, adhesion, and friction. This paper deals with the effect of PCD insert on surface roughness under minimum quantity lubricant environment in the machining of Al/Cu/Zr alloy. The whole experiment has been designed using response surface methodology for both PCD and carbide insert. PCD tool performs better than traditional carbide tool by ensuring a substantial reduction in surface roughness under specific constraints. Cutting speed and depth of cut are found as the most dominant variable affecting surface roughness from analysis of variance. 2FI model can reasonably predict the response with a mean absolute percentage error of 3.89% for PCD tool. Moreover, the machining parameters were optimized using desirability function analysis, where it is recommended that lower level of depth of cut and higher value of cutting speed is required to induce favorable value of the response variable.

Md. Rezaul Karim, Sabbir Hossain Shawon, Shah Murtoza Morshed, Abir Hasan, Juairiya Binte Tariq

### Chapter 21. Comparative Analysis on the Effect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication and Chilled Air Cooling During Turning Hardened Stainless Steel

In order to reduce the temperature produced during machining along with better surface finish and improved tool life, flood coolant has been used for ages. However, because of its adverse effects on human health, environment, and total machining cost, finding alternative ways has become a necessity which ultimately leads toward minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), near dry and dry machining. In this study, the effects of chilled air cooling and MQL on machining performance of hardened 202 stainless steel in turning were observed in respect of surface roughness and cutting temperature. Also, machining under dry cutting condition was performed in order to carry out the relative comparison among these three. The experiment was designed using Design Expert-12, and two computational models were formulated using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA). Furthermore, separate optimization models were developed using genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the critical input parameters related to minimum surface roughness and cutting temperature.

Israt Sharmin, Mahjabin Moon, Faysal Hasan Asik

### Chapter 22. Deposition of Single-Layer Oxide Films with Ion Beam Sputtering Technique on Super-Polished Ceramic Glass Substrates

A single RF ion source with plasma bridge neutralizer being used for sputtering of water cooled target materials with partial pressure of oxygen into the chamber. In the present work, single-layer Ta2O5 and SiO2 films are grown on super polished ceramic glass substrates separately. The films are characterized with spectroscopic ellipsometer, non-contact optical profilometer, AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. SiO2 films are absolutely free of absorption with zero extinction coefficients. Ta2O5 films exhibited absorption coefficient and non-stoichiometry. The process suitability is verified for the applications of laser mirrors for electro-optical sensors. The work concludes with the merits and behavior of tantala and silica films under identical single ion beam sputtering deposition process and a way forward for non-absorbing multi-layer dielectric laser mirrors.

Laxminarayana Gangalakurti, K. Venugopal Reddy, Chhabra Inder Mohan, Atchaih Naidu Varadharajula, Radhika Kanakam

### Chapter 23. A Review on Latest Trends in Derived Technologies of Friction Stir Welding

Emerging manufacturing patterns such as lightweighting, improved efficiency and flexibility have increased the use of multimaterial components and therefore suggesting the need for cost-effective and robust methods of joining dissimilar materials. Several friction stir welding (FSW) derived technologies are developed for their extensive use in dissimilar material processing and joining industries. The fundamental concept and the continued evolution of the variants that are developed to progress in the field of dissimilar materials joining are studied. Friction stir extrusion (FSE), friction stir scribe welding (FSS), friction stir dovetailing (FSD), and friction stir interlocking (FSI) based on the FSW technology are the reviewed potential variants in this paper.

Maddela Narender, V. Ajay Kumar, Aluri Manoj

### Chapter 24. Investigation on Hybrid Polyester Composite Comprising of Sisal and Coir as a Reinforcement and Fly Ash as Filler

The use of lignocellulosic fibers such as coir and sisal as reinforcements in thermoplastic and thermosetting resins for developing new material having property superior than the existing one. These biofibers have several advantages, such as good strength, flexibility, low densities, low cost, and biodegradability; over synthetic fibers, these natural fibers are made hydrophobic by 8% NaOH treatment. Alkali treatment increases wettability of fibers with resin and interfacial bond strength. This paper is highlighting about the preparation of hybrid composite and testing the prepared samples for various mechanical and tribological tests such as tensile, flexural, and slurry erosion tests conducted for coir/sisal-hybrid fibers with fly ash as a filler in unsaturated polyester resin. The obtained results are further justified by the SEM images of tested samples from different mechanical tests. This material has been used for automobile application and packing material, roofing material in construction technology.

M. L. Darshan, Srikumar Biradar, K. S. Ravishankar

### Chapter 25. Thermal Performance Study of Double-Pass Solar Air Heater in Almora District Zone of Uttarakhand

The present work is based on sustainable energy source, i.e., solar energy and designs a double-pass solar air heater in ANSYS FLUENT software. It is simulated for thermal performance study at a geographic location of district Almora, Uttarakhand. The simulation of the solar device is done for the identical values of parameters such as ambient conditions, air velocity, inlet air temperature, space in the middle of the absorber and glazing, solar intensity. The influences of temperature differences and solar intensity on the outcome of double-pass solar air heater are also examined. It is observed from the study that the heat transfer rate is maximum at outlet as compared to inlet for the same mass flow rate. Thermal efficiency maximum achieved 68.8% at solar intensity 990 W/m2.

Divya Joshi, Satyendra Singh, Sandeep Kandwal

### Chapter 26. Modeling and Optimal Control of Vehicle Air Conditioning System

Due to the proprietary nature of automotive software development, the control logic, plant models as well as physics-based models used for simulations are closed sources. For the most part, OEMs use Simulink® to develop their control and diagnostic logic (Khaled et al. Multivariable Control of Dual Loop EGR Diesel Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo, SAE Technical Paper 2014–01-1357, 2014 and Khaled and Pattel, Practical Design and Application of Model Predictive Control: MPC for MATLAB® and Simulink® Users” Elsevier, ISBN: 978–0,128,139,189, 2018). As for plant models of the vehicle and its various subsystems, OEMs use many simulation packages such as ANSYS, COMSOL, SimScale in addition to MathWorks. This creates significant software integration challenges and revision control complexities. In this paper, we recommend the utilization of Simscape® toolbox from Simulink as a platform for simulating the vehicle air conditioning system. Moreover, we demonstrate the development of model predictive controller based on the two-phase model of the air conditioning system. The controller relies on a model that predicts the rate of change of temperature rather than the temperature when the compressor command is manipulated. Both the controller and the plant model are available for free download. The model leverages recent improvements in the two-phase modeling in Simscape and is an extension to the basic refrigeration model provided by MathWorks. The model includes variable displacement compressor, condenser, evaporator and expansion valve components that are provided in the library of Simscape. Issues faced during development and sizing of the refrigeration model are highlighted. Lessons learned are highlighted to aid the reader to scale the model for bigger vehicles. R134a is used as the refrigerant. The linearized model is used to develop a model predictive control (MPC) to minimize energy consumption while maintaining a good temperature reference tracking in the cabin. Simulation results for the controller are provided. Future work and recommendations are provided to conclude the work.

Nassim Khaled, Harsha Mathur

### Chapter 27. Experimental and CFD Analysis of Artificial Dimples Surface Roughness by Using Application of Domestic Solar Water Heater

Solar energy is widely perceived as one of the most motivating sources of elective energy and an eco-friendly sustainable power source. The least demanding and most effective technique is the conversion of solar energy into heat energy. From the past, we can understand that in the case of solar thermal conversion, the solar-controlled electrical transformation system has a profitability of 17%. Keeping this fact in mind, we have ended up in the following research. In this research, experimental and numerical comparisons are to be done for heat enhancement devices (parallel normal plain tube versus tubes with outer dimples with water) to enhance the heat transfer rate. Introducing heat enhancement devices will create turbulence and enhance the heat transfer rate. A comparison of the two models is carried in terms of flow and heat transfer by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental analysis. This will enable us to design a setup where we attempt to increase the efficiency from 70 to 80%.

M. Arun, Debabrata Barik, K. P. Sridhar, G. Vignesh

### Chapter 28. Secure Privacy Analysis of HR Analytics—A Machine Learning Approach

One of the branches of analytics is HR analytics, which is developing the system HR units in organizations function, principal to sophisticated proficiency, and improved outcomes overall—the usage of analytics in human resources for years. Though the assortment, processing, and data analysis have been generally manual and specified the nature of HR dynamics and HR KPIs, the approach has been constraining HR. Now is the prospect to effort predictive analytics in categorizing the employees furthermost likely to grow promoted. Here, we apply privacy-preserving techniques to analyze the employee information for improving his/her position in the organization. The employee data contains rewards and talent, work attitude and work culture, and service worthiness credentials. From turnover rates and workforce characteristics to payroll and employment history, never before have HR professionals had such unfettered access to personal information. In this work, we are applying homomorphic encryption, which facilitates industries a secure and informal way to execute analytics on data deprived of having to decrypt it. It is providing computation capability on the encrypted ciphertext, as a candidate to perform secure analytics and monitoring on HR sensitive data.

V. Kakulapati

### 29. Identification of Parkinson’s Disease Using Machine Learning and Neural Networks

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) continues to affect millions of people worldwide, with as many as a million in the US and roughly 60,000 diagnosed each year. Early detection of PD can help in better handling the finances of the treatment as well as being substantially better for the patient’s quality of life. Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques can greatly help with the early diagnosis and prediction of PD. In this paper we have used several techniques for the classification of the test subjects as having or not having PD based on their biomedical voice samples. After comparing the techniques based on Accuracy, recall, f1 score and precision, the best performance has been obtained by using SVM along with PCA. Doctors can thus classify patients appropriately with the help of this analysis.

Ved Abhyankar, Rushikesh Tapdiya

### Chapter 30. Assessment of Forensics Investigation Methods

Attacks and intrusion detection are common and more affecting in systems based on availability, confidentiality and integrity. Information is refined and analysed to avoid complexity by the attacker and form a more robust and efficient system. IOC is the important resource called as an indicator of compromise and information security and use of them for detecting malicious activity on the network. IOC is usually formed by URLs, domains, IP address, signature and other elements, as they are not enough to identify suspicious activities on the system. Different logs are identified through operating systems. Different operating systems like Windows and Linux perform different log operations for evidence locations. Paper presents mitigation of malicious activities by diagnosing them through their behaviour on computer systems using incident response and forensic analysis.

Pranay Chauhan, Pratosh Bansal

### Chapter 31. Smart Tourism Development in a Smart City: Mangaluru

The concept of ‘Smart Cities’ is becoming increasingly popular in India. The main idea behind the development of smart cities is to assure the overall development of the region which in turn would contribute towards nation building. The Government of India has initiated project on Smart Cities Mission (SCM) in the year 2015 and has identified an ample number of cities across different states as the possible candidates for the project. Six cities from Karnataka have been chosen for this opportunity and Mangaluru is one of them. Tourism development in smart city environment could be a possibility towards the economical growth and thereby enhancing the standard of living. In this paper, an attempt has been made in analysing the scope for the tourism development in smart city environment and the application of technology towards the same. The discussions in the paper are limited to Mangaluru city. Nevertheless the same analysis may be applicable to other cities as well.

A. N. Parameswaran, K. S. Shivaprakasha, Rekha Bhandarkar

### Chapter 32. Big Data Analytics and Internet of Things in Health Informatics

The increasing amount of data in healthcare industry has necessitated the adoption of big data techniques to deliver quality health services. As the healthcare and technology industries are intensely entwined, an accelerated expansion is seen in the area of Internet of Things (IoT) and biomedical big data. Hence, a number of technologies like health devices and mobile applications are being integrated with telehealth and telemedicine via the biomedical IoT which constantly monitors auto-administer therapy-based devices, health indicators, or devices which keep real-time track of patient’s data of a self-administered therapy. Nowadays, due to increased Internet and smartphone access, patients have started using wearable biosensors, mobile apps for personalized mHealth and eHealth technologies managing their daily health needs. This paper reviews healthcare big data analytics and biomedical IoT and analyzes growing concerns in IoT technology pertaining to smarter ways of healthcare applications underlining the big data privacy and security challenges.

Pawan Singh Gangwar, Yasha Hasija

### Chapter 33. Medicinal Leaves Recognition Using Contour-Based Segmentation

Classification of medicinal plants is a challenging process through the automated system and achieving proper result is a rigorous work. India is well known for its prosperity of medicinal plants and its medicinal practice. In this modern world a person may know few plants which are common in place. There are wide varieties of plants which are unaware. To come out of this problem and to make use of all the medicinal plants an automated system is useful. The system can be used by researchers, students and in the medicinal production sector. The plant has its own properties and uses, preserving such plants makes very helpful for the future. The existing system also helps in classifying the plants and our proposed study helps in classifying the plants with lower quality images whereas the existing asks for the high-resolution images. One of the major goals of the study is to create native dataset using low cost capturing efforts. Proposed work contains contour-based segmentation which deeply considers leaf morphology, feature extraction using Local Binary Pattern and Wavelet methods and classification using supervised K-NN classifier.

B. R. Pushpa, K. B. Amaljith, N. Megha

### Chapter 34. Deep Learning for Robot Vision

Deep learning comes under a class of machine learning where we use it for extremely high-level output, like recognition of images, etc. It has been used in pattern recognition over a vast area such as handmade crafts to extract the data from learning procedures. At present, it has gained a great significance in robot vision. In this paper, we show how neural networks play a vital role in robot vision. Image segmentation, which is the initial step, is used to preprocess the images and videos. The multilayered artificial neural networks have a lot more applications. It can be applied in drug detection, military bases, and many more. The main objective of this paper is to review how deep learning algorithms and deep nets can be used in various areas of robot vision. There are some predefined deep learning algorithms that are available in the market, which are used here to perform this comparative study. These will help us to have a clear insight while building vision systems using deep learning.

Mamilla Keerthikeshwar, S. Anto

### Chapter 35. Deep Learning Approach for Prediction of Handwritten Telugu Vowels

Telugu is an ancient language in which many historical and valuable scripts are written. Understanding and digitalization of theses scripts is difficult task. Hence, here we are proposing a machine learning approach which recognizes the handwritten Telugu vowels (Achulu). We employed convolutional neural network (CNN) approach to find the features automatically than the handicraft features. Dataset has been built and deployed in IEEE dataport. The results are impressive and interesting. Handwritten character recognition could be a part of Optical Character Recognition System (OCRS). OCRS can be applied to each printed text and handwritten documents. This paper describes the handwritten Telugu vowels recognition by employing a CNN approach. The dataset is pre-processed and also extracted the features using deep neural network system for training. The model is validated on test dataset, and ~98% of training accuracy ~92% of test accuracy are observed.

Ch. Prathima, Naresh Babu Muppalaneni

### Chapter 36. Literature Review of Lean Methodology and Research Issues for Identifying and Eliminating Waste in Software Development

Lean principles is a methodology that focuses on identifying and eliminating activities or tasks that are not considered as important by the customer and do not add value, whether it is a manufacturing or software process. Be it manufacturing or a service industry, there are some components which can be identified as waste. Lean is a customer-centric concept; hence, activities which do not add value to the customer are considered as waste. An activity in a process which does not add value to customer consumes resources and adds cost or time can be can be called as waste or useless and hence can be eliminated. Lean is a widespread concept of manufacturing but seldom used in software industry. Literature contribution on Lean methodology in software and manufacturing industry are fragmented and show some significant limitations. Aim of this paper is to promote Lean concept in software industry.

Mona Deshmukh, Prateek Srivastava

### Chapter 37. IQINN: Improve the Quality of Image by Neural Network

The proposed paper deals with image quality improvement. In many applications, images play noteworthy roles. In the application of pathology, satellite imaging better excellence of the image is very vital. In recent days, there are numerous methods that are used to increase the quality of the image. There are different noise removing algorithm are available such as homogeneous filter, Gaussian filter, median filter, and bilateral filter. Such kinds of algorithms improve the excellence of the image. The proposed work is done with the help of neural network architecture. The ideal is to work on seven-layer neural network architecture. The model is light weighted. The model gets analyzed by changing the parameters. The performance of image quality is evaluated through peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), mean squared error (MSE), and structural similarity index (SSIM). It is noticed that the proposed model works well.

### Chapter 38. Traffic Monitoring System in Smart Cities Using Image Processing

The problem of traffic control is rapidly increasing as the number of vehicles is increasing day to day. There are several ways already implemented to control the traffic. These methods include timer-based traffic control and others that uses sensors in order to detect the number of vehicles passing and hence produce signal that cycles. These systems are effective but still there are areas in which the traditional system does not produce effective control over the traffic. We introduce a system for traffic monitoring by implementing image-based control in traffic lights instead of the timer or sensor-based systems. This paper discusses a novel approach toward traffic monitoring that can be applied in smart cities and prevent traffic congestions that may happen due to ineffective traffic signal lights. The image of real-time traffic is captured and edge detection technique is used to find the number of vehicles present at a time at traffic light stops. The edge detected image is compared with a reference image for matching purpose. Calculating the number of vehicles effectively can be used to decide the amount of time given to each side of traffic.

Syed Qamrul Kazmi, Munindra Kumar Singh, Saurabh Pal

### Chapter 39. Sensitivity Context-Aware PrivacyPreserving Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment analysis has been a prominent research domain under data analytics whose outcomes have immensely contributed to business growth. Consumers being an integral part of any business, their data along with feedback are exposed and are prone to privacy breach. Although many researchers have contributed extensively towards privacy preservation,some plentiful gaps and challenges still exist. This paper proposes an approach Sensitivity Context-Awareness (SCA) based privacy preserving sentiment analysis to preserve the privacy of consumer data which is acquired with their consent. Experiments are conducted on synthesized dataset about healthcare services and sentiments including positive, negative, and neutral are obtained while preserving the consumer’s privacy.

A. N. Ramya Shree, P. Kiran, Sharan Chhibber

### Chapter 40. Analysis of Heart Disease Data Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm in Orange Tool

Data mining are a strategy of handling models or design in huge amount of data. Every 12 months, 19 million peoples around expire from heart disease around the world. Heart patients show a few manifestations, and it is very difficult to ascribe them to the heart disease in such countless strides of disease development. Data mining to explain a disguised model from the medical heart disease data set are applied to a database in this assessment. Each and every available estimation in grouping procedure is appeared different in relation to each other to get the highest accuracy orange tool apparatus to analysis, representation, and concentrate data using data mining. Orange tool is perfect to perform all analysis operations. In this paper, an experimental analysis is done in orange tool to cluster the heart disease data sets with different distance measures and thereby observing the variation of the performances in k-means clustering algorithm.

Sarangam Kodati, Kumbala Pradeep Reddy, G. Ravi, Nara Sreekanth

### Chapter 41. Development of Biomass Green Champo Leaf DRAM Memory Cell

An experimental study to develop a DRA memory cell in a live green Champo leaf was successfully carried out. One fresh experimental biomass green Champo leaf was plucked on which the transistor, restoring capacitor, and parasitic bit line capacitor was realized by inserting proper wire harness terminals through which appropriate EMF potentials (in volts) were applied. Measurements were made to realize essential conventional parameters of a DRAM memory cell. The leaf memory cell functioned well for a substantial time period.

Gaurang K. Patel, Jitendra P. Chaudhari, S. P. Kosta

### Chapter 42. An Unscented Kalman Filter Approach for High-Precision Indoor Localization

An indoor localized system is a network of sensors used to track people or objects that cannot be tracked completely using GPS in areas, such as multi-story buildings, airports, tunnels, and many more. A wide variety of techniques and technologies are implemented to provide indoor positioning ranging from already installed reconfigured devices such as smart phones, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth antennas, digital cameras, and clocks to specifically designed installations with strategically placed relays and beacons throughout a specified space. IPS has broad applications in the industrial, defense, retail, and inventory monitoring industries. In this paper, we implement the localization concept which receives a phased-radio signal which is fed into unscented Kalman filter (UKF) without any prior processing to subjugate. For this process, standard preprocessing concepts, like angle-of-arrival prediction, beam forming, and time-of-flight or time-difference-of-arrival predictions were never necessary. It completely nullifies the essential difficulties of other phase related, highly accurate techniques of localization similar to synthetic aperture methods. To prove this above procedure, let us employ a desirable setup with 24 Ghz frequency-modulated continuous-wave single-input-multiple-output (S.I.M.O) along with a secondary radar with bandwidth of 250 MHz. The ideal trajectory of the transmitter is assumed as helical in nature. Apart from the challenging conditions like interference due to noise and low bandwidth, the results produce good localization with a minimum RMSE of around a few centimeters. The suggested process could be utilized for almost any form of C.W-carrier E.M signal and provides an interesting unorthodox to traditional multi-purpose approaches.

Yashwant Yerra, D. Ram Kumar Reddy, P. Sudheesh

### Chapter 43. Implementation of Energy Detection Technique for Spread Spectrum Systems

Spectrum spreading is a communication technique by which a signal produced by a bandwidth given is intentionally spread over the frequency domain, resulting in a broader signal bandwidth. This helps to give channels immunity by not allowing interference or disruption of any sort, thus ensuring security in communication systems. The Inefficient spectrum use contributes even to the invention of new methods which enable users not allowed to utilize the radio spectrum each time a hole in the spectrum or free space is available. The technology which pinpoints the presence of a licensed radio spectrum user using complex spectrum access techniques is called cognitive radio. The paper’s key contribution is the study and comparison of various spreading techniques implemented in a signal for transmission and further implements the technique for energy detection of spectrum sensing.

T. Anjali, T. S. Aparna, M. Meera, A. Parvathy, Gayathri Narayanan

### Chapter 44. Implementation of Low Area ALU Using Reversible Logic Formulations

The adders, multipliers are the essential building blocks for every integrated circuit (IC). Thus, the design of adders and multipliers must inhibit the area, delay, and power-efficient properties. But most of the CMOS-based logic gates are failed to provide these properties in adders, multipliers implementation. To solve this problem, reversible logic gates have been developed at nanotechnology level using the quantum-dot cellular automata properties. The quantum cost for this reversible logic gates very low, thus in this paper reversible logic gates based N-bit adder, N-bit subtractor, N-bit multiplier, and N-bit ALU developed with reconfigurable properties. The effective utilization of these gates provides more flexible nature for ICs. The implementations are conducted in Xilinx ISE environment, the simulation results shows that proposed method is area, power, and delay efficient compared to the conventional approaches.

### Chapter 45. Evaluation of Transfer Learning Model for Mango Recognition

In this research article, we have performed an evaluation of transfer learning model for recognition of mango fruits. The dataset used for the experiment is generated by collecting new high-quality images that comprise of the 15 varieties of most popular mango of India. The experimentation is carried out with nearly 1850 mango images. Here, we use transfer learning approach which includes four CNN models namely AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet50, and VGG16. The GoogLeNet performed better compared to the other three models, with 87.62% of F1 score and 0.80% of the false positive rate.

Chanki Pandey, Prabira Kumar Sethy, Santi Kumari Behera, Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Bitti Pandey, Preesat Biswas, Millee Panigrahi

### Chapter 46. An Inter-Comparative Survey on State-of-the-Art Detectors—R-CNN, YOLO, and SSD

In recent years, breakthrough enhancements in computer hardware and supercomputers made object detection a significant topic of research. Accurate object detection models are computationally expensive and are inefficient on simpler and limited configuration settings while faster models achieve real-time speed, work well on simpler configurations but fail to be accurate. There is always a trade-off between speed and accuracy. There is no clear-cut answer on which detector performs the best. The user will have to make a choice based on the requirement. This paper aims at analyzing numerous CNN-based object detection algorithms—R-CNN, Fast R-CNN, Faster R-CNN, You Only Look Once (YOLO), and Single Shot MutliBox Detector (SSD)—and make comparisons concerning performance, precision and speed and state as to which algorithm performs better under certain constraints. This enables the user to pick an object detector of his/her choice that better addresses the demands of an application.

B. Bhavya Sree, V. Yashwanth Bharadwaj, N. Neelima

### Chapter 47. Diabetes Patients Hospital Re-admission Prediction Using Machine Learning Algorithms

The excess amount of blood glucose in the body leads to a chronic disease called diabetes. It causes severe damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and other parts of body. Hospital re-admission is a scenario in which the patient gets re-admitted to the hospital after a certain duration of time. Diabetes patient’s hospital re-admission majorly impacts on the healthcare cost reduction as diabetic patients are more likely to get re-admitted than those without diabetes. The proposed work aims to predict the re-admission of diabetic patients and highlight the factors that lead to re-admission within 30 days of their discharge considering the database of 10-year administrative patients’ record using decision tree and AdaBoost classifiers. With all the preprocessing and feature selection techniques, the proposed approach has obtained an accuracy of 95%.

Sneha Grampurohit

### Chapter 48. Traffic Analysis Using IoT for Improving Secured Communication

Internet of Things can be simply referred to as Internet of entirety which is the network of things enclosed with software, sensors, electronics that allow them to gather and transmit the data. Because of the various and progressively malevolent assaults on PC systems and frameworks, current security apparatuses are frequently insufficient to determine the issues identified with illegitimate clients, unwavering quality, and to give vigorous system security. Late research has demonstrated that in spite of the fact that system security has built up, a significant worry about an expansion in illicit interruptions is as yet happening. Addressing security on every occasion or in every place is a really important and sensitive matter for many users, businesses, governments, and enterprises. In this research work, we are going to propose a secure IoT architecture for routing in a network. It mainly aims to locate the malicious users in IoT routing protocols. The proposed mechanism is compared with the state-of-the-art work and the results show that the proposed work performs well.

K. Santhi Sri, P. Sandhya Krishna, V. Lakshman Narayana, Reshmi Khadherbhi

### Chapter 49. Implementation of a Network of Wireless Weather Stations Using a Protocol Stack

The project presents an alternative for acquisition and management of remote weather station metrics for applications in the agricultural and energy areas, among others, through stack protocol based on ATMEGA328P controllers associated with Wireless ISP 802.11 b/g for wireless connectivity to the server. The parameters acquired from the stations are stored in a database for offline analysis and on the online web.

Segundo G. Vacacela, Luigi O. Freire

### Chapter 50. Various Developments in the Design of Hovercrafts: A Review

Hovercraft can travel over land, water, mud and ice. It is also widely referred to as air cushion vehicle (ACV), ground effect machine or simply craft. This vehicle is unconventional and requires no surface contact for traction and it can move freely over many surfaces continuously on a self-generated cushion of air. Although hovercrafts being amphibious have many advantages, they are seldom used for economical transportation. This paper aims to bring all the research and advancements carried out in the field of hovercrafts since 1959. Various models of hovercrafts have been compared based on load capacity, dimensions, gross weight, steering system and power systems. The review has been made through the discussions on drawbacks in initial models and the recent developments in the hovercraft’s performance and their adaptation into modern vehicles. This paper also covers the reasons why hovercrafts are seldom used today and the possibility of hovercrafts being the beginning step towards the innovation of flying cars.

Jhansi Reddy Dodda, N. V. Srinivasulu, Balem Rahul Reddy

### Chapter 51. Efficient Utilization of Home Energy During Pandemic—A Case Study

The COVID-19 pandemic, as we all know, has posed various challenges in all fields. With families spending most of their time at home during this lockdown, energy usage has increased to 50% more than usual. In the energy management sector, there is an urgent need not only to maintain energy installations but also to ensure optimized energy usage, and that reduced electricity costs. As demand increases, appropriate steps should be taken to bridge the gap between supply and demand. However, it is necessary to ensure the proper conservation of energy is the need over time. The paper focuses on the energy auditing process carried out in a house in which energy consumption calculations are done for most essential equipment. The paper analysis various flaws using DIY-EA audits and proposes home energy management systems (HEMS) that result in 79.1% energy savings per sq. ft per day.

A. P. Nikitha, Mir Mohammed Junaid Basha, M. N. Vijayakumar, M. S. Archana

### Chapter 52. Data Analytics Based Multimodal System for Fracture Identification and Verification in CBIR Domain

Bone fracture is a typical human challenge related to excessive stress being forced on bone or simple mistakes occur in the bone as a result of the osteoporosis and malignancy of the body. Precise analysis of bone fracture is also a significant feature of the medical profession. X-ray/CT-scans are used in this study to assess bone fracturing. False and misjudging of fracture detection can happen to reduce this and to help or assist the doctor, we propose multimodal integrated techniques to identify the fracture. In this paper, it elaborates the different combination and integrations of fracture identification and detection methods to identify and detect the area of the fracture.

H. Manjula Gururaj Rao, G. S. Nagaraja

### Chapter 53. Solar PV-Driven Swaccha Jal

As we know, the availability of clean water is essential for the survival of the humanity. The right amount of water resources is available on the planet and very few of them can be used for drinking. To have a healthy life, purified water is required for everyone. Since early days of human civilization, various methods of water purification for salt and seawater have been implemented. As a water purification process, an effort has been made to review the technology and use of solar energy in this research paper. The study of the literature shows that there are number of configuration and device available, but they are not currently used for the high initial configuration cost and limited technology awareness in society. In this project, we have made a water purifier that work with solar energy and battery. The basic principle of this project is the coagulation process (alum), the membrane, and UV process. Solar radiation is collected by the solar panel. This energy is stored in battery. The purification unit consists of a high-pressure motor, a solenoid valve, a water level detector sensor, and a water tank.

Rahul Virmani, Isha Rajput, Satish Kumar Gupta, Sarthak Singhal, Rupali Gupta, Harsh Kapil

### Chapter 54. Field Performance Monitoring of Roof-Mounted SPV Systems: Application of Internet-Enabled Technologies

In the work presented, the results of the online monitoring of a rooftop stand-alone solar photovoltaic (SPV) system with an installed capacity of 4.5 kWP have been reported. The method of analyzing the data acquired is in accordance with the IEC standard 61724, 1998. The online tracking was carried out using Schneider Electric’s Conext Insights platform. Data related to total PV input, battery charge, battery discharge, grid input, and load output were monitored and studied. This data was further used to calculate normalized parameters, including performance ratio (PR). The average value of PR system is 41.59%. The PR of the system provides a basis to compare it to other systems of interest. The results obtained are also useful for predicting future performance and maximizing capacity utilization of the system.

Navneet Raghunath, M. K. Deshmukh, Sandip S. Deshmukh

### Chapter 55. Flow Modulation at Micro-combustor Inlet

Recirculation zones formed in micro-combustors due to flow modulating geometries such as backward facing step and block inserts have been found to enhance the outer wall temperatures. Numerical investigations of micro-combustors with variable aspect ratio (AR) and blockage ratio (BR) triangular block inserts have been made for premixed H2-air combustion with inlet velocities ranging from 4 to 48 m/s using commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent software. AR = 3 was found effective at lower velocities, while AR = 1 performed better at higher velocities for all blockage ratios.

Arees Qamareen, Shahood S. Alam, Mubashshir A. Ansari

### Chapter 56. Study on Performance of Phase Change Material Integrated Heat Pipe

Thermal power management within the confined structure of modern electronics is of prime importance. Heat dissipation techniques include liquid cooling, air cooling, immersion cooling and lately heat pipes. However, during the utilization of heat pipes in electronics for effective cooling, a quantifiable amount of heat is lost through the heat pipe’s adiabatic section. This heat lost might impair the surrounding components. To resolve this complication, phase change material (PCM) is introduced in heat pipes. Experiment is conducted on the effective thermal conductance of heat pipes by establishing their thermal resistance. Temperature distribution profiles are depicted for different power inputs. A brief CFD model for PCM (Paraffin Wax - Tetracosane) is developed; Liquid fraction is extracted for different inputs of power during the charging process. Effective heat captured by PCM for rating of 30–50 W extends from 10 to 15% of the total heat supplied, thereby restricting most of the heat dissipation from reaching the proximity of other components.

G. Gnaneshwar, G. Sundara Subramanian, N. S. Hari Thiagarajan, Lakshmi Narayanan, D. Senthil Kumar

### Chapter 57. Design and Implementation of Smart Charging for LMV

Smart charging indicates the charging system in electric vehicles (EVs) where charging operators and charging station accord data connections. In comparison with uncontrolled charging, the electricity peak usage is flattened by shift in vehicle charging to off-peak hours by smart charging. A synergy is created between the EV and the grid by smart charging. This synergy would not exist without smart charging, and electric vehicles would be an onus on grid. Smart EV charging is powered by an inventive refutation connecting the charging events and devices in real time and brings data to charging station owner’s fingertips. Smart charging process also finds available station for charging and reserves the charging port. The mobile application displays information about the charging power and price, depending upon the required rating and real-time data about the availability of charging stations. With help of Control Area Network (CAN) and universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (UART), the smart features such as creation of history chart for charging details, charging initiation, battery charge start and stop time along with safety prompts are implemented in this work.

A. Jeevitha, K. Vasudeva Banninthaya, G. S. Srikanth

### Chapter 58. Experimental Transient Analysis of Radial Flow Clay Desiccant Packed Bed

In this work, an experimental investigation on the desiccant bed with radial flow is discussed. The spherical clay balls with the average diameter of 11 mm is used as desiccant in the radial bed. Two sizes of radial test section are developed based on the diameter of the inner cylinder and outer cylinder. The diameter ratio is evaluated based on the space needed to accommodate the spherical clay desiccant as a single layer and two layered. For the present work, the behavior of 850 g of clay desiccant in the single layer and double layer radial packed bed is being compared. Both the experimental test units were kept at nearly same relative humidity during the process of adsorption and nearly same temperature during desorption process. The parameters such as exit air humidity, exit air temperature, mean bed temperature during the process of adsorption, and desorption are being compared.

### Chapter 59. Coral—A Smart Water Body Health Monitoring System

A lot of water bodies around the world are suffering from severe contamination which poses problems to the marine life as well as to all those living around them. Such problem could be brought down by just monitoring the water body. So, this paper mainly aims on the development of a microcontroller-based water quality monitoring system by measuring various decisive parameters like pH and temperature. The performance of the device has been corroborated by considering various water samples like mixture of lemon juice and water, soda, bottled water, tap water and mixture of laundry detergent. The developed system is being observed to efficiently measure pH and temperature with a maximum relative error of 3.75% and 2.65%, respectively. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed system coupled with its inherent simplicity and ability to display real-time results on a self-designed website establish itself as a potent tool for water quality monitoring purpose.

Saket Vaibhav, R. Shakthivel, Nikhil Suresh, S. Jyothsna, Arijit Datta, K. Chitra

### Chapter 60. Recent Investigation on Ultrasonic Machining of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

The manufacturing scenario demands that a material with reduced tool wear be manufactured in higher surface finish. Grinding is primarily considered to have outstanding finishing of the surface in certain machining techniques. The scope for improving always occurs in the processes. MRR will not be impaired in the meantime. As this has a significant effect on the process efficiency. The traditional aluminum surface grinding process needs high cutting force and a very low removal rate. Ultrasonic machining (UM) is assisted for surface grinding of Al-MMC in order to minimize and remove these intricacies. This paper provides a study of the mechanical and tribological properties of composites produced by various methods in the aluminum metal matrix. Hybrid composites have shown excellent flexibility in their performance. The benefits of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs) include a high weight to strength, high corrosion, and comparatively low cost wear resistance. Due to its thermal stability and exceptional physical strength, they are used in many applications such as concrete, structural, naval, aerospace, defense, and automotive. These MMCs are non-conventional engineering materials, reinforced by materials with improved mechanical and tribological characteristics, factor-designed behavior, which explores the impact of vibration and turning condition on the surface finish of the turning MMC, demonstrate that the roughness of the MMC turned on with ultrasounds. Turning with vibration produces normal surface profiles in the direction of turning and vibration, leading to a process of light dispersion. The pitch of the ordinary profiles is just within a limited spectrum of this phenomenon. In this study, interdisciplinary observations on Al metal matrix were carried out with UM under the reaction of surface grinding by the material. This paper provides guidelines for upcoming research studies on the effects of Al-MMC’s results of ultrasonic machining studies.

### Chapter 61. Military Reconnaissance and Rescue Robot with Real-Time Object Detection

In this era of a politically competitive world, there is a growing demand for the use of military robots to aid soldiers to perform perilous missions. This project focuses on the design and build of a semi-autonomous, solar-powered, unmanned robotic system operating with real-time object detection function, used for various military and rescue operations such as explosives disposal, enemy territory surveillance, and search and rescue. The military robotic system is instilled with a robotic arm for explosives disposal, a sensory circuit for analysis of the environmental composition of the area under surveillance, and a Raspberry PI for real-time object detection. The commands for the motion of the robotic arm and the robotic body are given using a Graphical User Interphase (GUI). The effectiveness in performing perilous missions can be accomplished by the utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Real-time object detection with deep learning techniques is utilized in this robotic system to identify objects within the frame of the camera and tag the objects with the accuracy rate of computations. Data transmission and receiving is through Zigbee and Wi-Fi communication technologies. The proposed robotic system overcomes the weakness in the existing models and thus provides better support in military operations.

Rakshana Ismail, Senthil Muthukumaraswamy

### Chapter 62. Finite Element Analysis and Design of a Four-Helical Coiled Single Lumen Microcatheter

The rapid growth of cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases compelled the modern generation researchers to develop more superior quality catheter tubes that would reduce the risk of high invasive surgeries at the time of catheterization procedure. Microcatheters play an imperative role in perambulating through the small size cross-section of the complex vascular pathway with the best possible attributes (of the superior quality tube) which can meet the necessities required for the treatment of the vascular diseases. This study reveals the design and analysis of a four-helical coiled microcatheter tube, to find the deformation using a finite element analysis software, i.e. ANSYS. The designing of the catheter tube is done in a three-dimensional modelling software, i.e. CATIA. The microcatheter has three layers, one is the inner layer through which the embolic agent is to be delivered, the middle layer is a braided four-helical coiled structure which provides strength to the catheter, and the outer layer is lubricious. The main aim of this paper is to design a highly flexible microcatheter with minimum deformation. The boundary condition applied here is the maximum blood pressure which is applied on the outer surface of the outer layer, and the pressure of 1 ml syringe and the embolic agent is applied in the inner surface of the inner layer.

Mallapi Debashree Gayatri Reddy, Ruby Mishra, Manoranjan Mohapatra

### Chapter 63. Wear Modeling Revisited Using Feedback Control Theory

Modeling of wear process is a valuable tool for optimizing and designing of tribosystems. Most of the models, empirical or analytical, have limited applicability. To overcome this limitation, a general procedure has been proposed irrespective of the type of wear. In this, communication analogy of mechanical system with electrical system is presented to understand the role of parameters in the wear process. The system so developed is converted into an equivalent block diagram. The blocks can be chosen as per the parameters, inputs or disturbances in the system. The block diagram is solved by using the classical control theory. In present paper, only few parameters like hardness, velocity, ‘third body,’ etc., have been chosen. However, other parameters like corrosive atmosphere, temperature, humidity, etc., can be added to the block diagrams as per the role played by them in the wear process. Wear is assumed to be a linear control system in this paper, but the nonlinearity can be addressed by using the available control system techniques. This paper does not intend to create or derive a new set of equations but provide a methodology for simulating a wear phenomenon under different working conditions, by adding a new block/blocks or input/ inputs. The methodology will provide a platform for the more complex problems, involving different wear mechanisms at given instant. Finally, some of the existing results, which are available in the literature, will be derived to validate the methodology.

M. Hanief, M. S. Charoo

### Chapter 64. Performance Assessment of Improved Solar Still Design with Stepped-Corrugated Absorber Plate

Conventional solar still owns poor efficiency and low distillate output, hence not found commercially popular for domestic and industrial applications. The present work demonstrates the improved design of solar still with stepped-corrugated absorber plate for higher energy efficiency and yield. During experimentation, the productivity of stepped-corrugated and conventional solar still is found as 2.50 kg/m2 per day and 0.90 kg/m2 per day, respectively. The energy efficiency of stepped-corrugated and conventional solar still is found as 33.33 and 18.67%, respectively. From this exertion, it is concluded that the stepped-corrugated still has better yield and efficiency as compared to the conventional still.

Aasawari Bhaisare, Unmesh Wasnik, Aniket Sakhare, Pawan Thakur, Akash Nimje, Abhishek Hiwarkar, Vikrant Katekar, Sandip Deshmukh

### Chapter 65. Parametric Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joint Using Finite Element Method

In structural engineering, the design and sizing of adhesively bonded joints for vehicles have always been significantly important. To determine the behavior of joint in vehicle-scale models requires fine meshes, but these fine meshes are impractical; however, a mesh is necessary for comparisons and for making a quick assessment of various geometric models of joints. The analytical approach is often helpful in sizing but coupling these models with full-vehicle finite element (FE) models is complicated. Therefore, in this study, a reduced-order joint FE model is developed that can be used in structural FE models for quick assessments of bonded joints. FE model is employed for the analysis of a lap joint stresses using standard, 2D plane stress element. Furthermore, a parametric study was performed with adhesive dimensions.

Abdul Aabid, Sher Afghan Khan, Turki Al-Khalifah, Bisma Parveez, Asraar Anjum

### Chapter 66. Modelling and Analysis of Flat Disc Brake for Dynamic Vehicles

Rotor disc brake plays an important role in the automobiles to reduce speed and avoid accidents. Design and fabrication of disc brakes are highly needed, therefore, simulation studies are important at laboratory level before facing fabrication for minimizing man, machine and materials and cost. This paper proposed a modelling and analysis of rotor disc brake with various materials such as carbon alloy, steel and carbon steel with their results. Finite element method has been used for structural analysis in order to design the flat disc brake for dynamic vehicles.

K. Viswanath Allamraju

### Chapter 67. Robust PV Fed Discrete Controller for Heating and Lighting Applications

This paper explains the modeling and simulation of robust PV fed discrete sliding mode control (DSMC) using zeta converter for heating and lighting applications. PV fed system is unstable and less efficient because of its poor solar energy conversion and fluctuation in irradiation. DSMC is used in order to ensure stability under uncertainties, and zeta converter is used which has wide range of duty cycle and better efficiency compared to other types of DC–DC converters. So that overall the system is efficient, robust and economical. The robustness of the controller is proved by introducing uncertainties both in load and source side.

K. Viji, K. Chitra, K. Uma Maheswari

### Chapter 68. Study of Effect of Variation of Parameters on the Performance of a Solar Still

Water is eminent for all living beings and is a basic requirement. Even though 71% of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, there is still an acute shortage of drinking water in many countries, as approximately 97.5% of Earth’s water is saltwater in the oceans and only 2.5% is fresh water in groundwater, lakes, and rivers. Thus, access to clean drinking water is a major issue that needs to be tackled immediately and efficiently. The existing water purification technologies like reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis, multistage flash, multiple effect, and vapor compression require a lot of energy and fuels, leading to environmental pollution. It is also found that 70% of water supplied as input to these technologies is wasted, while RO also removes important minerals, and World Health Organization (WHO) standards do not deem this fit. The desalination of saline water using solar stills is an effective solution to overcome these problems. Combining the worldwide availability and inexhaustible nature of solar energy, a still that requires only solar energy as the input ensures a sustainable and environmentally friendly method to produce potable water with minimal energy conversions. This paper reviews the performance of a solar still by varying parameters that affect the production of output distillate. The results obtained are studied and presented.

Twinkle Rane, Parthsarathi Mulay, Namrata Kala, Archana Thosar

### Chapter 69. Friction and Wear Performance of Jatropha Oil Added with Molybdenum Disulphide Nanoparticles

Nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. The nanosized additives when added to biodegradable oils improve their tribological performance and contribute to energy saving and sustainability. In the present study, the MoS2 nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base jatropha oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer for steel-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the MoS2 nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performance. The optimal concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles in the base oil was found to be 0.5% for minimum friction and wear rate. Addition of load decreased friction and increased wear rate. The coefficient of friction and wear rate was reduced by 63% and 35%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the MoS2 nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

Zahid Mushtaq, M. Hanief

### Chapter 70. Layer Based Fabrication of Human-Scaled Body Parts by Using Pneumatic Extrusion Method

Congenital malformation is caused by a genetic factor or by prenatal events that are not genetic that causes physical or mental disability. There are different types of congenital malformation like heart defects, cleft lip and cleft palate, congenital deformity in ear or nose, down syndrome, etc. Some of them are possible to be rectified with different surgical procedures by placing implants in the body, prosthesis, bone substitutes (scaffold), etc. Out of different types of birth defects, the major problems faced by the human beings are congenital ear or nose defect. In the development of new nose or ear tissue, bone scaffold provides better physical properties compared to other alternate methods. The main objective is to develop nose or ear scaffold with improved elastic properties using melt pneumatic extrusion process. This advanced technology can be used to develop complex anatomical models.

O. Y. Venkata Subba Reddy, V. Venkatesh, A. N. R. Reddy, A. L. S. Brahma Reddy

### Chapter 71. Fuzzy-Based Power Management Strategy for Performance Improvement of Electric Vehicles

Battery/ultra capacitor (UC) hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) are used in electric vehicles to improve the performance and to cater to the power and energy demand of the load. The UCs assist the battery during the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle by supplying transient power demand. The energy management ensures the power split between the sources to meet the load demand. The frequency sharing-based power management strategy is explored in this paper. However, due to the issues related to the real-time control operations, a new fuzzy logic-based system is proposed. The fuzzy logic controller controls the power flow between the energy storage system based on the power demand and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. The simulation of the proposed controller is done in Matlab/Simulink and the results are compared with the frequency sharing based control method to show the energy savings.

J. S. Rakhi, T. Rajeev

### Chapter 72. Design of Pitch Box-Mounting Tool

The lifting tool has been developed as per the BS EN13155-lifting accessories, non-fixed load lifting attachments, so as per these standards, counterbalance c-crane will develop and also customize mounting arrangement to be used for lifting the wind turbine components during the integration of the wind turbine. So these tools will be using in the production plant of the wind turbine components. Depending upon the depth of assembly, the fork arm length will decide. The lifting tool or attachment design will depend upon the fork arm geometry. Mounting tools are assembled with different parts, so these parts are connected by different joint connections like fasteners, welded joints, etc. The joints design will be followed by DIN EN 1993.1.8.2005-1, as per these standard instructions, joints to be designed.

K. S. Prakasha, Shrishail Kakkeri, D. Amaresh Kumar

### Chapter 73. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Automobile Radiator Through the Application of CuO Nanofluids

It is experimentally demonstrated that the nanofluids prepared using CuO nano particles improved the radiator thermal performance when used as a coolant. A mixture of water and EG in the ratios of 80:20 by volume is employed as base fluid for the preparation of CuO nanofluids in the present investigation. Volume concentration of CuO is varied between 0.07 and 0.023% in the base fluid for heat transfer experiments. Experiments are conducted with a flow rate ranging between 600 and 900 LPH through the radiator. In this investigation, it is observed that the radiator thermal performance improved with the flow rate in the range considered. Augmentation of heat transfer rate up to 53% is observed in comparison to the base fluid in the range of flow rates considered in this investigation. Effect of flow rate of nanofluids on the Nusselt number is presented graphically taking the nanoparticle concentrations as a parameter.

M. Chandra Sekhara Reddy, Veeredhi Vasudeva Rao

### Chapter 74. Positioning of Wind Turbine in a Wind Farm for Optimum Generation of Power Using Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Direction

The objective of wind farm layout optimization (WFLO) is to maximize the power generation with less cost. This paper proposes a program based on genetic algorithm for positioning turbines in a wind farm and studies the effect of wind direction on WFLO. Wind speed is measured at 28 locations in two southern states in India. GIS approach is used to identify the ideal location for a wind farm. Two different scenarios are taken for study; the first is constant wind speed with single direction and the second is constant wind speed with multiple wind directions. A wind farm of 2 km × 2 km is divided into grids of 10 × 10; each grid can have one or no turbine. The wind data of the past three years is taken for the optimization problem. The best solution would accommodate 19 turbines which can generate an average power of 183.55 MW with maximum 343.15 MW in November and a minimum 29.8 MW in May. A case study of wind farm layout optimization along with economical aspect is done in India.

Khalid Anwar, Sandip Deshmukh

### Chapter 75. Eco-Efficiency and Business Performance Evaluation—Lean and Green Manufacturing Approach

The environmental issues have been a serious talk lately from the manufacturing industry’s point of view. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence the eco-efficiency and the business performance of a company towards lean and green techniques. The enablers/criteria were identified as the factors influencing lean and green and were surveyed in manufacturing industries to evaluate their performance. Analytic hierarchy process was used to calculate the weights and prioritize the enablers. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) prioritizes the enablers based on lean, green, sustainable factors and is improved based upon the ranks. The driving and the dependency power of the enablers were determined using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). The supply chain operations reference (SCOR) method categorizes the enablers under major factors like plan, source, make, delivery, return and attributes such as reliability, responsiveness, agility, cost and assets management. The overall business performance value of an industry is determined using SNORM De Boer Normalization Process Method (SNORM) values and the weights obtained from analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This study indicates that industries are shifting gradually towards lean and green techniques. The decision-makers can understand the areas to concentrate, concerning lean and green, according to the performance value of the criteria and choose the appropriate performance model.

R. Kishore, R. Pradeep, Suyash Roy, K. Ravi Teja, M. S. Narassima, K. Ganesh, S. P. Anbuudayasankar

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