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Multimedia environments suggest to us a new perception of the state of changes in and the integration of new technologies that can increase our ability to process information. Moreover, they are obliging us to change our idea of knowledge. These changes are reflected in the obvious synergetic convergence of different types of access, communication and information exchange. The multimedia learning environment should not represent a passive object that only contains or assembles information but should become, on one side, the communication medium of the pedagogical intentions of the professor/designer and, on the other side, the place where the learner reflects and where he or she can play with, test and access information and try to interpret it, manipulate it and build new knowledge. The situation created by such a new learning environments that give new powers to individuals, particularly with regard to accessing and handling diversified dimensions of information, is becoming increasingly prevalent in the field of education. The old static equilibrium, in which fixed roles are played by the teacher (including the teaching environment) and the learner, is shifting to dynamic eqUilibrium where the nature of information and its processing change, depending on the situation, the learning context and the individual's needs.



Multimedia Learning Environment: A New Paradigm?


Learning in the Twenty-First Century Interactive Multimedia Technology

Most learning systems in the world today are remarkably similar. This similarity extends over a wide range of student ages, and extends geographically almost everywhere. Although we hear a great deal about cultural differences, and undoubtedly differences can be found, there is also a tremendous similarity in educational strategies. The lecture/textbook approach to learning, teacher directed classes, with a teacher in front of a group of students, is almost universal, whether one is talking about a class of ten year olds in Japan, or whether one is talking about a class of twenty-two year olds in the United States.
Alfred Bork

Research and Theory on Multi-Media Learning Effects

A survey of available multi-media and interactive videodisc research, reviews is presented. Conclusions are offered that: 1) multiple media, including videodisc technology, are not the factors that influence learning; 2) the measured learning gains in studies of the instructional uses of multiple media are mostly likely due to instructional methods (such as interactivity) that can be used with a variety of single and multiple media; 3) the aspects of dual coding theory which formed the basis for early multi-media studies have not been supported by subsequent research; and 4) future multi-media and interactive videodisc research should focus on the economic benefits (cost and learning time advantages) of new technology.
Richard E. Clark, Terrance G. Craig

A Design Method for Classroom Instruction in the Multimedia Environment

Worldwide trends towards the introduction of New Information Technology (NIT) in schools reflect the widespread aspiration that it will prove a powerful agent in improving the present insufficient standards of education. In spite of the cost of investment in such NTT facilities, however, in practice they do not guarantee the expected improvement of conventional teaching. Resistance to these innovations is supposed to stem from the conservative attitudes of teachers and their adherence to their familiar teaching styles. We should not, however, blame teachers for this reluctance to change. As teacher education is currently constructed, it does not provide an adequate methodology which involves student interaction or an in-service teaching relationship in a way which would help teachers design instruction to fit the new classroom equipped with NIT. In the conventional methods of instructional design, we ask teachers to prepare a lesson plan which describes educational aims, instructional objectives and proposed activities for each class. An understanding of the actual learning processes involved, the various types of learning environments, the specificity of these to individual students are all often neglected. The integration of new methods, consistent with new ideas, is an obvious necessity. The recent change in the conceptual framework needs to be accompanied by changing teacher skills and changing instructional ideas, including multimedia.
Haruo Nishinosono

Multimedia Learning Environment: An Educational Challenge

Education dates back for thousands of years, organized schools for hundreds, computers and electronic media only for decades, and we are still looking for new ways to apply them for the best results in learning. Learning remains the key objective, whatever media or technologies educationalists, researchers and developers use as tools for transfer of facts/data, knowledge and understanding. The information age calls for new methods and strategies to select and organize information before transforming it into knowledge and wisdom.
Harold Haugen

Interface Design: Issues and New Conceptual Models


Interactivity and Intelligent Advisory Strategies in a Multimedia Learning Environment: Human Factors, Design Issues and Technical Considerations

Multimedia environments offer us a new perception of the state of changes in and the integration of technological environments which can increase our ability to process information in the field of education. Moreover, they are compelling us to change our idea of knowledge. This change is reflected in the obvious convergence of different types of access, communication and information exchanges. A number of related fields such as publishing, television, the mass media in general and the nascent data processing sector are overlapping more and more, altering each others’ characteristics, and spawning hybrid environments which make it possible to obtain information in new ways.
Max Giardina

Integrating HyperMedia into Intelligent Tutoring

The merging of hypermedia and intelligent tutoring can occur through two approaches:
  • integrating intelligent tutoring into hypermedia;
  • integrating hypermedia into intelligent tutoring.
Philippe C. Duchastel

Instructional Transaction Theory: Resource Mediations

The need for corporate, military and industrial computer-based training (CB) continues to rise. As a result, courseware developers and managers are confronted with the time-consuming aspect of the CBT development process (Faiola, 1989). Programming, debugging, and testing courseware is such a time-consuming aspect that efficient courseware development is an immediate concern (MacKnight and Balagopalan, 1988–89). The time required to develop one hour of computer-based training has been estimated to take anywhere from 200 to over 6000 labor hours (Carter, 1990; Lippert, 1989). These numbers make it difficult and expensive to produce current and timely CBT.
Ann Marie Canfield, Scott Schwab, M. David Merrill, Zhongmin Li, Mark K. Jones

Enhancing the Acceptance and Cultural Validity of Interactive Multi-Media

Although studies have shown that interactive multimedia are effective and efficient instructional tools, they have not been adopted as widely nor as successfully as predicted. This presentation will focus on culture as one factor which impacts the effectiveness of interactive media. Several case studies of customized and locally produced multimedia projects are discussed and demonstrated, and a model for participatory development is presented.
Diane M. Gayeski

Contextual Browsing Within a Hypermedia Environment

An intelligent tutoring system must develop appropriate models of knowledge, learning and teaching to achieve the ideal of a learning environment that teaches all learners, accounting for differences in experience, previous knowledge and preferred learning style. An intermediate target is to create an environment that supports the flexible presentation of knowledge without the inclusion of active tutoring elements. Such systems rely on the learner to control the presentation of information on a multimedia learner workstation while the system must ensure that appropriate material is readily accessible. This model reflects a human centered style of design with strong demands on the user interface.
C. P. Tompsett

Hypertext’s Contribution to Computer-Mediated Communication: In Search of an Instructional Model

“Collaborative creativity” is one of the tenets of the belief-structure of many Hypertext enthusiasts. Indeed, one particularly fruitful area of application for hypertext systems has turned out to be the collaborative annotation of student papers by both faculty and students is also something that many proponents of hypertext advocate and (occasionally) practice. One of the more long-lived working hypertext environments — Intermedia at Brown University — was specifically designed to support this sort of collaborative educational activity (Yankelovitch et al. 1988; Landow, 1987).
Alexander Romiszowski, E-cheol Chang

Object Oriented Interface Design


An Object Oriented Approach to Hypermedia Authoring

The electronic book metaphor is now widely employed for the design of multimedia instructional resources. It can be used in a variety of pedagogic design situations that require the creation of interactive, computer-based self-study materials. The utility and effectiveness of the metaphor can be significantly enhanced when it is augmented by means of the hypermedia paradigm. Using such an approach, this paper discusses an object oriented model for the design of reactive hypermedia page structures for electronic books. The implementation of the model using a conventional author language is described and the limitations of the operational system are then discussed. The design and fabrication of a courseware generator that totally automates the production of hypermedia pages is then described.
Philip Barker

Manipulable Inter-Medium Encoding and Learning (An Extended Abstract)

I intend to focus on an analysis of user activities and the nature of learning in an emerging, and I believe, significant, subclass of multimedia computer systems. Systems in this subclass have two main characteristics. Firstly, the user is presented with an encoding formed in one medium (which I call the external medium) which refers to an encoding another medium (which I call the base medium). Secondly, the user is allowed to perform manipulative operations on the former encoding (the external encoding), these operations being constrained in such a way so as to ensure that the operations themselves, or the outcomes of those operations, represent operations or outcomes on the latter encoding (the base encoding). Such a set up I call a Manipulable Inter-Medium Encoding (MIME).
Alan P. Parkes

Interactive Instruction: Evolution, Convolution, Revolution

The creation of interactive multimedia learning environments presents some unique challenges to the instructional designer. With hypertext and hypermedia technologies, we have the opportunity to create learning environments never before possible. And the revolution in hardware will make this technology available to an increasing number of learners. This presentation will review the “evolution” that is occurring in the design of interactive learning environments, the “convolution” we are experiencing with the rapidity of change taking place in the field, and the “revolution” that continues to drive the development of better, faster, cheaper delivery systems.
David M. Tuttle

Multimedia Learning Projects: Applications


Interactive Learning Using a Videodisc Connected to a Computer Review of Seven Prototypes

This article reviews research in the field of interactive learning using a videodisc connected to a computer conducted by the G.R.A.IN group between 1983 and 1989.
Philippe Marton

Discussions on Two Multimedia R & D Projects: The Palenque Project and the Interactive Video Project of the Museum Education Consortium

This paper briefly describes two multimedia research and development projects with which I’ve been involved over the past six years: Bank Street College’s Palenque Project and Museum Education Consortium’s Interactive Video Project. These projects will be considered together in this paper, because the interactive multimedia prototypes developed for each share a pedagogical bias toward discovery-based learning, as well as a variety of other design characteristics, despite the fact that they were designed with different hardware systems, content areas, target audiences, and learning contexts in mind.
Kathleen S. Wilson

Some Techno-Human Factors in Interactive Video Based Language Learning

Interactive video and multimedia learning environments should not remain laboratory-centered techniques serving only as a basis for a number of limited demonstrations and experiments. Our assumption has been that design and experiments should be both a continuous ongoing process spreading over a number of years and an attempt to address some of the learning issues university students have to face in a context of mass education.
François Marchessou

Audiovisual, Spoken and Written Languages: An Interacting Trilogy for the Teaching of Foreign Languages in an Interactive Multimedia System

The multimedia environment has been considered from many angles, characterized in diverse ways, and put to multifaceted uses in the past few years.
Martine Vidal

Interactive Language Learning: A Multimedia Approach in Chile

It was about three years ago at our University of Concepción, Chile, that we decided to renew our Language Lab. At the time of analyzing the different purchasing alternatives, however, we realized that a fundamental discussion was going on: there was no agreement as to the convenience of insisting on traditional language laboratories for the language teaching task. Several issues were raised relative to the communicative, functional and interactive approaches to language teaching and the need to focus on learning rather than on teaching. The occasion seemed appropriate for a change: we needed a media room with richer and more diversified means; the audio from a tape recorder sounded extremely poor indeed.
Max S. Echeverría

The Technological Text: Hypertextual, Hypermedial and Didactic Applications

The question of what “multimedia” and “multimediality” should mean meets inevitably with the semantic ambiguity which goes together with the creation of any neologism.
Luciano Galliani

The Training of Primary and Secondary School Teachers in Hypertext: Analysis of an Experience

The experience in the training of primary and secondary school teachers hypertext to use under the framework of Project Minerva is focused. Some comments on the nature of hypertext technology and in its application to the development of instructional courseware are made. The results obtained by teachers without any programming experience are described. Having in consideration the problems detected, an alternative course structure is proposed.
Altamiro B. Machado, Paulo Dias

Training Drivers to Detect Visual Indicators or The Trials and Tribulations of the Uninitiated in Interactive Video

Over time, all drivers develop visual strategies, depending on the type of vehicle driven and the conditions encountered. According to Têtard (1985), a strategy comprises three basic components:
the perception of relevant indicators;
the processing or interpretation of these indicators;
decision-making or the manoeuvre executed.
Maurice Fleury, Jacques Rhéaume

Learner Control Versus Computer Control in a Professional Training Context

Following an analysis on the inherent advantages and disadvantages of learner control on learning contents and strategies in a multimedia environment, the authors emphasize the difficulty in reconciling the freedom offered to the learner concerning the choice of contents and the requirements of professional training.
Christian Depover, Jean-Jacques Quintin


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