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Über dieses Buch

This book brings together an international group of experts to present the latest psychosocial and developmental criminological research on cyberbullying, cybervictimization and intervention. With contributions from a wide range of European countries, including Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Italy, France, Hungary, Spain, and the United Kingdom, as well as from Canada and the USA, this authoritative volume explores the nature, risk factors, and prevalence of cyberbullying among children and adolescents. A particularly original focus is directed towards the Tabby project (Threat Assessment of online Bullying Behaviour among Youngsters), an intervention programme based on the threat and risk assessment approach which seeks to prevent the occurrence of violence and its recidivism.
Presenting cutting-edge research on developmental criminology and legal psychology, International Perspectives on Cyberbullying is a comprehensive resource for practitioners, teachers, parents, and researchers, as well as scholars of criminology, psychology, and education.



Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization and Risk Factors


1. Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization

In its first stage, research on cyberbullying focused on trying to define the phenomenon and check on the possible similarities or discrepancies between offline school bullying and online bullying. The very first studies (Smith et al. 2008; Kowalski et al. 2008) adapted the Olweus definition of bullying (Olweus 1995) to the online world, simply adding the precision that bullying was performed via electronic means of communication within the cyberspace:
Anna Costanza Baldry, David P. Farrington, Anna Sorrentino, Catherine Blaya

2. The TABBY Online Project: The Threat Assessment of Bullying Behaviours Online Approach

The Threat Assessment of Bullying Behaviours among Youngsters (TABBY) Internet program was developed initially in 2010 and implemented in 2011–2013 in Italy and further four EU countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, and Hungary) and was then undertaken in three additional EU countries (Spain, France, and Poland) with new components. The program was developed on the basis of what was known in the scientific community with regard to the reduction of cyberbullying and increased awareness of cyber risks. The program has been developed and implemented thanks to the support of the European Union Daphne Security and Justice Program for the reduction of violence against women and children, and in some of the original countries (Italy, Spain, France, Hungary) it is still used as one of the existing intervention programs.
Anna Costanza Baldry, David P. Farrington, Catherine Blaya, Anna Sorrentino

International Perspectives on Cyberbullying


3. Cyberbullying in Canada

Cyberbullying is a significant problem in Canada, with high prevalence rates that have remained stable over the past decade (Boak et al. 2016; Craig et al. 2016). In this chapter, we discuss the prevalence of cyberbullying and cybervictimization in Canada, which ranges from 4.5% of university aged youth engaging in cyberbullying at any time (Cunningham et al., 2015) to 33.7% of adolescents in the past three months (Mishna et al., 2010). We explore how these prevalence rates vary according to age, gender, geographic location, and methodological differences between studies. We use Canadian research to identify risk and protective factors according to a social ecological framework, with a discussion of factors at the individual, family, school, and neighborhood level. We then discuss evidence-based interventions aimed to address cyberbullying in Canada, and end with recommendations for how to move the field forward and address the underlying societal dynamics that produce cyberbullying behaviours.
Julia Riddell, Debra Pepler, Wendy Craig

4. Cyberbullying in the United States

Cyberbullying is recognized as a critical public health concern in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2009a, b; Srabstein et al. 2008; Ybarra and Mitchell 2004) and is broadly conceptualized as a digital version of peer-based aggression. Technological advances have significantly increased adolescents’ use of social media and online communication platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. According to Hinduja and Patchin (2009), cyberbullying is defined as “willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phone, or other electronic devices” (p. 5). Definitions and forms of cyberbullying vary, but some common examples include flaming, harassment, stalking, impersonation, outing, trickery/phishing, as well as exclusion. Utilizing technology, the perpetrator can send or post humiliating or threatening messages or photos of the victim to a third party or to a public forum visited by many online participants (Hinduja and Patchin 2009).
Dorothy L. Espelage, Jun Sung Hong, Alberto Valido

5. Cyberbullying in the United Kingdom and Ireland

Cyberbullying and cybervictimization are important and growing problems that have undesirable health-related outcomes. They are significantly related to school bullying and school victimization. This chapter reports the results of a systematic review of the prevalence of cyberbullying and cybervictimization in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It also reviews the effects of different methods of data collection and questioning techniques on prevalence estimates. Research suggests that girls are more likely to be cybervictims, while boys are more likely to be cyberbullies. Cyberbullying and cybervictimization are related to cognitive and psychological factors such as low self-esteem and loneliness, and they are more prevalent in deprived schools. The chapter finishes by reviewing policies and programmes that are designed to reduce cyberbullying and cybervictimization.
Hannah Gaffney, David P. Farrington

The Implementation of the EU Project for Risk Assessment of Cyberbullying: The TABBY Project


6. Cyberbullying in Cyprus

Human behaviour, including deviant and criminal behaviour, reflects such factors as the type of society and economy as well as the age composition of the population; the technologies available and in use; risk and protective factors at the level of the individual, the family, school, and the broader community; and, finally, the priorities and emphases of agents of social control. The advent of the Internet and the explosion in the social media has vastly increased the scope for bullying, which has traditionally been talked about in the context of the school. As Baldry et al. (2016) remind us, ‘[c]yberbullying affects boys and girls of different ages all around the world since communication among peers has changed, and so have the risks of online communication’ (p. 7). Cyberbullying has been defined by Smith et al. (2008, p. 376) as ‘an aggressive act or behavior that is carried out using electronic means by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself.’
Andreas Kapardis, George Poyiadjis

7. Cyberbullying in France

Although the cyberspace opens up new perspectives and opportunities, it can sometimes turn into a hostile environment and a playground for bullying (Tokunaga 2010). Young people are prone to take risks online and can fall prey to bullies and predators and their online safety has become a key preoccupation these last decades. Since the late 1990s, many studies were completed in North America (Kowalski et al. 2008; Li 2007; Shariff 2008; Mishna et al. 2012; Hinduja and Patchin 2008), Europe (Smith et al. 2008) as well as in Latin America (Torres and Vivas 2016) and Asia (Hong et al. 2006; Wright 2015; Lee 2016) on the use of the Internet and its possible risks and opportunities (Livingstone et al. 2011a, b).
Catherine Blaya

8. Cyberbullying in Greece

The chapter presents the results of the implementation of the TABBY Project in Greek schools, more particularly, in a sample of 981 pupils aged 11-17. According to the results, the pupils' involvement in cyberbullying during the last four months was found to be higher (14.5%) than their involvement in traditional school bullying (6.1%). Risk factors appeared to be male gender, online communication with strangers, time spent in Internet and previous involvement in school bullying. The chapter ends with the presentation of some legal issues concerning both traditional and cyber bullying in Greece as well as suggestions for intervention. The latter concern the involvement of all members of the school community in addressing online bullying and improving the school climate.
Anna Sorrentino, Christina Athanasiades

9. Cyberbullying in Hungary

With regard to cyberbullying, 33.4% of all participating students reported being involved in cyberbullying at least once or twice, and 2.8% more than twice in the previous 4 months (63.8% never bullied anybody online). With regard to cybervictimization, 31.1% of all participating students reported being involved in cybervictimization at least once or twice, and 2.6% more than twice in the previous 4 months (66.3% never was a cybervictim). Overall frequency analysis showed that the most common cyberbullying types in our sample were sending mean, cruel, or threatening messages online to someone they know (flaming: 32.3%), followed by denigration (putting down someone online by sending or posting cruel gossip, rumours, or other harmful material: 6.0%), exclusion (helping to exclude someone from an online group: 5.9%), outing (sharing someone’s personal secrets or images online without permission: 4.7%) and impersonation (creation of a fake profile to send or post materials to damage someone’s reputation or friendships: 2.8%).
Katalin Parti, Andrea Schmidt, Bálint Néray

10. Cyberbullying in Italy

Cyberbullying is well researched in Italy and intervention strategies are disseminated throughout the country. At the central level, the Ministry of Education has implemented guidelines for the prevention and comparing of cyberbullying, and was also an associate partner in this Tabby project. Studies in Italy on the prevalence and nature of cyberbullying are quite extensive, and followed the ones on school bullying (Baldry et al. 2016b; Menesini et al. 2011). Prevalence rates vary depending on age of participants, methods, instruments used, period, and cut-off criteria adopted to measure students’ involvement in cyberbullying and cybervictimization.
Anna Sorrentino, Anna Costanza Baldry, Sonya Cacace

11. Cyberbullying in Spain

Cyberbullying has been a research topic in Spain for approximately 10 years. The first major works on this topic were published by Ombudsman-UNICEF (2007) and Ortega-Ruiz et al. (2008). The first work (Ombudsman-UNICEF 2007) showed a very low incidence rate of cyberbullying – only 0.4% of the respondents could be considered as frequent victims of cyberbullying. Moreover, 5.1% of the sample were regarded to be occasional victims of this problem. The percentage of frequent cyberbullies amounted to 0.6%, while occasional cyberbullies were 4.8%. A year later, the first research work focused on cyberbullying in Spain was published (Ortega-Ruiz et al. 2008), and showed higher percentages, as follows: frequent cybervictims 1.5%, occasional cybervictims 9.3%; frequent cyberbullies 1.7%; occasional cyberbullies 5.7%; frequent cyberbullies/victims 0.6%; and occasional cyberbullies/victims 7.8%,
Juan Calmaestra, Tatiana García-Vélez, Antonio Maldonado



12. Conclusions and Policy Recommendations

Cyberbullying is a serious and rapidly increasing problem in many countries. We hope that this book, which contains information from researchers who were part of the European Union TABBY (Threat Assessment of Bullying Behaviour in Youth) project and from world leaders in the field, will help researchers as well as practitioners to increase knowledge and understanding of such a well-known phenomenon which still needs a lot of rigorous and well-planned research.
Anna Costanza Baldry, David P. Farrington, Catherine Blaya, Anna Sorrentino


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