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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of two conferences: The 6th International Conference on ArtsIT, Interactivity and Game Creation (ArtsIT 2017) and the Second International Conference on Design, Learning and Innovation (DLI 2017). The event was hosted in Heraklion, Crete, Greece, in October 2017 and attracted 65 submissions from which 50 full papers were selected for publication in this book. The papers represent a forum for the dissemination of cutting-edge research results in the area of arts, design and technology, including open related topics like interactivity and game creation.



ArtsIT 2017


Between Artistic Creativity and Documentation: An Experiment on Interaction with an Installation for Music-Making

This article presents the preliminary results of an exploratory experiment with BilliArT, an interactive installation for music-making. The aim is to extract useful information from the combination of different ways to approach to the art work, namely that of conservation, of the aesthetic experience, and of the artistic creativity. The long-term goal is to achieve a better understanding of how people engage with interactive installations, and ultimately derive an ontology for interactive art.

Federica Bressan, Acatia Finbow, Tim Vets, Micheline Lesaffre, Marc Leman

Interactive Artist – Affective Painting in Multimedia Sensor Space

Non-arbitrary mapping of computer feedback audio and visuals to affect an artist/painter in performance aligned with human feedback loop closure is reported. Design related ‘bouba/kiki’ and ‘law of effect’. Results suggested higher unconscious than conscious impact to the artist during the process of creative expression. Performance process impact on creative expression by dynamic external stimuli on an artist is inconclusive from this explorative study.

Anthony L. Brooks

Ideal Spaces Exhibition

Through the years we have worked with the idea of gestalt through artefact creation (including virtual objects and 3D-worlds) as one surface to explore, exploit, test and communicate our ideas and concepts, that are generative rather than produced, where we try to grasp systematic insights through complex generated realities, in which an audience later is invited to interact. In our Ideal spaces exhibition for the 2016 Biennale in Venice, we tried to explore this via a combination of presenting ideal city spaces, active participation of the visitors molding their own spaces, and symbolic representation. Ideal Spaces is also a high-tech project that uses diverse technologies in new ways, also new techniques and programming developed by us.

Michael Johansson, Ulrich Gehmann

Walking on 2 Legs: 3D-Structured Method Alignment in Project Management

This paper explores the possibility of the use of tangibles in the field of education and project management. We propose an interactive instrumentation based on specific building blocks referred to as W2L (Walking on 2 Legs) that can be used as a (pedagogical) practice to guide and facilitate method structuring and alignment in project design. The need for this instrumentation is motivated by a teaching approach where students are asked to select, assign, and adjust methods pertaining to a specific project design. In order to improve their respective skills, we have designed and implemented W2L for method chaining along project phases or milestones using Lego© bricks and adapting a table-top system. We could test W2L with Knowledge Management students when planning their project to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. An analysis of feedback and results revealed positive impact on methodologically informed project design.

Christian Stary

Designing a Lighting Installation Through Virtual Reality Technology - The Brighter Brunnshög Case Study

This paper investigates how VR technology can support the process of designing light installations. Specifically, how visual immersion through digital means can create spatial awareness of an area, without the need of physical presence, thus facilitating the fluency of the design process. The motivation for this study lies in exploring new methods and techniques which can support the process of designing with light. This study attempts to set up an initial design methodology built upon a traditional approach, and expanded based on its three aspects; real-time rendering, flexibility and spatial experience. The project brighter Brunnshög is used as a case study illustrating how a method such as this can be integrated.

Boa Kim, Emmanouil Xylakis, Andrei-Ducu Predescu, Georgios Triantafyllidis, Ellen Kathrine Hansen, Michael Mullins

Improving User Experience for Lost Heritage Sites with a User-Centered Indirect Augmented Reality Application

Using digital media technology, e.g. augmented reality, to convey information about cultural heritage, is becoming increasingly more common. While augmented reality is considered useful and innovative for this purpose, systems based on this technology do at times fail to meet the end users’ needs. This paper describes the continued user-centered development and evaluation of an indirect augmented reality application, used to convey information and to visualize the lost Viking ring fortress of Aggersborg, with the larger goal of improving the user experience currently available at the Aggersborg site.The app was evaluated on users representing the visitors of Aggersborg. The participants were evaluating their user experience of the Aggersborg information board with and without the app as well as the usability of the app by answering user experience and usability questionnaires. It was found that the app did significantly increase user experience for children, while not doing so for seniors.

Christian L. Jakobsen, Jon B. Larsen, Mads Luther Nørlem, Martin Kraus

Facilitating Asymmetric Collaborative Navigation in Room-Scale Virtual Reality for Public Spaces

This study investigates asymmetric collaboration in public room-scale Virtual Reality (VR) setups to address the isolating experience provided by single-user Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs). In our field study, participants wearing an HMD had to find their way in a virtual maze with the help of co-located participants without an HMD. The non-HMD participants could either see a mirrored HMD view, a map of the maze, or a combination of the two. We evaluated which of these three conditions facilitates more collaboration and engagement for the non-HMD participants and spectators, as well as the HMD participants. Our findings can be used when facilitating engaging asymmetric experiences for public VR setups.

Sule Serubugo, Denisa Skantarova, Nicolaj Evers, Martin Kraus

Authoring a Serious Pervasive Game for Reflecting upon Urban Spaces

This paper investigates how pervasive games, which explore the potential of storytelling on mobile and locative media, can transfer knowledge about serious topics regarding public space. The discussion anchors on Chronica Mobilis (Barcelona 2014), a situated playing experience devoted to supporting critical thinking about contemporary cities’ issues. The authors expose the inception, interaction design, implementation and public presentation process of the mentioned artwork, as well as a qualitative analysis of the participants’ experience. They evaluate the manner in which this serious pervasive game manifests as a ludic mechanism to inform the reflection on the immigration and gentrification phenomenon.

Vanessa Santos, Roc Parés Burguès

Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network for Procedural 3D Landscape Generation Based on DEM

This paper proposes a novel framework for improving procedural generation of 3D landscapes using machine learning. We utilized a Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN) to generate heightmaps. The network was trained on a dataset consisting of Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) of the alps. During map generation, the batch size and learning rate were optimized for the most efficient and satisfying map production. The diversity of the final output was tested against Perlin noise using Mean Square Error [1] and Structure Similarity Index [2]. Perlin noise is especially interesting as it has been used to generate game maps in previous productions [3, 4]. The diversity test showed the generated maps had a significantly greater diversity than the Perlin noise maps. Afterwards the heightmaps was converted to 3D maps in Unity3D. The 3D maps’ perceived realism and videogame usability was pilot tested, showing a promising future for DC-GAN generated 3D landscapes.

Andreas Wulff-Jensen, Niclas Nerup Rant, Tobias Nordvig Møller, Jonas Aksel Billeskov

Real Time Evaluation of Education Methods via Smart Mobile Technology

We design, implement and evaluate performance of Exantas application which is compatible with Android Operating Systems Smartphone devices. As Exantas tool was able to show ancients travelers the correct route to follow we show that our application can help educational staff to improve their skills and evaluate on the fly how efficient is the educational style that they follow. Results can help teachers measure while teaching how much of the lessons content has been successfully absorbed by students and what are the topics that need further analysis or even a completely new explanation approach. As experiments show, Exantas is able to reduce teaching efforts and to reveal real lessons comprehension status since Teachers can make multiple Questions to all students and receive answers in seconds. Moreover, all answers are processed anonymously ensuring anonymity and integrity since students are not afraid to provide their actual answer.

George Tsamis, Nikos Papadakis, Evangelos Tzirakis, Evi Katsaraki, Maria Rousaki, John Nikolopoulos, Kostas Vassilakis

In-Store Shopping Experience Enhancement: Designing a Physical Object-Recognition Interactive Renderer

Following the rapid spread of online-shopping services on both internet and smart devices, the traditional way of promoting and trading in physical retail stores has been challenged. To increase sales, retailers have spent an enormous amount of resources to maintain the attractions of ‘traditional’ physical store in a digital shopping behaviour dominated world. Unfortunately, the outcome leaves much to be desired.This study discusses the need of such hybrid-shopping style through an integrated process of customer investigation, observation and user testing. This paper using footwear shopping as a case study. The authors proposed an inventive installation to re-strengthen the inter-connections among customers, products and retailers using physical object recognition and 3D projection mapping technologies. This interactive installation allows customers to personalize their preferences through manipulating the physical products with Augmented Reality (AR) rendering effects. Furthermore, this system also provides an alternative solution to reform the product-promotion and production progress. This design can be applied to the promotion of many other kind of products.

Jianze Li, Jun Liu, Stephen Jia Wang

Interact with Show-Window at Stores: Exploratory Study and Design Solution for Physical Retailers’ Product Demonstration

Facing the rapidly shrinking trend of in-store shopping, this study aims at developing an interactive environmental prototype that provides the in-store customer with a more intuitive and enjoyable experience. Based on an intensive market research and evaluation process, we suggest that it is necessary to establish a new type of connection among customers, products, and retailers. Therefore, it is vital to provide stores with a better solution which could integrate an advanced product displaying method with object tracking and recognition and user behaviour interaction approaches. The designed solution proposes an interactive show-window, which emphasizes customized product visualization and direct interactivity to reinforce the connection, during physical shopping, between goods and consumers. We explore the possible feedback when people interact with the interactive show-window using a qualitative study, which has also been facilitated through an interactive show-window installation. The results demonstrated a meaningful outcome for this designed solution.

Jianze Li, Andreas Hamacher, Daniel Waghorn, David Barnes, Stephen Jia Wang

The Impact of Virtual Reality Training on Patient-Therapist Interaction

This paper presents the development and evaluation of a Virtual Reality Kitchen to study the impact of VR rehabilitation on patient-therapist interaction in comparison to conventional rehabilitation. The study was conducted on 10 patients; 5 in an experimental group and 5 in a control group continuing with their conventional rehabilitation at NeuroRehab Centre Sydvestjysk Sygehus in Grindsted, Denmark. The therapists at NeuroRehab were supervising the test sessions for physical and verbal guidance over a period of four weeks requiring the patients and therapists to use the system three times per week for 30 min. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant from both groups. Additionally, each test session was video recorded to observe the physical and verbal interaction between the patient and the therapist and possible conversations. The outcome of this study indicated a clear difference between the therapists and their way of interacting with the patients. The therapists with experience in VR rehabilitation approached the patients, as in a conventional training session, utilising verbal and physical guidance, including hand gestures and commands, whereas the therapists with no VR rehabilitation experience did not.

Daniel J. R. Christensen, Michael B. Holte

The Influence of Biofeedback on Exercise Correctness and Muscle Activity

This paper examines the effect of an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback fitness application, and its potential to improve resistance training and exercise execution using the measure of muscle activity. To examine this, an application was built and tested using biceps curl as the reference exercise. The participants were divided into three conditions: the first condition did not receive any feedback, the second condition received feedback from a personal trainer, and the last used the feedback presented by the application. The focus is to investigate the participant’s ability to activate muscle fibres in the biceps, and improve the execution in regards to minimising the shoulder involvement over three sets. The results of the study do not provide any statistically significant improvements using biofeedback versus no feedback. However, the participants with the applicational support, as well as the participants within the personal trainer condition, show a slight improvement on the visual correctness of the exercise execution. The lack of statistically significance, important observations and indications are discussed.

Laurentiu Toader, Nicolai B. K. Jensen, Michael B. Holte

BubbleFeed: Visualizing RSS Information in Public Spaces

Public interaction displays contribute to upgrading the quality of public spaces since they attract many users and stimulate social interaction. In this paper, BubbleFeed is presented, a system for visualizing RSS news from multiple sources in public spaces. RSS news headlines are displayed inside virtual interactive bubbles ascending from the bottom of a vertical screen to the top, resembling the bubbles formed in a glass of soft drink. Besides touching the bubbles to expand and read the respective news stories, playful user interaction is supported to promote better engagement and motivate multiple users to participate. To support custom news feeds and Facebook posts in addition to RSS feeds, we have built a tool and a library that produce RSS files from the respective sources. BubbleFeed also supports displaying weather information, hosting media galleries and providing useful information such as Wi-Fi hotspot maps.

Effie Karuzaki, Nikolaos Partarakis, Margherita Antona, Constantine Stefanidis

Expressive Human Pose Deformation Based on the Rules of Attractive Poses

We propose a method of deforming a human pose based on the rules of attractive poses. In our previous research, we proposed an approach for obtaining the rules of attractive poses from a set of attractive poses with a specific style and another set of unattractive poses by creating a decision tree based on the low-level pose features. In this paper, we propose a heuristic kinematics-based pose deformation method based on the discovered rules of attractive poses. The rules can be applied to any input pose with any specified scale. We evaluated our method through a user experiment. The results show that our method can deform a pose to realize a specified style, although not all rules are applicable to all kinds of poses and an appropriate style and deformation scale must be selected by the user.

Masaki Oshita, Kei Yamamura, Aoi Honda

Reconsidering Registration: New Perspectives on Augmented Reality

Augmented reality (AR) projects typically involve interactive systems that align virtual objects with the real world. This process is called registration and can make it seem as if virtual objects existed in the otherwise real environment. Registration is widely accepted as a defining and necessary characteristic of augmented reality. In this paper, we reconsider the need for registration on two levels. First of all, we argue that the intended presence of virtual objects in real space can be achieved without registration by an interactive AR system. Secondly, we suggest that the perceived spatial presence of virtual content in real space is not necessary for AR in the first place. We illustrate both points with examples and propose a more encompassing view of AR that focuses on relationships between the virtual and the real rather than on registration.

Hanna Schraffenberger, Edwin van der Heide

The Engagement Effect of Players’ Agency over their Characters’ Motivation

Story-rich games are increasingly popular, and with this popularity comes the demand for more engaging narratives in games. This paper investigates how the players’ engagement is affected by providing them with agency over the player character’s motivation through a game mechanic, which we call Hover-text. An experiment was conducted in which a test- and control group played through a visual novel with or without the Hover-text. Using questionnaires to measure their engagement in the three categories of agency, empathy and roleplay, it was found that players who were exposed to the Hover-text reported that they felt more involved with the player character’s feelings. These findings suggest an alternative to the way games can encourage empathic engagement. More research is necessary to clarify the role of the player character’s personality, and whether using the Hover-text on a blank-slate character differs from using it on a fully-fleshed character.

Daniel S. Christensen, Mette Jakobsen, Martin Kraus

Self-overlapping Maze and Map Design for Asymmetric Collaboration in Room-Scale Virtual Reality for Public Spaces

This paper addresses two problems of public room-scale Virtual Reality (VR) setups. These are the lack of walkable space due to the restricted room-scale tracking area, and the isolating experience provided by a single Head-Mounted Display (HMD). We propose and demonstrate a design for constructing a naturally walkable self-overlapping maze and a corresponding unfolded map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration between the participant wearing an HMD and the co-located participants without HMDs. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the usability of the design and participants’ experience. Our work can be useful when designing self-overlapping architectures for limited physical spaces and when supporting asymmetric experiences in public VR setups.

Sule Serubugo, Denisa Skantarova, Nicolaj Evers, Martin Kraus

The Post-virtual Reality: From the Interactive Experience to the Connective Experience

This paper aims to problematize the concept of “virtual reality” in light of the hypothesis that there is a contemporary transformation of the nature of the interaction between the spectator and the artwork. New technologies such as Google Tilt Brush, seem to require a new reading of this relationship, whose complexity suggests surpassing the limits of the notion of interactivity. In this sense, we present an alternative concept of “connectivity”, which seeks to cover the three effects that we point on this transformation: the destabilization of conventional notions of time and space; the shuffling of notions of subject and object; the advent of a new form of fruition, which we propose to call “post-virtual reality”.

Eli Borges, Massimo Di Felice

Sensory Augmentation: Toward a Dialogue Between the Arts and Sciences

People sense the world by exploiting correlations between their physical actions and the changing sensory input that results from those actions. Interfaces that translate non-human sensor data to signals that are compatible with the human senses can therefore augment our abilities to make sense of the world. This insight has recently sparked an increase in projects that explore sensemaking and the creation of novel human experiences across scientific and artistic disciplines. However, there currently exists no constructive dialogue between artists and scientists that conduct research on this topic. In this position paper, we identify the theory and practice of sensory augmentation as a domain that could benefit from such a dialogue. We argue that artistic and scientific methods can complement each other within research on sensory augmentation and identify six thematic starting points for a dialogue between the arts and sciences. We conducted a case study to explore these conjectures, in which we instigated such a dialogue on a small scale. The case study revealed that the six themes we identified as relevant for a dialogue on sensory augmentation emerge rather spontaneously in such a dialogue and that such an exchange may facilitate progress on questions that are central to the theory and practice of sensory augmentation. Overall, this position paper contributes preliminary evidence for the potential of, and a starting point for, a dialogue between the arts and sciences that advances our understanding of sensory augmentation and the development of applications that involve it.

Alwin de Rooij, Michel van Dartel, Antal Ruhl, Hanna Schraffenberger, Bente van Melick, Mathijs Bontje, Mischa Daams, Michel Witter

IGDA Game Accessibility SIG - Research and Development


User Interfaces and 3D Environment Scanning for Game-Based Training in Mixed-Reality Spaces

Game-based rehabilitation systems gain much interest recently due to fast advancement of natural human-machine interfaces including Augmented and Virtual Reality headsets, near-real time 3D body motion understanding and 3D environmental scanners. Game-based training and rehabilitation has quickly recognized the advantage of improving personal physical capabilities using games and competition as incentives for boosting patient’s compliance. Such systems call for new types of user interfaces, which seamlessly engage natural human senses and allow interaction as if one was in his/her natural environment. Furthermore, a possibility to exercise within a familiar home environment further improves the effectiveness of the rehabilitation. The core of the work presented here originates from the FP7-ICT-StrokeBack project and includes more recent advances in 3D scanning of large scale environments and introduces high precision 3D object modelling for realistic gaming environments from Horizon’2020-Reflective-SCAN4RECO project, both co-funded by the European Commission from FP7 and Horizon’2020 programs.

Artur Krukowski, Emmanouela Vogiatzaki

Design of a Game Community Based Support System for Cognitive Game Accessibility

Cognitive game accessibility concerns removing unnecessary barriers for people with cognitive disabilities to participate in game play. Cognitive accessibility may involve the content of the game that requires work by game designers with limited time but also perhaps limited awareness of the issues and opportunities. The focus here is on people in the game community without cognitive disabilities to contribute with content for cognitive accessibility. The problem is that there is no support system for game community-based contributions of simplified texts and other modalities in games. This paper presents three iterations of a support system, within a design science framework with prototypes, interviews and observations, to answer: Which requirements need to be met for a game community-based system for making quest descriptions more accessible for people with cognitive disabilities affecting language? How can a system for contributions of simplified text be designed from the perspectives of experienced gamers? The conclusions were: (1) a set of requirements and a digital prototype available online; (2) experienced gamers understood how the interface of the prototype worked; and (3) further support functionality would benefit the users of the system. Future work is to evaluate community contributions by involving people with mild cognitive disabilities in game play studies.

Sammy Yildiz, Anton Carlsson, Henrik Järnbrand, Tomas Sandberg, Thomas Westin

DLI 2017


Designing Inclusive Reflective Learning with Digital Democratic Dialogue Across Boundaries and Diversities

This paper deals with the challenge of designing online learning architectures for master students. From different theoretical concepts and with a netnographic methodological research approach, the paper discusses theoretical concepts, challenges and mechanisms significant to designing and structuring the “walls” of a digital learning architecture conducive to the establishment of a social, inclusive, empowering and interactive learning climate online. It makes a plea for using an approach of dialogic design with meta-structures in the communicative fora in order to promote inclusiveness, reflection, empowerment and ownership amongst learners.

Elsebeth Korsgaard Sorensen, Eva Brooks

Promoting Inclusion and Global Democratic Citizenship Through Digital Dialogic Collaborative Learning: Diversity Matters!

This paper addresses the problem of inclusive, creative and innovative learning quality of digital collaborative learning designs and their potential for amplifying digital democratic citizenship in learners - digital democratic citizenship with inclusive, empowering and teaching/learning processes at both a macro and micro level. The use of digital technologies for inclusion in processes of teaching and learning is illustrated through the findings from a Danish research project funded by the Ministry of Education. On the basis of these insights and the continuous development of new technologies, such as e.g. humanoid robotics, the paper concludes with a hypothetical theoretical exploration of a not-yet-utilized social-emotional meta-learning space and the tentative identification of its educational potential for inclusive learning and development, positioned in the interactive, communicative space between the learner and the robot. The paper finalizes with a possible conceptual, principled recommendation for digital learning designs that may be a step in the right direction towards sustaining global educational use of digital technologies for the purpose of digital democratic citizenship and social inclusion.

Elsebeth Korsgaard Sorensen

GLOBE – Learn and Innovate Digitization by a Virtual Collaboration Exercise and Living Lab

This paper presents an advanced interactive learning platform .dot that implements the GLOBE exercise, using innovative information and communication technologies to enhance learning and development of management and leadership skills in a complex organizational setting. GLOBE on the one hand focuses on competences around ICT and virtual collaboration, and on the other hand on digital transformation, technologies and tools at higher education institutions. By this applied science, learning and developing on the real-world platform, analysis and drive of digital innovation and transformation can be fostered. The main goal is to co-create knowledge and solutions in the following focused subjects: Management and leadership of multidisciplinary, multinational and multicultural virtual and real collaboration in a complex organizational environment. GLOBE uses real world scenarios (e.g. United Nations mission) and involves real world actors.This comprehensive educational approach should enhance learning techniques and leverage learning progress with hands-on experiences and applied science in the context of ICT and virtual collaboration, and the embodied dynamics of behavior to support innovation and development.

Markus Bresinsky, Florian von Reusner

Analysis of Motivation in Virtual Reality Stroke Rehabilitation

This paper investigates the post-stroke adult population and their motivation to use virtual reality rehabilitation in the rehabilitation process. The study was conducted on 10 patients, part of a rehabilitation program at NeuroRehab, Sydvestjysk Sygehus, Grindsted, Denmark. The sample of patients was divided into a control group and an experimental group, where the experimental group practiced additionally 30 min of training using a virtual reality rehabilitation system. The system consists of: a head mounted display – Oculus Rift, a motion sensor controller – Leap Motion, a desktop computer and a custom built task simulator game. To study the patients’ motivation, a questionnaire based on the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, play performance measurements, and video recordings were utilised. It is concluded that the patients who utilised the virtual rehabilitation system indicated slightly increased motivation compared to the control group.

Paula Epure, Michael B. Holte

A Review on Individual Assessment of Strength Training Using Smartphone Applications

This paper presents a state of the art review of popular strength training applications. The literature review and heuristic evaluation presented in this paper show that there is a large selection of strength training applications on the Android Market, which is not build on behavioural change theories. Furthermore, these provide very limited variety and use of sensory feedback. Additionally, only few applications deliver extended and detailed instructional information, meaning that the user needs prior strength training knowledge to achieve full usage. Nevertheless, it is believed that these applications could have great potential to fill a hole in the fitness and health market, and provide users with more affordable and available strength training support.

Nicolai B. K. Jensen, Michael B. Holte

Playing a City

This paper is based on exploratory interventions in a small city in the south-eastern part of Sweden. The interventions were inspired both by the art movement of Situationists and site-specific games. The activities were also supported by a diversity of theoretical perspectives. During winter 2016 eight women explored by developing playful methods what a city, understood both as a social and material space, could mean for a group of women recently moved to the city. Through the playful approach the project opened up room for participatory design and abled the group to formulate eight rules, also available for other city explorers in other cities.

Annika Olofsdotter Bergström, Pirjo Elovaara

Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order to determine how lighting can support the learning environment. Based on the investigations, lighting design criteria and three predefined lighting scenes are proposed as a new design for meeting the needs of students and teachers during three types of activities. The scenes focus on smartboard visibility and on creating a visual focus on the teacher who is the centre of attention during most activities. It is hypothesised that if the scenes are used according to the different types of activities this would enable the teacher to create structure in the lessons and through this improve the behaviour of the students.

Diana Georgieva, Kathrine Marie Schledermann, Stine Maria Louring Nielsen, Ellen Kathrine Hansen

On the Design of Digital Game-Based Learning Environments for Education of the General Public on Focused Scientific Topics with an Application to Underwater Acoustics

Game-based learning environments for educating the general public on focused scientific topics rely upon voluntary engagement of participants usually in presence of competitive attractions, multiple sources of distraction and time constraints. In addition certain educational topics present an inherent complexity that necessitates the implementation of games with sophisticated interfaces and steep learning curves that may discourage players to engage. In this work we analyze the challenges and propose a new model for the design of efficient multistage game-based learning environments based on the general scheme “attract > engage > educate > evaluate”. An existing game-based learning environment for introduction to underwater acoustics is presented as a very close design example of the proposed model.

Michael A. Kalogerakis, Emmanuel K. Skarsoulis

i-Prolog: A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Prolog

Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) incorporate techniques for transferring knowledge and skills to students. These systems use a combination of computer-aided instruction methods and artificial intelligence. In this paper we present a web-based intelligent tutoring system. Although it can be used as a generic learning mechanism, in this paper, as a proof of concept we used it for learning Prolog. We present the architecture of our system and we provide details on each one of its modules. Each lesson includes the corresponding lecture with theory and exercises, a practice module where students can apply the corresponding theory and an assessment module to verify user’s understanding. The system can be used with or without a teacher enabling distant learning. Among the novelties of our system is its flexibility to adapt to individual student choices and profile, offering a wide range of alternatives and trying to continuously keep the interest of the final user. The preliminary evaluation performed confirms the usability of our system and the benefits of using it for learning Prolog.

Afroditi Stathaki, Haridimos Kondylakis, Emmanouil Marakakis, Michael Kalogerakis

Training the Mind: The GARDINER Platform

Recent research has shown that the systematic involvement of a person with games, which are designated to exercise memory and concentration, contributes to the long-term preservation of the human memory and therefore leads to the prevention of dementia. Our work seeks to capitalize on the positive effects of serious games’ use in a variety of ways. In particular, we provide insights into the design and development process of two serious games dedicated to being used by elderly people with dementia. In their context, we also elaborate on the basic elements of a novel web-oriented platform, namely GARDINER (Games plAtform foR minD traIning aNd mEmory peRk), aimed at making available various memory games which may have been crafted by various sources. Finally, some empirical data derived from the use of our platform and games in practice is provided.

Nikolas Vidakis, Maria Skalidaki, Kostas Konstantoulakis, Lefteris Kalikakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Kostas Vassilakis

Facilitating Learning in Isolated Places Through an Autonomous LMS

Current research argues that eLearning and mobile learning are forms of learning that could take place outside the classroom and the traditional learning environments. In addition, recent advancement in technology and increased use of smart devices permit students to carry with them a kind of portable smart device. Inevitably, sooner or later, these devices will become integral educational tools, such as pencils and books, while learning outside the classroom will continue to gain popularity as another form of learning. Ubiquitous learning aims to stimulate the wide use of ICT in Education and the enactment of autonomous digital resources for Outdoor learning. Technology could provide innovative ways of conducting outdoor courses, encompassing knowledge and physical activity. This paper presents the eClass-Pi system that facilitates outside the classroom eLearning and m-learning educational processes. It provides all the functionalities of a typical Learning Management Systems as well as synchronous and asynchronous teaching, portability and energy autonomy.

Kostas Vassilakis, John Makridis, Michail Angelos Lasithiotakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Nikolas Vidakis

Using Gamification for Supporting an Introductory Programming Course. The Case of ClassCraft in a Secondary Education Classroom

Old teaching methods mechanisms are no longer beneficial to the students. In traditional instructional methodology, where the lecture classes are perceived to be tedious by students, the gamification technology has a great advantage to solve the problem as it can improve learning motivation of students. Various studies have shown that gamification under appropriate conditions may create an environment conducive to learning and lead to large increases in students’ interest in programming. ClassCraft is a game that it can be used in the classroom to help students to have fun, promote teamwork, and become better learners. In this paper, we present a pilot teaching intervention. The results showed that the general students’ performance has not been affected positively. On the other hand, their engagement has been affected positively.

Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis

Access Moodle Using Smart Mobile Phones. A Case Study in a Greek University

The use of learning management systems (LMS) has grown considerably in universities around the world. This study investigated how often students used a mobile phone to access various activities on Moodle. The students’ point of view is important since they are the main users of the offered teaching technique and can cooperate in implementing and improving an e-course as a very important stakeholder in the e-learning process. A survey on self-reported usage was filled by 122 university students in a course offered by the faculty of Preschool Education at the University of Crete. Follow-up interviews were conducted to solicit students’ perceptions on mobile access to Moodle and the underlying reasons. The results show significant differences in students’ usage of various Moodle activities via mobile phones. Students’ responses also suggest that Moodle is used merely as an electronic document repository and not as an effective learning tool due to the limitations of mobile access on usability and reliability.

Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Eirini Sifaki, Nikolas Vidakis

Detecting Depression Using Voice Signal Extracted by Chatbots: A Feasibility Study

This work aims at proposing a novel framework for detecting depression, like commonly met in cancer patients, using prosodic and statistical features extracted by voice signal. This work presents the first results of extracting these features on test and training sets extracted from the AVEC2016 dataset using MATLAB. The results indicate that voice can be used for extracting depression indicators and developing a mobile application for integrating this new knowledge could be the next step.

Alexandros Roniotis, Manolis Tsiknakis

Implementing an Adaptive Learning System with the Use of Experience API

With the evolution of e-learning and its transformation into mobile learning, SCORM fails to keep up with learner’s need to discover knowledge through multiple and diverse sources. ADL’s Experience API (xAPI) fills this gap and offers a novel and flexible way to keep track of a learner’s activities and progress. In this paper, the xAPI and the concept behind it are shortly discussed, a brief comparison with SCORM is attempted and an innovative implementation of an adaptive LMS-free learning system with the use of xAPI is presented.

Koralia Papadokostaki, Spyros Panagiotakis, Kostas Vassilakis, Athanasios Malamos

Note Recognizer: Web Application that Assists Music Learning by Detecting and Processing Musical Characteristics from Audio Files or Microphone in Real-Time

Note recognizer is an online web application. In order to overcome the performance issues of the internet infrastructure (browser, devices, OS platforms) traditional algorithms have been re-designed and novel processes based on the Web Audio API have been implemented. It is the first time that open standard web tools offered in all the commercial browsers are used to build an application that usually required dedicated signal processing libraries. These novel processes and algorithms provide MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) information out of audio files or microphone. Our application may assist musical education by allowing students to transform their inspiration or a performance into notes.

Markos Fragkopoulos, Athanasios G. Malamos, Spyros Panagiotakis

Blocks as Symbolic Tools for Children’s Playful Collaboration

This paper reports on two intervention studies conducted in two Danish kindergartens where a Digital Manipulative (DM) was investigated in relation to children’s interactions, experiences and playful processes. The DM, in the form of physical blocks was developed following a user-centred design approach. Research indicated how children’s interaction with the physical blocks generated a democratic collaboration between their peers, which triggered engagement and sustained children’s attention for a long time. Children’s play with the blocks unfolded two levels of articulation; one level where they used the blocks to create visual narratives and a second level where they used the blocks as construction material. This double function was analysed as fostering playful learning processes indicating that the design conveyed potentials to function as a pedagogical resource.

Cristina Sylla, Eva Brooks, Lisa Tümmler

Change of Learning Environment Using Game Production – Theory, Methods and Practice

Game Based Learning has proven to have many possibilities for supporting better learning outcomes, when using educational or commercial games in the classroom. However, there is also a great potential in using game development as a motivator in other kinds of learning scenarios. This study will focus on cases in which development of games did change the learning environments into production units where students or employees were producing games as part of the learning process. The cases indicate that the motivation as well as the learning curve became very high. The pedagogical theories and methods are based on Problem Based Learning (PBL), but are developed further by combining PBL with a production-oriented/design based approach. We illustrate the potential of using game production as a learning environment with investigation of three game productions. We can conclude that using game production is a powerful pedagogic tool for establishing learning, motivation and engagement.

Lars Reng, Lise Busk Kofoed, Henrik Schoenau-Fog

Mapping Situations in Implementing Learning Platforms

The implementation of digital learning platforms can be a complex process as it involves change for multiple stakeholders such as teachers, school managers and staff from the municipality. This paper draws on video observations from workshops held at two schools in a project intended to support implementation. The aim of this paper is to map the stakeholders’ beliefs about the platforms and their implementation, to identify cultural logics underlying these beliefs and to investigate how these affect opportunities for implementing the platforms.

Andreas Lindenskov Tamborg, Benjamin Brink Allsopp

BioSpil: Bringing Interactivity and Gaming into a Cinema-Context

This paper presents a study on a current phenomenon conceptualized as BioSpil, which brings interactivity and gaming into a cinema context. The study focused on two questions, namely in what way BioSpil can be called a game, and how it functions as a social game. The study applied an ethnographic approach. The analysis showed that BioSpil had a game-like character, but were, to a certain extent, in conflict with two of Calliois’ categories that can define a game, namely being free and separate in time and space. The aspect of a game as being free, is not only dependent on accessibility in terms of devices, but also on cultural and contextual factors. This influenced the conditions of what constitute accepted and expected behaviors of visitors in a cinema-context. Furthermore, the analysis identified that BioSpil offered three kinds of social spaces; an active, a passive, and an external space.

Tobias Tretow-Fish, Dan Andersen, Lisa Klemm Larsen, Eva Brooks

Computer Coding at School and Game Creation

Education and schools are facing serious problems to motivate and prepare the new generations. A multidisciplinary educational approach, where students are taught to program, can contribute to a better school. Game creation is a multidisciplinary strategy supported on computer programing that can contribute to set school into the right direction and turn students into effectively active participants on their education. Development and sustainability in a global society are only possible with informed consumers and a good digital task force. Introducing computer programming in European school is a trend and a challenge that is being embraced by several initiatives. This paper emerges from one of those initiatives and describes the strategy adopted to integrate technology in students’ curriculum in schools from Portugal, Greece and Italy, through coding and multidisciplinary projects design and development.

Isabel Barbosa, João Magalhães, Vasilis Manassakis, Giorgos Panselinas, Castália Almeida, Ermelinda Alves, Loredana Mataresse, Pasqualle Mossa, Amílcar Baptista, Sara Brandão, Katarzyna Azevedo

Creativity in Co-design for Physical Education: Comparing Contributions of Children and Professionals

This study is carried out within the context of a research and innovation project Co-design with Kids that aims to support teaching of broad so-called ‘21st century’ skills. In this project, design toolboxes for use within primary education are developed and studied, with real life clients and assignments. In the case described in this paper, the assignment was to create new concepts for physical education (PE). To be able to assess the value of design outcomes created in a co-design trajectory by children, we compared their design outcomes to those created in a similar design process by professionals. Six teams of children (n = 21, 11–12 years old) and three teams of professionals (n = 10, with a background in design, sports or physical education) developed concepts in separate co-creation sessions. We present a first assessment of the differences and similarities in creativity of the design outcomes of the two groups. This assessment of textual summaries shows no remarkable differences between design outcomes of children and those of professionals in terms of elaboration, originality and relevance. This indicates that children could be involved as design partners. Further research is needed to gain insight into the specific value of involving children as design partners.

Danića Mast, Sylvia Schipper, Fenne van Doorn, Alice Schut, Mathieu Gielen, Sanne de Vries

The Impact of Dynamic Lighting in Classrooms. A Review on Methods

In order to understand how research can support lighting designs to improve nurturing environments for learning, a literature review was carried out. The review examined lighting research methods and parameters used for evaluating the effect of dynamic lighting in classrooms. The test parameter gaining most attention in the studies is academic performance; whereas qualitative test parameters, such as behaviour and mood, are addressed in less than a third of the selected studies. The analysis of these methods leads to a conclusion that learning environments to a broader extent should be studied and designed holistically through a mixed method approach. It is suggested that the potentials of dynamic lighting in learning environments are explored through design driven innovation and the use of mixed methods, in order to be able to put more emphasis on the students’ and teachers’ needs for dynamic lighting scenarios.

Ellen Kathrine Hansen, Stine Maria Louring Nielsen, Diana Georgieva, Kathrine Marie Schledermann

Design Fiction as Norm-Critical Practice

The transdisciplinary fields of design and feminist technoscience share a common interest in focusing on the world in a state of always becoming, always changing. Within feminist technoscience, norm-critical perspectives are implemented to shed light on unequal sociotechnical infrastructures. Within design research, generative methods of critical design and design fiction encourage processes of fictional prototyping and storytelling that infuse discussions on what kind of world we want to live in. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how design fiction can be used as a method to address norm-criticality in media technology education. Based on a week-long design fiction workshop with undergraduate students, three student projects are analyzed in detail. The analysis suggests design fiction can be used as a norm-critical practice to invoke discussions on values and beliefs within media design processes as well as established narratives of futuring.

Linda Paxling

New Forms of Creative Artistic Expression Through Technology: An Alternative Perspective to Education

The paper tries to address the relationship between creativity and technology, having as a basis the idea that implementing cross disciplinarily approaches has a great potential in generating innovation. The recurring theme of the paper revolves around identifying the catalysts of disruptive ideas hence supporting the need of creative thinkers in our society as opposed to hyper specialization of knowledge. We look at the current educational system, analyze different technologies and their impact as well as the influence of technology upon art. Finally, through the NEO-David light art installation case study, we hope to find evidence in supporting the importance of creativity and cross-disciplinary thinking.

Andrei-Ducu Predescu, Georgios Triantafyllidis

Learning History Through Location-Based Games: The Fortification Gates of the Venetian Walls of the City of Heraklion

Games in education have always been a tool for increasing motivation and interest of learners. We present Location-Based Games (LBG) as a tool to involve and motivate students in the learning process. LBGs require the player to move around in order to complete a task and proceed in the storyline and use localization technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS). LBGs are built on physical worlds, while virtual world augmentations enable the interaction of physical and other related (cultural, historical etc.) data with the player. Augmented reality (AR) is used to provide this extra layer with 3D objects, avatars and animations for player’s interaction. In our paper we present a history learning LBG with the use of augmented reality in the form of 3D objects. We explore the concept, of having both virtual and physical worlds available within the same visual display environment.

Kostas Vassilakis, Orestis Charalampakos, Georgios Glykokokalos, Persefoni Kontokalou, Michail Kalogiannakis, Nikolas Vidakis

A Collaborative Video Sketching Model in the Making

The literature on design research emphasizes working in iterative cycles that investigate and explore many ideas and alternative designs. However, these cycles are seldom applied or documented in educational research papers. In this paper, we illustrate the development process of a video sketching model, where we explore the relation between the educational research design team, their sketching and video sketching activities. The results show how sketching can be done in different modes and how it supports thinking, communication, reflection and distributed cognition in design teams when developing educational theories.

Peter Gundersen, Rikke Ørngreen, Birgitte Henningsen, Heidi Hautopp


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