Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Intercultural service encounters (ICSEs) involve interactions between customers and employees from diverse cultures and these are growing in importance due to the increase in the number of immigrants, migrant workers, students, tourists and businesspeople traveling to other countries, with the rapid rise in globalization in recent years. Prior research on ICSEs has used diverse theoretical perspectives to study this phenomenon, exploring the effects of perceived cultural distance, interaction comfort, inter-role congruence, service outcomes and roles on customer evaluations such as perceive service quality and customer satisfaction. A few studies also explore the role of consumer ethnocentrism and intercultural competence as moderators. However, due to the nascent nature of this field of research, there are still many unanswered questions and research gaps. This book chapter reviews the extant literature on intercultural service encounters to identify a few important research gaps and proposes many useful directions for future research to address those gaps in a meaningful manner.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ali-Sulaiti, K. I., & Baker, M. J. (1998). Country of origin effects: A literature review. Marketing Intelligence & Planning,16(3), 150–199. CrossRef
Barker, S., & Härtel, C. E. J. (2004). Intercultural service encounters: An exploratory study of customer experiences. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,11(1), 3–14. CrossRef
Baumann, C., & Setogawa, S. (2014). Asian ethnicity in the west: Preference for Chinese, Indian and Korean service staff. Asian Ethnicity, 1–19.
Bendapudi, N., & Berry, L. (1997). Customers’ motivation for maintaining relationships with service providers. Journal of Retailing,73(1), 15–37. CrossRef
Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,10(2), 179–196. CrossRef
Berry, J. W. (1974). Psychological aspects of cultural pluralism. Topics in Culture Learning,2, 17–22.
Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,29, 697–712. CrossRef
Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,16(4), 413–436. CrossRef
Bond, M. H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multi-cultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,55(6), 1009–1015. CrossRef
Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
Chuapetcharasopon, P. (2014). Emotional labour in the global context: The roles of intercultural and intracultural service encounters, intergroup anxiety, and cultural intelligence on surface acting, University of Waterloo.
Cui, G., & Awa, N. E. (1992). Measuring intercultural effectiveness: An integrative approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,16, 311–328. CrossRef
de Matos, C. A., Fernandes, D. V. d. H., Leis, R. P., & Trez, G. (2011) A cross-cultural investigation of customer reactions to service failure and recovery. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3–4), 211–228.
Dellande, S., Gilly, M. C., & Graham, J. L. (2004). Gaining compliance and losing weight: The role of the service provider in health care services. Journal of Marketing,68(July), 78–91. CrossRef
Demangeot, C., Adkins, N. R., Mueller, R. D., Henderson, G. R., Ferguson, N. S., Mandiberg, J. M. … Pullig, C. (2013). Toward intercultural competency in multicultural marketplaces. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 32(special issue), 156–164.
Demangeot, C., Broderick, A. J., & Craig, C. S. (2015). Multicultural marketplaces: New territory for international marketing and consumer research. International Marketing Review,32(2), 118–140. CrossRef
Donthu, N., & Yoo, B. (1998). Cultural influences on service quality expectations. Journal of Service Research,1(2), 178–186. CrossRef
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Etgar, M., & Fuchs, G. (2011). Does ethnic/cultural dissimilarity affect perceptions of service quality? Services Marketing Quarterly,32(2), 113–128. CrossRef
Friedman, V. J., & Antal, A. B. (2005). Negotiating reality: A theory of action approach to intercultural competence. Management Learning,36(1), 69–86. CrossRef
Furrer, O., Liu, B. S.-C., & Sudharshan, D. (2000). The relationships between culture and service quality perceptions: Basis for cross-cultural market segmentation and resource allocation. Journal of Service Research,2(4), 355–371. CrossRef
Gaur, S. S., Sharma, P., Herjanto, H., & Kingshott, R. (2017). Impact of frontline service employees’ acculturation behaviors on customer satisfaction and commitment in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Service Theory and Practice (Forthcoming).
Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,27(4), 421–443. CrossRef
Hammer, M. R., Gudykunst, W. B., & Wiseman, R. L. (1978). Dimensions of intercultural effectiveness: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 382–393.
Harrison-Walker, L. J. (1995). The relative effects of national stereotype and advertising information on the selection of a service provider. Journal of Services Marketing,9(1), 47–59. CrossRef
Herbig, P., & Genestre, A. (1996). An examination of the cross-cultural differences in service quality: An example of Mexico and the USA. Journal of Consumer Marketing,13(3), 43–53. CrossRef
Hilton, J. L., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology,47(1), 237–271. CrossRef
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hopkins, S. A., Hopkins, W. E., & Hoffman, K. D. (2005). Domestic inter-cultural service encounters: An integrated model. Managing Service Quality,15(4), 329–343. CrossRef
Houts, M. R., Robins, E., & Huston, T. L. (1996). Compatibility and the development of premarital relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family,58(February), 7–20. CrossRef
Ihtiyar, A., & Ahmad, F. S. (2015). The impact of intercultural communication competence on service quality and customer satisfaction. Services Marketing Quarterly,36(2), 136–152. CrossRef
Imrie, B. C. (2005). Beyond disconfirmation: The role of generosity and surprise. International Marketing Review,22(3), 369–383. CrossRef
Javalgi, R. G., & Martin, C. L. (2007). Internationalization of services: Identifying the building-blocks for future research. Journal of Services Marketing,21(6), 391–397. CrossRef
Johnson, G. D., Meyers, Y. J., & Williams, J. D. (2013). Immigrants versus nationals: When an intercultural service encounter failure turns to verbal confrontation. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 32(special issue), 38–47.
Keillor, B. D., Lewison, D., Hult, G. T. M., & Hauser, W. (2007). The service encounter in a multi-national context. Journal of Services Marketing,21(6), 451–461. CrossRef
Khan, M., Ro, H., Gregory, A. M., & Hara, T. (2015). Gender Dynamics from an Arab perspective intercultural service encounters. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. 10.1177/1938965515581397. April 13, 2015 [Available Online].
Kulik, C. T., & Holbrook, R. L. J. (2000). Demographics in service encounters: Effects of racial and gender congruence on perceived fairness. Social Justice Research,13(4), 375–402. CrossRef
Laroche, M., Kalamas, M., & Cleveland, M. (2005). “I” versus “We”: How individualists and collectivists use information sources to formulate their service expectations. International Marketing Review,22(3), 279–308. CrossRef
Laroche, M., Ueltschy, L. C., Abe, S., Cleveland, M., & Yannopoulos, P. P. (2004). Service quality perceptions and customer satisfaction: Evaluating the role of culture. Journal of International Marketing,12(3), 58–85. CrossRef
Lee, H. E. (2015). Does a server’s attentiveness matter? Understanding intercultural service encounters in restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management,50, 134–144. CrossRef
Leong, C.-H., & Ward, C. (2000). Identity conflict in sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,24(6), 763–776. CrossRef
Lin, X., & Guan, J. (2002). Patient satisfaction and referral intention: Effect of patient-physician match on ethnic origin and cultural similarity. Health Marketing Quarterly,20(2), 49–67. CrossRef
Liu, B S-c, Furrer, O., & Sudharshan, D. (2001). The Relationships between culture and behavioral intentions toward services. Journal of Service Research,4(2), 118–129. CrossRef
Liu, R. R., & McClure, P. (2001). Recognizing cross-cultural differences in consumer complaint behavior and intentions: An empirical examination. Journal of Consumer Marketing,18(1), 54–74. CrossRef
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Bulletin,98(2), 224–253.
Martin, C. L., & Adams, S. (1999). Behavioral biases in the service encounter: Empowerment by default? Marketing Intelligence & Planning,17(4), 192–201. CrossRef
Mattila, A. S. (1999a). The role of culture and purchase motivation in service encounter evaluation. Journal of Services Marketing,13(4/5), 376–389. CrossRef
Mattila, A. S. (1999b). The role of culture in the service evaluation process. Journal of Service Research,1(3), 250–261. CrossRef
McCormick, A. E., & Kinloch, G. C. (1986). Interracial contact in the customer-clerk situation. The Journal of Social Psychology,126(4), 551–553. CrossRef
McPherson, J. M., & Smith-Lovin, L. (1987). Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status difference in the composition of face-to-face groups. American Sociological Review,52(June), 370–379. CrossRef
Morry, M. (2007). The attraction-similarity hypothesis among cross-sex friends: Relationship satisfaction, perceived similarities, and self-serving perceptions. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships,24(1), 117–138. CrossRef
Paswan, A. K., & Ganesh, G. (2005). Cross-cultural interaction comfort and service evaluation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing,18(1/2), 93–115. CrossRef
Poon, P. S., Hui, M. K., & Au, K. (2004). Attributions on dissatisfying service encounters. European Journal of Marketing,38(11/12), 1527–1540. CrossRef
Poulis, K., Poulis, E., & Yamin, M. (2013). Multicultural markets and acculturation: Implications for service firms. Journal of Services Marketing,27(7), 515–525. CrossRef
Raajpoot, N. (2004). Reconceptualizing service encounter quality in a non-western context. Journal of Service Research,7(2), 181–201. CrossRef
Riddle, D. I. (1992). Leveraging cultural factors in international service delivery. Advances in Services Marketing and Management,15(1), 297–322.
Rizal, H., Jeng, D. J.-F., & Chang, H. H. (2015). The role of ethnicity in domestic intercultural service encounters. Service Business, 10(2), 1–20.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (pp. 85–119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,14(4), 449–464. CrossRef
Sharma, P. (2010). Measuring personal cultural orientations: Scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,38(6), 787–806. CrossRef
Sharma, P., Sivakumaran, B., & Marshall, R. (2005). Deliberate self-indulgence vs. involuntary loss of self-control: Exploring the influence of culture on consumer impulsiveness trait. European advances in consumer research (pp. 593–594). Gothenburg, Sweden.
Sharma, P., Tam, J. L. M., & Kim, N. (2009). Demystifying intercultural service encounters: Toward a comprehensive conceptual framework. Journal of Service Research,12(2), 227–242. CrossRef
Sharma, P., Tam, J. L. M., & Kim, N. (2012). Intercultural service encounters (ICSE) framework: Extension and empirical validation. Journal of Services Marketing,26(7), 521–534. CrossRef
Sharma, P., Tam, J. L. M., & Kim, N. (2015). Service role and outcome as moderators in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Service Management,26(1), 137–155. CrossRef
Sharma, P., & Wu, Z. (2015). Consumer ethnocentrism vs. intercultural competence as moderators in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(2), 93–102.
Sharma, P., Zhan, W., & Su, Y. (2016). Role of personal cultural orientations in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing,30(2), 223–237. CrossRef
Smith, J. B. (1998). Buyer-seller relationships: Similarity, relationship management, and quality. Psychology & Marketing,15(1), 3–21. CrossRef
Solomon, M. R., Surprenant, C., Czepiel, J. A., & Gutman, E. G. (1985). A role theory perspective on dyadic interactions: The service encounter. Journal of Marketing,49(1), 99–111. CrossRef
Spake, D. F., Beatty, S. E., Brockman, B. K., & Crutchfield, T. N. (2003). Consumer comfort in service relationships: Measurement and importance. Journal of Service Research,5(4), 316–332. CrossRef
Stauss, B., & Mang, P. (1999). “Culture Shocks” in inter-cultural service encounters? Journal of Services Marketing,13(4/5), 329–346. CrossRef
Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M. (2001). The role of national culture in international marketing research. International Marketing Review,18(1), 30–44. CrossRef
Stening, B. W. (1979). Problems in cross-cultural contact: A literature review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,3(3), 269–313. CrossRef
Tam, J. L. M., Sharma, P., & Kim, N. (2014). Examining the role of attribution and intercultural competence in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing,28(2), 159–170. CrossRef
Tam, J. L. M., Sharma, P., & Kim, N. (2016). Attribution of success and failure in intercultural service encounters: Moderating role of personal cultural orientations. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(6), Forthcoming.
Teng, C.-C. (2011). Commercial hospitality in restaurants and tourist accommodation: Perspectives from international consumer experience in Scotland. International Journal of Hospitality Management,30(4), 866–874. CrossRef
Tombs, A., & Rao Hill, S. (2014). The effect of service employees’ accent on customer reactions. European Journal of Marketing,48(11/12), 2051–2070. CrossRef
Trompenaars, F. (1993). Riding the waves of culture. London, UK: The Economists Books.
Tsui, A. S., & O’Reilly, C. (1989). Beyond simple demographic effects: The importance of relational demography in superior-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal,32(2), 402–423. CrossRef
Ueltschy, L. C., Laroche, M., Eggert, A., & Bindl, U. (2007). Service quality and satisfaction: an international comparison of professional services perceptions. Journal of Services Marketing,21(6), 410–423. CrossRef
Ueltschy, L. C., Laroche, M., Tamilia, R. D., & Yannopoulos, P. (2004). Cross-cultural invariance of measures of satisfaction and service quality. Journal of Business Research,57(8), 901–912. CrossRef
United Nations. (2015). Trends in international migrant stock: The 2015 revision. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
UNWTO. (2016). Inbound tourist arrivals. World tourism barometer (pp. 1–6). World Tourism Organization: Madrid, Spain.
Voss, C. A., Roth, A. V., Rosenzweig, E. D., Blackmon, K., & Chase, R. B. (2004). A tale of two countries’ conservatism, service quality, and feedback on customer satisfaction. Journal of Service Research,6(3), 212–230. CrossRef
Wang, C.-Y., & Mattila, A. S. (2010). A grounded theory model of service providers’ stress, emotion, and coping during intercultural service encounters. Managing Service Quality,20(4), 328–342. CrossRef
Wang, C.-Y., & Mattila, A. S. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison of perceived informational fairness with service failure explanations. Journal of Services Marketing,25(6), 429–439. CrossRef
Ward, C. (2008). Thinking outside the Berry boxes: New perspectives on identity, acculturation and intercultural relations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,32, 105–114. CrossRef
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (2001). Coping with cross-cultural transition. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,32(5), 636–642. CrossRef
Ward, C., & Rana-Deuba, A. (2000). Home and host culture influences on sojourner adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,24(3), 291–306. CrossRef
Warden, C. A., Liu, T.-C., & Huang, C.-T. (2003). Service failures away from home: Benefits in intercultural service encounters. International Journal of Service Industry Management,14(4), 436–457. CrossRef
Weiermair, K. (2000). Tourists’ perceptions towards and satisfaction with service quality in the cross-cultural service encounter: Implications for hospitality and tourism management. Managing Service Quality,10(6), 397–409. CrossRef
Winsted, K. F. (1997). The service experience in two cultures: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Retailing,73(3), 337–360. CrossRef
Witkowski, T. H., & Wolfinbarger, M. F. (2002). Comparative service quality: German and American ratings across service settings. Journal of Business Research,55(11), 875–881. CrossRef
Zhang, J., Beatty, S. E. & Walsh, G. (2005). Cross-cultural services research: A review of the literature and future research directions. In L. C. Huff & S. M. Smith (Eds.), 10th Cross-Cultural Research Conference, Puerto Rico. December 11–14, 2005.
Zhang, J., Beatty, S. E., & Walsh, G. (2008). Review and future directions of cross-cultural consumer services research. Journal of Business Research,61(3), 179–182. CrossRef
- Intercultural Service Encounters (ICSEs): Challenges and Opportunities for International Services Marketers
Jackie L. M. Tam
Die Corporate Supply Strategy bei Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co. KG/© [M] michalchm89 | Fotolia