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This book proposes new algorithms to ensure secured communications and prevent unauthorized data exchange in secured multimedia systems. Focusing on numerous applications’ algorithms and scenarios, it offers an in-depth analysis of data hiding technologies including watermarking, cryptography, encryption, copy control, and authentication. The authors present a framework for visual data hiding technologies that resolves emerging problems of modern multimedia applications in several contexts including the medical, healthcare, education, and wireless communication networking domains. Further, it introduces several intelligent security techniques with real-time implementation.
As part of its comprehensive coverage, the book discusses contemporary multimedia authentication and fingerprinting techniques, while also proposing personal authentication/recognition systems based on hand images, surveillance system security using gait recognition, face recognition under restricted constraints such as dry/wet face conditions, and three-dimensional face identification using the approach developed here.
This book equips perception technology professionals with the latest technologies, techniques, and strategies for multimedia security systems, offering a valuable resource for engineers and researchers working to develop security systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Overview on Multimedia Data Security and Its Evaluation

Frontmatter

Security of Multimedia Contents: A Brief

Abstract
Through the past few years, an explosion in the use of digital media has been increased. A new infrastructure of digital audio, image, animation, video recorders/players, electronic commerce, and online services are speedily being deployed. These multimedia forms are applied for further transmission between users in the various applications through the Web or wireless communication that leads to security threats. Generally, the multimedia authenticity/security solution is based on using hiding techniques including digital watermarking and cryptography. This chapter introduced an extensive brief overview of the multimedia security problem in the prevailing research work in the various applications. It provided evolution of the different hiding techniques along with their properties and requirements. Finally, some challenges are addressed for future research direction.
Amira S. Ashour, Nilanjan Dey

A Survey on Intelligent Security Techniques for High-Definition Multimedia Data

Abstract
Multimedia security has advanced tremendously over the decades due to the change in variety and volume of data. In the current security context, intelligent systems for multimedia security are very much in demand. Various applications such as biometric, e-commerce, medical imaging, forensics, aerospace, and defense require high-end data security systems. Conventional cryptography, watermarking, and steganography fall in short to provide security for high-resolution 2D/3D image and high-definition video. Persistent demand exists for designing new security algorithms for 3D graphics, animations, and HD videos. Traditional encryption method does not suffice the current need, as its securing ability is limited when it gets decoded. Steganography techniques are reported for securing text, audio, and video content, but observed to be few in number compared to image steganography techniques. Watermarking techniques for securing video content, text, and animations are reported in the literature but seem to be few in numbers as compared to image watermarking techniques. Majority of the literature is observed to apply digital watermarking as security means for video and image data. However, digital watermarking for 3D graphics is a current research topic. On the other hand, video watermarking techniques shall be broadly classified based on domain and human perception. Usually, video watermarking techniques do not alter video contents. But current trend shows that security techniques are designed based on video content. This kind of security methods is claimed to be far superior as they concentrate not only on watermarking but also on synchronization of watermark. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of multimedia security techniques emphasizing on their applicability, scope, and shortcomings especially when applied to high-definition multimedia data. Problematic issues of intelligent techniques in signal processing for multimedia security and outlook for the future research are discussed too. The major goal of the paper was to provide a comprehensive reference source for the researchers involved in designing multimedia security technique, regardless of particular application areas.
S. D. Desai, N. R. Pudakalakatti, V. P. Baligar

Intelligent Morphing and Steganography Techniques for Multimedia Security

Abstract
Data security plays an important role in today’s digital world. There is a potential need to do the research in the field of image morphing and steganography for data security. The development of morphing over the past years allows an organization into three categories of morphing algorithms namely geometric, interpolation and specialized algorithms depending upon the pixel mapping procedure. It gives an insight of how an appropriate morphing method is useful for different steganographic methods categorized into spatial domain, transform-based domain, spread spectrum, statistical and Internet Protocol. The geometric transformation morphing methods are more suitable in spatial domain steganography. This chapter includes the review of different morphing and steganography techniques. Hybrid approaches using morphing for steganography have a special status among steganographic systems as they combine both the features of morphing and steganography to overcome the shortcomings of individual methods.
Anant M. Bagade, Sanjay N. Talbar

Information Hiding: Steganography

Abstract
The sharing of digital media over the Internet has given rise to many issues concerning security and privacy of data. While encryption is used to secure the data, the appearance of encrypted images and video streams makes them vulnerable to attacks. This situation can be disastrous in cases where security and privacy are of utmost importance, such as in military, medical, or covert applications. This drawback of cryptography is one of the many factors which encourage research in the field of information hiding. Information hiding aims to protect the integrity of the data during transmission or while in storage. Steganography is a branch of information hiding which conceals the existence of the secret data hidden in a cover medium. This chapter discusses the idea behind information hiding with respect to reversible and non-reversible steganography. It starts with a general introduction about steganography and its classification into spatial and transform domain techniques. This chapter then moves on to give an explanation of the various spatial and transform domain techniques in use today. It then suggests the scope for future developments followed by the conclusion.
V. Thanikaiselvan, Shounak Shastri, Shaik Ahmad

Digital Watermarking: A Potential Solution for Multimedia Authentication

Abstract
The digitization has resulted in knowledge explosion in the modern technology-driven world and has led to the encouragement and motivation for digitization of the intellectual artifact. The combining, replication, and distribution facility of the digital media such as text, images, audio, and video easier and faster has no doubt revolutionized the world. However, the unauthorized use and maldistribution of information by online pirates is the sole threat that refrains the information proprietors to share their digital property. It is therefore imperative to come up with standard means to protect the intellectual property rights (IRP) of the multimedia data, thereby developing the effective multimedia authentication techniques to discourage the illegitimate distribution of information content. Digital watermarking, which is believed to be the potential means among the various possible approaches, to encourage the content providers to secure their digital property while maintaining its availability, has been entreated as a potential mechanism to protect IRP of multimedia contents.
Kaiser J. Giri, Rumaan Bashir

Real-time Implementation of Reversible Watermarking

Abstract
In today’s Internet-connected world, tampering of digital images by malicious users has become very common. This clearly is a direct violation of one’s intellectual property rights, and hence, image protection by resolving rightful ownership is gaining utmost importance. Reversible watermarking (RW) techniques are a potential replacement for conventional watermarking systems, in case if the images to be protected are very sensitive. Studies have suggested that these methods offer greater balance among the requirements of watermarking such as invisibility, robustness, and capacity. This chapter gives an overview of the RW techniques, their vulnerabilities, and recommendations for future development. Performance issues related to the real-time implementation of watermarking systems through various algorithms are also featured. Finally, an extension of real-time implementation of RW approach based on asynchronous architectures is introduced.
H. R. Lakshmi, B. Surekha, S. Viswanadha Raju

Comparative Approach Between Singular Value Decomposition and Randomized Singular Value Decomposition-based Watermarking

Abstract
Threats and attacks on networks have increased significantly with the recent advancement of technologies. In order to avoid such problems, watermarking techniques was introduced. However, several popular watermarking techniques consume much more time to embed and extract the hidden message. In this current work, a randomized singular value decomposition (rSVD)-based watermarking technique has been proposed in order to avoid such problems. In this work, firstly, the watermark is embedded into the cover image using singular value decomposition, and then the rSVD is employed. Finally, the obtained results were compared to check the time complexity of both methods and to compare the quality of watermarked image and recovered watermarks.
Sayan Chakraborty, Souvik Chatterjee, Nilanjan Dey, Amira S. Ashour, Aboul Ella Hassanien

Biometric-Based Security System: Issues and Challenges

Abstract
Though biometric systems have been successfully engaged in a number of real-world applications, they are error prone. The challenge is to develop a biometric system that is highly accurate and secure, convenient to use, and easily scalable to a large population. Systems that have the ability to authenticate persons accurately, rapidly, reliably, cost-effectively, friendly to use, and without drastic changes to the existing infrastructures are desired. Despite rapid growth in biometric systems, in the past few decades, a number of core research issues have not yet been fully addressed. Multibiometrics system design is certainly a challenging task since it is very difficult to choose the best possible sources of biometric information and fusion strategy for a particular application. In this chapter, different issues and challenges in designing biometric-based security systems and methodologies involved in overcoming these issues are discussed. Many researchers developed biometric-based security system despite that many challenges remain unaddressed. Only few challenges are addressed completely; still, there is a requirement of robust algorithms. In this chapter, we propose two approaches of feature extraction, i.e., block sum for iris and modified minutiae method for fingerprint. The main aim of this chapter was to provide an informative analysis and solutions of key issues and challenges of biometric-based security system.
Ujwalla Gawande, Yogesh Golhar, Kamal Hajari

Parametric Evaluation of Different Cryptographic Techniques for Enhancement of Energy Efficiency in Wireless Communication Network

Abstract
Security in the wireless network is a critical issue, so by most wireless and wired communication standards, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the most reliable modulation technique which has been adopted. To reduce the redundancy, storage requirements, and communication costs and to protect our data from eavesdropping, data compression algorithms are used. With the increasing demand of secure multimedia, there is a need to develop a new secured compression and encryption technique whose data contain graphic, video, images, and text files. Data compression offers an approach for reducing communication costs using effective bandwidth and at the same time considers the security aspect of the data being transmitted which is vulnerable to attacks. In this chapter, we have introduced new compression algorithm known as KSA, which is based on bit quantization and is the best technique which requires less encoding and decoding delay. The proposed algorithm is found most effective in terms of energy ,delay and throughput when data travels wirelessly through OFDM. Here, the objective was to carry out an efficient implementation of the OFDM system using different combinations of encryption and compression algorithm for the energy optimization on data transmission. Lots of text encryption algorithms based on rounds and keys have been proposed earlier. Some of them are time consuming and complex, some have little key space. While working, the best combination for the encryption and compression of the data transmission and energy optimization is found out and implemented in NS2 for finding different parameters such as delay, energy, and throughput. The latest trend in text encryption is chaos based for some unique characteristics and parameters. In this chapter, we further proposed a unique chaos-based encryption technique which when combines with LZW compression gives best results. This encryption differs from earlier encryption technique such as RSA, ECC, Interleaving, Hill-climber, AES, and DES and is suitable for practical applications having large data capacity. The combination of compression, cryptography, and chaotic theory forms an important field of information security in text. Tabulation of compression time, encryption time, decompression time, decryption time, compressed data size, total time taken for compression, entropy, and total time required for decompression and compression ratio is found.
Alka P. Sawlikar, Z. J. Khan, S. G. Akojwar

Personal Authentication and Recognition Systems

Frontmatter

Hand Image Biometric Based Personal Authentication System

Abstract
Hand geometry is widely accepted biometric modality for identification of human beings. This is considered as safest biometric indicator due to its strong resistance against the unauthorized access and easy to use modality from the user point of view. This chapter presents an approach for the personal authentication using geometrical structure of hand images. The proposed approach consists of many phases like acquisition of hand images of the user to the system, normalization of images, normalized contour and palm region extraction etc. The contour of the hand region from Region of Interest (ROI) is computed and is used to extract structural information, which describe the shape of the hand. The features of the test and the trainee images are matched using machine learning based classifier at the verification stage.
Ravinder Kumar

A Study on Security and Surveillance System Using Gait Recognition

Abstract
Security is an important aspect and international attention in smart environments. The surveillance cameras are deployed in all commercial and public places in order to improve the security against terrorism activities. Nowadays, more and more government and industry resources are involved in the researches of security systems, especially in multimedia security, i.e., to enforce security measures, from the images and videos taken from suspicious environment. Therefore, there exists a need to ensure the originality and authenticity of multimedia data as well as to extract intelligent information from enormous images/video streams taken from suspicious environments to build stronger security systems. In this scenario, person identification plays a major role in security systems from the footages of suspicious environments. Without any human assistance, video analyst can identify the person from a large number of videos.
M. Sivarathinabala, S. Abirami, R. Baskaran

Face Recognition Under Dry and Wet Face Conditions

Abstract
Research fraternities in face recognition were successful in addressing intraclass (intra-personal) and interclass (inter-personal) variations effectively. However, none of the works has made an attempt to address a special case of traditional face recognition, i.e., face recognition under dry and wet face conditions. Here, the gallery face is supposed to be dry face and the probe is a wet face, which comes into picture if the face recognition is employed for an automatic person authentication or in any other intelligent access control application. We name this scenario as wet face recognition (WFR). In such scenario, face remains wet due to several factors including adverse weather conditions such as rain, sweat, high humidity, snow fall, and fog. Essentially, face gets wet due to rain and sweat most commonly. Focus of the current work is to deal with wet image normalization and study its impact on face recognition rate. A framework based on modified bilateral filter is proposed to improve recognition performance in WFR scenario. Sparse representation-based classification over texture features results in impressive recognition performance. Extensive experiments on NITS-DWFDB database demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed wet normalization scheme and WFR framework.
K. Dharavath, F. A. Talukdar, R. H. Laskar, N. Dey

Improved Approach for 3D Face Characterization

Abstract
Representing and extracting good quality of facial feature extraction is an essential step in many applications, such as face recognition, pose normalization, expression recognition, human–computer interaction and face tracking. We are interested in the extraction of the pertinent features in 3D face. In this paper, we propose an improved algorithm for 3D face characterization. We propose novel characteristics based on seven salient points of the 3D face. We have used the Euclidean distances and the angles between these points. This step is highly important in 3D face recognition. Our original technique allows fully automated processing, treating incomplete and noisy input data. Besides, it is robust against holes in a meshed image and insensitive to facial expressions. Moreover, it is suitable for different resolutions of images. All the experiments have been performed on the FRAV3D and GAVAB databases.
S. Sghaier, C. Souani, H. Faeidh, K. Besbes

Attendance Recording System Using Partial Face Recognition Algorithm

Abstract
In today’s world, recording the attendance of a student plays an important role in improving the quality of educational system. The manual labor included in the maintenance and management of the traditional attendance sheets is tedious as it costs quite a time for the lecturer. Thus, there is a requirement for robust computerized biometric-based attendance recording system (ARS). Face recognition-based methods are a potential replacement for conventional systems, in case if the students to be addressed are more. This chapter gives an overview of the existing attendance recording systems, their vulnerabilities, and recommendations for future development. A smart attendance capturing and management system based on Viola–Jones algorithm and partial face recognition algorithms is introduced for two environments: controlled and uncontrolled. While the proposed system proved 100 % accurate under controlled environment, the efficiency under uncontrolled environment is quite low (60 %). It is observed that the face recognition rate varies from frame to frame. Further, the performance of the proposed attendance system completely depends upon the database collected, the resolution of the camera used and the capacity of students. Further work can be carried out to make the system more efficient in the real-time scenario.
Borra Surekha, Kanchan Jayant Nazare, S. Viswanadha Raju, Nilanjan Dey

Automatic Human Emotion Recognition in Surveillance Video

Abstract
Recognition and study of human emotions have fascinated a lot of attention in the past two decades and have been researched broadly in the field of computer vision. The recognition of complete-body expressions is significantly harder, because the pattern of the human pose has additional degrees of self-determination than the face alone, and its overall shape varies robustly during articulated motion. This chapter presents a method for emotion recognition based on the gesture dynamics features extracted from the foreground object to represent various levels of a person’s posture. The experiments are carried out using publicly available emotion recognition dataset, and the extracted motion feature set is modeled by support vector machines (SVM), Naïve Bayes, and dynamic time wrapping (DTW) which are used to classify the human emotions. Experimental results show that DTW is efficient in recognizing the human emotion with an overall recognition accuracy of 93.39 %, when compared to SVM and Naïve Bayes.
J. Arunnehru, M. Kalaiselvi Geetha

Medical Security Applications

Frontmatter

Watermarking in Biomedical Signal Processing

Abstract
Recently, by means of technological innovation in communication networks and information, it has assisted healthcare experts across the world to seek high-quality diagnosis as well as to communicate each other as second opinions via enabling extensive and faster access to the patients’ electronic medical records, such as medical images. Medical images are extremely precious owing to its importance in diagnosis, education, and research. Recently, telemedicine applications in telediagnoisis, teleconsulting, telesurgery, and remote medical education play an imperative role in the advancement of the healthcare industry. Nevertheless, medical images are endured security risk, such as images tampering to comprise false data which may direct to wrong diagnosis and treatment. Consequently, watermarking of medical images offers the compulsory control over the flow of medical information. It is the typically used data hiding technique in the biomedical information security domain and legal authentication. In the field of telemedicine, exchange of medical signals is a very common practice. The signals are transmitted through the web and the wireless unguided media. The security and the authenticity are the matter of concern due to the various attacks on the web. Any type of the signals vulnerability in the biomedical data is not acceptable for the sake of proper diagnosis. A watermark is used to prove the ownership of the exchanged data. The logos of the hospitals or medical centers and electronic patient’s report card can be added to the biomedical signals as a watermark to establish the property right. This work provides an extensive view about the existing research works in the field of watermarking techniques on different biomedical signals. It includes the design and evaluation parameters serving as a guideline in the watermarking schemes′ development and benchmarking. This work also provides the comparative study between different watermarking methods. It reviews several aspects about digital watermarking in the medical domain. Also, it presented the properties of watermarking and several applications of watermarking. Meanwhile, it discusses the requirements and challenges that the biomedical watermarking process face.
Nilanjan Dey, Amira S. Ashour, Sayan Chakraborty, Sukanya Banerjee, Evgeniya Gospodinova, Mitko Gospodinov, Aboul Ella Hassanien

Pixel Repetition Technique: A High Capacity and Reversible Data Hiding Method for E-Healthcare Applications

Abstract
Electronic healthcare is changing the world worldwide scenario of the conventional healthcare. Transmission of medical images in e-healthcare system is of greater importance, because of the valuable information carried out by them for the purpose of tele-diagnosis and tele-medicine. For successful tele-diagnosis, it is imperative that the medical images should not be tampered with during transit. In this chapter, a high capacity and reversible data hiding system utilizing Pixel Repetition Technique (PRT) has been proposed. The usage of PRT for preprocessing reduces the computational complexity drastically. The proposed system is capable of any sort of tamper detection. This has been achieved by embedding a fragile watermark (computed from checksum of the cover medium blocks) in addition to electronic patient record (EPR). Block-wise division of cover image and intermediate significant bit (ISB) substitution have been used for data embedding. A detailed experimentation carried out shows that besides supporting high payload and reversibility our technique is capable of detecting any tamper caused due to signal processing and geometric attacks. Further, less computational complexity makes the proposed scheme an ideal candidate for real-time electronic healthcare applications.
S. A. Parah, F. Ahad, J. A. Sheikh, N. A. Loan, G. M. Bhat

Security for Various Multimedia Contents

Frontmatter

A New Method of Haar and Db10 Based Secured Compressed Data Transmission Over GSM Voice Channel

Abstract
In this chapter, a successful attempt for transmission of secured compressed data over GSM voice channel has been made. In this work, given text of any length is converted to real-time speech signal and then compressed with discrete wavelet transform, encoded with gold code sequence, modulated using quadrature phase-shift keying and sent over the GSM voice channel. The aim of this paper was to present a secured digital data compression and modulation for robust data transmission in terms of voice. The main objective was to achieve higher data rates, lower bit error rate, and less utilization of the bandwidth. The performance of the proposed technique is compared to an already existing technique for data transmission over voice channel. It has been observed that the proposed technique shows much better results in terms of bit error rate (BER), mean square error (MSE), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as compared to the already existing techniques. The proposed scheme has a great significance in GSM systems where data security and quality of service (QoS) are two main issues.
Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Sakeena Akhtar, Shabir Ahmad Parah, G. M. Bhat

StegNmark: A Joint Stego-Watermark Approach for Early Tamper Detection

Abstract
The exponential advancement in the fields of computer networks and multimedia signal processing has resulted in easy availability of digital multimedia content over the internet nowadays. However, this advancement has given rise to many challenges in terms of information security and content authentication that need to be taken care of. A novel technique based on combination of Steganography and Fragile Watermarking called as StegNmark for content authentication utilizing the concept of early tamper detection has been proposed in this chapter. StegNmark is a spatial-domain data hiding technique which is capable of early tamper detection of a given stego-image. The early detection could be quite useful in situations where (data extraction) time factor plays a critical role like data extraction indicating a warfare plan to attack the enemy. This is achieved by embedding a fragile watermark of about 1 % of total payload using bit interleaving in the cover medium. The comparatively lower payload watermark (compared to secret data embedded in the StegNmark) is first extracted for authentication purpose. If the watermark detected is same as that used at the transmitter, then only secret data is extracted from the stegomarked medium. Experimental results reveal that besides providing high-quality stego-images the proposed system is capable of saving appreciable amount of extraction time due to early tamper detection.
S. A. Parah, J. A. Sheikh, G. M. Bhat

Adaptive Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using Weibull Distribution

Abstract
Digital watermarking is considered to be an important technique for protecting copyrights of digital images. In this paper, a new adaptive watermarking algorithm using Weibull distribution is proposed. In order to embed a digital watermark, the cover image is transformed into frequency components and it is modulated. This proposal uses discrete wavelet transformation and discrete cosines transformation techniques to obtain frequency components. The selected robust frequency components are modulated for embedding a watermark. In addition, the quality of watermarked images is preserved through adaptive calculation of scaling and embedding parameters. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested through various attacks. The obtained similarity measure values of Gaussian low-pass filter, compression, and Poison attacks are 98, 96, and 98 %, respectively. The calculated values for other attacks are also tabulated and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is proved.
V. Santhi

Multi-fingerprint Unimodel-based Biometric Authentication Supporting Cloud Computing

Abstract
Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies that transfers network users to the next level. Security is one of the critical challenges faced by cloud computing. Biometrics proves its efficiency to achieve secured authentication. A new attribute should be created to handle authentication information in the infrastructure. The proposed system model presented a new idea for biometric security system based on fingerprint recognition. It automated the verification method to match between two human fingerprints, where fingerprints are considered a commonly used biometrics to identify an individual and to verify their identity. The proposed system presented a new model of a security system, where the users were asked to provide multiple [two] biometric fingerprints during the registration for a service. These templates are stored at the cloud providers’ end. The users are authenticated based on these fingerprint templates which have to be provided in the order of random numbers that are generated every time. Both fingerprint templates and images were provided whenever encrypted for enhanced security. The proposed multi-fingerprint system achieved superior accuracy of 98 % compared to the single-fingerprint and manual-based attendance management systems.
P. Rajeswari, S. Viswanadha Raju, Amira S. Ashour, Nilanjan Dey
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