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This volume analyzes and summarizes recent developments and breakthroughs in several key interfacial electrochemical systems in fuel cell electrocatatalysis. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts or rising stars in electrocatatalysis addressing both the fundamental and practical aspects of several emerging key electrochemical technologies.



1 Temperature Effects on Platinum Single-Crystal/Aqueous Solution Interphases. Combining Gibbs Thermodynamics with Laser-Pulsed Experiments

The rigorous analysis of the effect of temperature variations on interfacial properties is a key tool to provide new and valuable information on the structure and reactivity of the metal|solution interphase. The entropy of the components that form the interphase is a unique probe of their structural properties. Therefore, this experimental data is particularly useful for the validation of molecular models of electrified interphases. In addition, the use of fast temperature perturbations is especially suitable for the selective characterization of different interfacial components, based on their different response time towards the temperature change. In this way, the entropic properties of double-layer phenomena and charge-transfer adsorption processes can be evaluated separately. It will be shown in this chapter that the combination of Gibbs thermodynamics with results from laser-induced temperature jump experiments, allows the evaluation of key interfacial properties, such as the entropy of charge-transfer adsorbed species, the entropy of formation of the interfacial water network, and the potential of water reorientation.
Nuria Garcia-Araez, Victor Climent, Juan M. Feliu

2 Surface Thermodynamics of Metal/Solution Interface: the Untapped Resources

Platinum metals electrochemistry is closely associated with electrocatalysis. This wide and highly mobile field is occupied by extremely different types of researchers, who consider electrocatalytic phenomena at various levels, from industrial to atomic. All of them are fighting for one and the same result (roughly, as high as possible activity and stability of the catalyst), but they surely see the events at catalyst/solution interface by different eyes. Some researchers approached electrocatalytic field from the classical electrochemistry side, but a lot of people were involved from other areas of chemistry and physics. This situation is typical for electrochemical material science, with its mounting increase of publications around mainstreams and some risk of a gradual loss of fundamentals. However it is not over yet to remind some of them.
Galina A. Tsirlina

3 XAS Investigations of PEM Fuel Cells

Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are still far from an area-wide market launch due in part to long-term stability, reliability and cost issues. A more detailed knowledge of the underlying reaction mechanisms is expected to further their application, as it would allow for the design of tailor-made catalysts. However, this will only be possible by complementing traditional in situ studies on single-crystals in electrochemical cells with more sophisticated metal/electrolyte interfacial studies by novel spectroscopic methodologies, which can provide complementary insights into the behaviour of commercial catalysts under real fuel cell operating conditions. This review will focus on the advances of Xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in applied fuel cell research utilizing several examples. XAS enables both the nanoparticle morphology and the adsorbate coverage and binding site to be investigated with just one technique. The latter is possible when complementing the conventional extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis with the more novel Δμ XANES approach.
Christina Roth, David E. Ramaker

4 Palladium-Based Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

Palladium is emerging as an attractive replacement for platinum in a number of electrochemical applications, including lowtemperature fuel cells, electrolyzers and sensors. Palladium is more abundant in nature and less expensive than platinum.1 However, cost-associated issues are not the main driving force behind the increasing interest in palladium as it remains a rare noble metal whose introduction for a broad technological use would lead to an irreversible increase in its market price.
C. Bianchini

5 Structure and Reactivity of Transition Metal Chalcogenides toward the Molecular Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Research in low temperature fuel cell reactions has mainly focused on the study of platinum, and/or platinum based materials.1-23 These studies have also been aimed at understanding the fundamentals of the electrode/electrolyte interfacial behavior, in order to optimize the catalytic properties of such materials.1,3,7,17,20,24-33 The reason why most of these studies have been devoted to platinum is evident: this material is the best catalyst, especially for processes occurring at the anode and cathode of low temperature fuel cells (FC).
Nicolás Alonso-Vante

6 Materials, Proton Conductivity and Electrocatalysis in High-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

Fuel cells (FCs) are interesting alternatives to existing power conversion systems since they combine high efficiency with the usage of renewable fuels. Fuel cells can generate power from a fraction of a watt to hundreds of kilowatts and can be used in automotive, stationary or portable applications.1,2,3,4,5,6 A FC is an electrochemical device that converts in a continuous manner the free energy of a chemical reaction into electrical energy (via an electrical current). This galvanic cell consists of an electrolyte (liquid or solid) sandwiched between two porous electrodes. In order to reach desirable amounts of energy power, single cell assemblies can be mechanically compressed across electrically conductive separators to fabricate stacks.
Maria K. Daletou, Joannis Kallitsis, Stylianos G. Neophytides


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Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!