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This book provides an examination of e-Government frameworks and maturity stages in governments around the world, including an overview of the legal frameworks that have supported them. Divided into three sections, the first part of this book analyses the theoretical context of current policies, codes of best practice and their implementation. The second section presents case studies which bring key issues to the fore including open government, privacy protection, social media, democracy, systems failures, innovations in inter-organizational e-government projects, and open data systems. The authors demonstrate the importance of the successful implementation of e-Government for improving managerial efficiency, public service delivery and citizen engagement, with special attention given to developing countries. The book concludes by drawing out the lessons learned from the latest research and recommending solutions for improving the implementation of e-Government in the future, thereby helping to achieve more transparent, participative and democratic societies. This book will provide an invaluable resource for researchers, policy-makers, public managers, international organizations and technical experts.



E-Government Regulations, Guidelines, Code of Best Practices, Programs and Policies of International Organizations


Chapter 1. Experiences of E-Government Development Implementation in Developing Countries: Challenges and Solutions

This book chapter analyses past experiences in the implementation of e-government in developing countries to learn lessons for improving its implementation in the future, which could help to achieve more transparent, participative and democratic societies. To achieve this aim, a systematic review on e-government research has been performed to examine the main limiting factors in e-government implementations. In this sense, we think that a systemic thinking approach is needed to be applied in developing countries to undertake successful e-government implementation. This means acting in three different scopes at the same time: (a) organizational structure and processes; (b) investment in IT infrastructure; and (c) investment in education to make citizens ready to use IT. These findings would help politicians and public managers in developing countries to make efficient decisions when implementing e-government initiatives.
Laura Alcaide Muñoz, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar

Chapter 2. Comparative Analysis of E-Gov Services: An Ontology-Based Approach

Advances in information technology have motivated governments around the world to use it to improve their services. This initiative to electronify and transform their services has been termed e-Government, e-Governance, and e-Democracy. Built upon our prior work, we extend the ontology of e-Gov to include the quality of service. Next, we map the research on e-Gov services onto the ontology and visualize the current state of the research using the ontological map of monads and the dendrogram of clusters. Finally, we compare the research on e-Gov in different geographical regions—Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, and Europe. Overall, e-Gov research is selective and scattered; it is also regionally uneven. We conclude the chapter with a discussion on the implications of unbalanced e-Gov research.
Aurora Sánchez-Ortiz, Arkalgud Ramaprasad, Thant Syn

Chapter 3. E-Justice in Europe: From National Experiences to EU Cross-Border Service Provision

The aim of this chapter is to shed some light on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) development and implementation in the justice domain (the so-called e-Justice), and to glance at the key elements of this emerging phenomenon, building on the European Union experience at national and Community level. Although ICTs are increasingly at the core of the functioning of the justice service provision in modern democracies, their implementation and deployment, and the complex intertwining between law, technology and organizations, which characterize e-Justice experiences, remains poorly understood. The analysis of concrete e-Justice cases allows clarification of some of the practical implications of different experiences, providing useful indications of the elements which have made feasible the development of effective e-Justice systems.
Marco Velicogna

Chapter 4. Democratizing Government: What We Know About E-Government and Civic Engagement

Civic engagement is an ideal that is sought after as the fundamental basis of democratic societies. Civic engagement is, however, difficult to attain both from the perspective of citizens’ willingness and ability to participate and government’s ability to generate such engagement. E-government can play a role in enhancing civic engagement by allowing more and better opportunities for the same. In this chapter, I explore the theoretical and empirical literature on civic engagement, e-government, and their interaction. In the process, I identify key debates surrounding civic engagement through e-government, reveal some of the nuances associated with it, and through an operationalization of civic engagement through e-government, highlight the tools and techniques that are used to achieve it.
Nina David

Actions Plans in Specific Countries: Case Studies


Chapter 5. Online Privacy Protection in Chinese City Governments: An Analysis of Privacy Statements

e-Government in China has made great progress in its development. However, many challenges stills persist with privacy protection being a serious issue. In this chapter, we analyse privacy statements in city governments in China. We chose the 100 largest cities in China based on their GDP ranking and evaluated their privacy statement performance through an index. The study found that the overall performance was poor with an average score of 26.63 out of 100 cities’ use of privacy statements showed that greater performance was explained by economy, budget, and location factors. With more and more public services being provided through government websites, city governments need to have stronger privacy protection to create a better environment for e-Government development.
Christopher G. Reddick, Yueping Zheng

Chapter 6. E-Government Development in the Central Asian States: Best Practices, Challenges and Lessons Learned

Many states of the world are developing e-government to raise operating efficiency, better service delivery to citizens, and reduce corruption. But successful development of e-government depends on many factors, such as the level of economic development, the development level of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure, the ICT literacy of citizens, legal framework, political leadership etc. This chapter attempts to confirm this statement using the example of the Central Asian states. The chapter also describes best practices, main challenges and obstacles, and lessons learned from e-government development in the countries of Central Asia.
Ulan Brimkulov, Kasym Baryktabasov

Chapter 7. Brazilian E-Government Policy and Implementation

This chapter analyses the strategic direction of Brazilian e-Government Policies from 2008 to 2016 in association with International Organization guidelines, through the study of Federal government strategic plans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in May 2014 and in June 2016 with government top players. This research also references the implementation and improvements to relevant e-government initiatives, in order to illustrate Brazil’s e-government development, challenges, and best practices.
Although in the past two years, Brazil has been facing political, economic and financial crises, the country advanced six positions, reaching 51st place in the 2016 UN e-Government Survey. As the federal government is pursuing digital governance guidelines and whole-of-government service delivery, the state hopes to improve the efficiency of public management and reduce Brazil’s costs over the next few years.
Valeria Esther Nigri Musafir

Chapter 8. Designing Effervescent E-Government Solutions: Lessons from a Developing World Context

Developing sustainable, effervescent, responsive and robust e-Government solutions is not an easy undertaking because of the multi-dimensional nature of e-Government. Therefore, e-Government success or failure is defined by contextual factors, in turn defined by the area in which it is implemented. The chapter explores the critical factors that need to be included in the design of e-Government solutions focusing on Zambia as a case study. A discussion and presentation of a contextual framework for e-Government design in Zambia is provided. It is anticipated that this framework may be used as reference to inform the design of e-Government solutions in contextually similar environments.
Bwalya Kelvin Joseph

Initiatives Undertaken, Good Practices and Lessons Learned in Other Countries


Chapter 9. Progress in Global Assessments of E-Democracy: Refined Measurements and New Findings

How information and communication technologies (ICTs) shape the conditions for the creation of an electronic democracy (e-democracy) is the subject matter of a rising field. However, prior studies are both inconsistent with regard to findings and have drawbacks in the operationalization of the concept at a global level. This chapter addresses voids in previous research by looking at an established measurement of e-democracy and making a refinement of this very measurement. This is done through assessing a data set that spans both time and space and includes all countries of the world. The findings, relating to e-democracy on a global scale, show the positive influence of technology and population size but also emphasize the need for more theoretical groundwork that future research can benefit from.
Gustav Lidén

Chapter 10. Public Value Co-creation via Gov2.0 Complexity Cube

Whilst digital connectivity via platforms such as Gov2.0 has provided huge opportunities for governments and citizens to interact and create public value, actual usage of these platforms is below expectations. This chapter explains the complexity of government-citizen interactions using a co-creation perspective via the proposed Gov2.0 complexity cube. The chapter discusses the results of Australian government agencies’ (Government dimension) use of Twitter to identify the co-creation modes. Via the proposed Gov2.0 complexity cube, the degree and understanding of co-creation in the Gov2.0 context can be enhanced. Further testing of the Gov2.0 complexity cube involves validating the other two dimensions, i.e. community and citizens, to reveal other types of co-creation.
Mohammed Aladalah, Yen Cheung, Vicent C. S. Lee, Sultan Alamri

Chapter 11. Learning from Opening Data in the Context of E-Governance: Finland, with Special Reference to Government Location Data

The purpose of this chapter is to construct a framework to examine change in e-governance, apply this framework in a one-country case study on opening government location data, and draw conclusions. The conceptual framework is comprised of four dimensions: influential historical, social and political mechanisms; the diffusion of innovations; stages of e-governance development; and facilitators of change. The research material is comprised of documents and interviews. According to the results, the will for e-governance change must accumulate in government and elsewhere, e-governance change has to be legitimated with accounts of its benefits, the costs of the change have to be accounted for, and organizational and individual facilitators may be needed. Conclusions are drawn for future research and concerning e-governance practice in developed and developing countries.
Pertti Ahonen

Chapter 12. E-Government Implementation: Transparency, Accessibility and Usability of Government Websites

In several European countries decentralization has promoted the creation of Regional Governments (RGs) with high levels of competence and responsibilities, such as promoting good governance and sustainability. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), and hence, the adoption of e-government has contributed to the adoption and dissemination of government transparency in a usable and accessible way. In this chapter, we study the transparency, accessibility and usability of websites of Spanish RGs.
As a first step, we want to know if the implementation of e-government has improved transparency about sustainability. In a second step, we want to know if citizens perceive the advantages of the use of governmental websites as a medium of transparency assessing the accessibility and usability of RG’s websites. The results show that the most information disclosed is environmental information. Furthermore, RGs information disclosure is determined by citizens’ perception of accessibility and usability.
Francisco J. Alcaraz-Quiles, Elena Urquia-Grande, Clara I. Muñoz-Colomina, Antti Rautiainen

Chapter 13. Concluding Remarks: The Path for Solving E-Government in Developing Countries

This chapter provides a roadmap of the book, and seeks to offer a vision of the problem in implementing e-government initiatives in developing countries. To achieve this aim, this chapter makes brief overview of the conclusions obtained in the analysis of the policies implemented by international organizations, the actions taken by specific countries, and good practices and lessons learned on e-government processes. Conclusions reached indicate that the e-government process does not lead to an improvement in developing countries if it is not planned and is not well executed.
Laura Alcaide Muñoz, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar


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