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Über dieses Buch

This book includes the proceedings of the 19th International Scientific Conference “Energy Management of Municipal Transportation Facilities and Transport EMMFT 2017”, which was held in Khabarovsk, Russia on 10–13 April 2017. The book presents the research findings of scientists working at universities in the Far Eastern, Siberian and Ural Federal Districts of Russia, and of Serbia, which are unique regions notable for sustainably operating complex transport infrastructures in severe climatic and geographic environments. It also offers practical insights into transportation operation under such conditions.The book discusses the experiences of colleagues from Slovenia, Ukraine and Latvia in the development of transport infrastructure and construction of transport facilities and features and includes the results of a wide range of studies, such as managing multimodal transportation, improving the efficiency of locomotives, electric locomotives, traction substations, electrical substations, relay protection and automation devices, and power-factor correction units. It addresses topics like renewable energy sources, problems of the mathematical and simulation modelling of electromagnetic processes of electrical power objects and systems, aspects of cost reduction for fuel-and-power resources, theoretical aspects of energy management, development of transport infrastructure, modern organizational and technological solutions in construction, new approaches in the field of management, analysis and monitoring in transport sector.Comprising 142 high-quality articles covering a wide range of topics, these proceedings are of interest to anyone engaged in transport engineering, electric power systems, energy management, construction and operation of transport infrastructure buildings and facilities.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Electric Power Systems and Electromechanical Systems

Frontmatter

Interaction Phenomenon Between Train, Track and Bridge

The paper presents principle of track/bridge interaction in the case of temperature gradient, breaking and acceleration of railway vehicles. Influence of different bridge structures to the bridge expansion length was analysed for the purpose of expansion joint avoiding in CWR track. This would lead to the reduction of noise and vibration emission from railway traffic and maintenance activities, which is especially important in the urban environment. Additional stresses in track were considered according to the type of track and bridge deck, type of bridge bearings, as well as bridge support stiffness. Conclusion of this paper provides basic stances that could be used for the calculation of different railway bridge structures. The aim of the paper is providing the basis for improvement of the existing technical regulations in the field of railway infrastructure, as well as its harmonisation with EU regulations.

Zdenka Popović, Luka Lazarević, Milica Vilotijević, Nikola Mirković

Improvement of Current Collection System with a Rigid Current Distributor for Overhead Transport

Conventional power supply systems for overhead transport have disadvantages of self-aligning contact pair geometry which limit the rolling stock operation speed due to poor current collection quality. At Omsk State Railway University new systems with a rounded contact surface were proposed. The calculations of the interface of this current collection system based on Lagrange second kind equations demonstrate satisfactory results at higher speeds. The calculation results are confirmed experimentally.

Oleg Sidorov, Vladimir Goryunov, Valery Tomilov, Ilya Salya

Improvement of the Methodology for Improvement of the Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit Detection in the Driving Motor Anchor Winding

The article provides results of the application of the wave response method to detect turn-to-turn short circuit in the anchor winding of the DC driving motor. Experimental angular characteristics of the wave response diagnostic parameters for damaged anchor windings are provided. Coefficient enabling determination of the anchor winding turn-to-turn insulation status in the DC driving motor is proposed.

Viktor Kharlamov, Pavel Shkodun, Ignat Shestakov

Selection and Validation of the Mathematical Model for the Solution of the Optimization Problem of Fuel Cost Efficiency Improvement of the Locomotive Diesel Engines

In the article issues of mathematical simulation of the working processes of the locomotive diesel engines are discussed. Mathematical model for the calculation of the fuel combustion process in the diesel engine cylinder is proposed. The mathematical model enables the optimization of the internal combustion engines converted to gas-diesel cycle operation, using the specific fuel consumption and acceptable thermal and dynamic loads on the sleeve assembly. It is demonstrated under which conditions the use of the gas fuel blended with the diesel fuel will be economically advantageous in the locomotive diesel engines. To evaluate the hydro-carbon fuel blend application efficiency in the locomotive power units it was proposed to use a consolidated efficiency criterion as the sum of dimensionless particular efficiency criteria characterizing the variation of the fuel cost efficiency and quantity of the fuel incomplete combustion products.

Alexandr Anisimov, Vitaly Chetvergov

Improvement of Traction Rolling Stock Energy Efficiency Analysis System

Utilities use efficiency improvement is a key task in the energy strategy of Russia. In the conditions of demand growth and constant utilities’ price increase correctly organized energy use management is necessary. A critical part in the rate-setting and prediction accuracy improvement in terms of fuel and utilities use for the train traction is allocated to the realistic analysis of the traction rolling stock energy efficiency relative to the previously attained values at the expense of the operation factors’ variation. As new locomotive series appear, heavy-weight cargo train traffic develop, passenger train speed increase, innovative equipment and technologies are implemented etc., the degree of various indicators’ influence on the utilities’ consumption is re-distributed. The purpose of this article is the development of methods for the traction rolling stock energy efficiency variation evaluation at the expense of operation factor set variation.

Elena Sidorova, Svetlana Podgornaya

Simulation of Wear Processes of the Monorail Electrical Transport Current Collector Contact Elements

The article discusses the issues of physical simulation of the wear process of the contact pairs of the monorail electrical transport current collectors. Phenomena arising in the sliding contact during the interaction of the contact elements with the rigid current distributor are described. The simulation was performed on the reciprocating unit imitating impacts typical for the real-life operation conditions, particularly, in the increased humidity and dustiness environment. Based on the study results recommendations on the selection of the optimum combination of the contact element and current distributor materials are provided.

Oleg Sidorov, Victor Philippov

Determination of the Electrical Locomotive Energy Efficiency to Evaluate Its Repair Quality

The article is dedicated to the urgent problems of resource saving and energy efficiency of the railway rolling stock. The methodology of the electrical locomotive repair quality evaluation based on the locomotive energy efficiency indicator is proposed. Constraining units and key parameters affecting additional energy losses determined depending on the electrical locomotive repair quality are singled out. The article provides the results of the locomotive energy efficiency indicator calculations for a number of locomotive series.

Sergei Shantarenko, Mikhail Kapustyan, Oleg Supchinsky

Application of Magnetic Wedges for Stator and Rotor Slots of DC Motors

The article considers the issue of ferromagnetic wedge application efficiency for the anchor and main pole slots in DC motors. Magnetic field simulation results using finite element method as exemplified by the commercial DC motor are provided. The findings obtained are analyzed for the cases with and without the ferromagnetic wedges. The change of the machine magnetic flux value is evaluated.

Viktor Kharlamov, Yuriy Moskalev, Denis Popov

Intelligent Automated System for the Monitoring of Railway Areas with a Low Transport Process Energy Efficiency

The article provides principles for the evaluation of the energy utilization efficiency for the train traction at the sections of electrified railways of arbitrary length using time-synchronized data of the automatic electricity billing systems installed on the contact network feeders of the traction substations and electrically driven rolling stock as well as satellite system rolling stock location data are used. Restrictions of the existing measurement systems and data processing of the electricity utilization for the train traction are listed. Identification areas of the bottlenecks with reduced energy efficiency in the traction power supply system, train driving technology, train traffic organization are demonstrated. Results of the pilot operation of the electrical power accounting subsystem on the contact network DC traction substation feeders are provided. Expected scientific and practical results of the system proposed are identified.

Vasily Cheremisin, Mikhail Nikiforov, Alexey Kashtanov, Sergey Ushakov

Intelligent Traction Power Supply System

The control of operating conditions of traction power supply systems can be done by combination of controlled reactive power sources, energy storage systems, active harmonic conditioners, and distributed generators. Simulation modeling shows that the facilities intended to control the operating conditions of traction power supply systems make it possible to stabilize voltage in the network, improve power quality at the buses of traction substations, and decrease power losses.

Vasilii Zakaryukin, Andrey Kryukov, Aleksandr Cherepanov

Mathematical Model of Multiphase Power Transmission Line

A method of electric power system modeling has been proposed, which includes multiphase power transmission lines. The method is based on application of phase coordinates and equivalent lattice circuits from RLC-elements connected in complete graph schemes.

Vasilii Zakaryukin, Andrey Kryukov, Aleksandr Cherepanov

Basis for Local Methods of Insulation Hardening of Traction Rolling Stock Electrical Machines

The article concerns issues connected with improvement of traction rolling stock electrical machines (TRS EMs) reliability using local methods of insulation hardening by means of infrared (thermal) radiation during repair and manufacturing processes. Reasons for low reliability of advanced electric locomotives EMs with commutator traction electrical motors (TEMs) have been analyzed. The low reliability of electrical machines is associated with a low resource of winding insulation. The existing methods of restoration of insulation are not able to adequately provide high-quality hardening of insulation in the process of depot and factory repair. On the basis of Irkutsk state University of Railways has set up a scientific laboratory for the study of effective ways of hardening the insulation in the repair process based on the use of energy thermal (infrared) radiation. Laboratory and production researches confirming efficiency of the proposed methods have been carried out. Methods and industrial plants on hardening the insolation of TRS EMs of various types have been developed on the basis of experimental data. In conjunction with the company “Elinar” (the largest supplier of electrical insulating materials across the network of JSC “RZD”) has conducted studies on the effectiveness of the proposed methods in comparison with the currently used, based on the use of convection.

Anatoliy Khudonogov, Evgeny Dulskiy, Pavel Ivanov

Technology of Electric Power Efficient Use in Transport

Shortcomings of educational process of specialists training for development, manufacture of equipment and technology for use of electric power in transport, which hinder the further development of high-technology equipment, have been revealed. A new theory of power processes in electrical circuits with semiconductor power regulators has been developed. Practicability of continuous use of electric potential of power sources for electric traction instead of known switching regulators of traction electric drive power has been proved. It has been proposed to regulate the power of vehicles by changing the input electric resistance of the traction electric drive to ensure high power efficiency, power saving and electromagnetic compatibility of transport with the power supply system.

Tatyana Alekseeva, Natalya Ryabchyonok, Leonid Astrakhantsev

Development of Scientific-and-Experimental Stand to Study Operating Processes of New Transistor Converter of Alternating Current Locomotive

The article deals with various aspects of experimental stand construction for studying the operating processes of thyristor and transistor reversible converters of alternating current locomotive in the traction mode. Two types of reversible converter main circuit execution are provided at the stand – on the basis of thyristors and on the basis of transistors with specified technical features. The elements of electrical and mechanical equipment are listed in each circuit of converter, functions of these elements are explained. The article considers examples of thyristor and transistor converters operation in the mode of rectifier (the mode of locomotive traction) at the upper bands of regulation (the second band, the third one) where the rectifier operation differs from the first band. The oscillograms of converters operating processes are represented as current and voltage curves in the primary winding of transformer and in the circuit of rectified current of load (traction motor). Their comparison is given as well. Based on the results of comparative tests of thyristor and transistor converters operation in the rectifier mode at the upper bands of regulation, an experimental dependence of the electric locomotive power factor on changes in band voltage has been obtained. The comparative assessment of energy efficiency of converters operation has been provided by means of its power factor measurement for half-value (0.5) and total value (1.0) of regulation band voltage.

Oleg Melnichenko, Aleksey Linkov, Dmitry Yagovkin

Strengthening Design for Weak Base Using Geomaterials on “Amur” Automobile Road Section

The design of a variable hardness is developed for preventing deformations in the line facilities built on sections with different stability. The results of geotechnical modeling are presented with the example of Zabaykalsky highway section. This highway is constructed in the harsh environments and complex engineering-geological conditions on seasonal freezing soils. The sections with different stability and a culvert are located there. The design includes installation of geosynthetic material layers. The amount and location of the geogrid layers depends on the base stiffness. The structural behavior modeling with the geotechnical software complex « FEM models » gives a design assessment. Some constructional measures are taken as a result of the modeling to provide an exploitation reliability of the highway engineering solutions.

Sergey Kudryavtsev, Tatiana Valtseva, Elena Goncharova, Aleksey Kazharsky

The False Tripping of Relay Protection in Parallel Lines: Finding Cause and Solution Methods

This paper deals with electromagnetic processes occurring in case of LG fault for parallel lines of different voltage levels (from 6 to 35 kV) and their relay protection operation. The most probable cause of false tripping of relay protection devices in parallel less nominal voltage line in case of LG fault in a higher nominal voltage line is considered. Created and patented device for allowing eliminating the false tripping of relay protection is described. The paper contains detailed vector diagrams that may be useful not only for engineers and researchers in the field of relay protection, but for everyone who are interested in evaluating the interference level or in selecting and applying any devices protection measures.

Pavel Pinchukov, Svetlana Makasheva

Improving Methods for Reliability Assessment of Electric Power Systems

This paper deals with the basic methods for calculating reliability of electric power systems. The alternative method for determining the probability of system’s failure is offered. The principle is based on a new “compact” recording of possible routes which provide the electric power system operability. For calculating reliability parameters of the system the method of exceptions and the method of decomposition are used.

Pavel Pinchukov, Svetlana Makasheva

Research of Deicing Processes by Means of Electrodynamic Method

The article deals with the problem of deicing of power line wires. Routine methods of power line wire deicing are notable for low energy efficiency and long time needed for wire’s cleaning. Research objective consists in model-based studying of power line wire’s deicing process by means of electrodynamic method. In the article, a short review with the reference of disadvantages of existing power line wire’s deicing methods are described. An electrodynamic method, based on combined effect on ice layer, is outlined. A short description of mathematical model used at the investigation process is shown. The model allows to calculate the parameters of three parallel sub processes of deicing: melting of a thin ice layer on the “wire-ice” boundary, destruction of ice coating on separate fragments and shaking off the fractured ice coating elements by inertial forces. Three cases were considered during investigation. The relationship between the required pulse ratio during change of thickness of the melted ice layer, and pulse size at different ambient temperatures is defined. The relationship between length of cracked ice cylinder fragment and ice coating thickness and size of pulses supplied to the line is defined. The energy consumption for clean-up of the line by electrodynamic method is defined. This energy consumption is compared with energy consumption of ice melting. The results of numerical experiment are shown and conclusions are made.

Sergei Sukhorukov, Vyacheslav Soloviev, Olga Malysheva

A Mathematical Model of the Estimated Cases for Designing a Multimodal Transport Network

The article substantiates the relevance of development of multi-modal transport network for the strategic objectives of Unified transport network of Russia. Also, explains the need for a methodology of designing changes of landmark appearance and network capacity. We further provide a brief overview of the works, dedicated to solving this problem. Lastly, we consider mathematical model with different estimated cases, defining options for the required traffic volume and options for designing schemes of multimodal transport network appearance, that can vary under different scenarios of socio-economic development of the region, taking into account the impact on the decision-making factors.

Natalia Nesterova, Vladimir Anisimov, Sergey Goncharuk, Aleksandr Anisimov

Assessment of the Fatigue Durability of the Rolling Contact

The phenomenon of reducing the contact strength of conjugate parts under conditions of pseudo-pure rolling and (or) the effect of oscillating forces of small amplitudes is considered. This work is to analyze the effect on the level of strength of differential slip in the contact area. Surface contact disruptions are initially localized in the region of minimum slip velocities of the conjugate surfaces; the allowable stresses for the pulsating contact mode are much lower than for the apparently less favorable “rolling with slip” regime. The conditions initiating the fracture were investigated on the basis of the experimental material and the determination of tangential loads in the rolling contact in the presence of cohesion and slip on the basis of minimization of the Kalker functional over Spector-Fedorenko. The localization of the fracture zones corresponds to the boundaries of the separation of these regions, where the concentration of shearing frictional stresses takes place.

Alexey Beskopylny, Nikolay Onishkov, Viktor Korotkin

Power Distribution Control in the Transmission of the Perspective Wheeled Tractor with Automated Gearbox

The article suggests a mathematical model, describing the motion of a tractor with hinged frame and the power distribution mechanism in the transmission, on the basis of Routh equation. The authors completed analysis of possible power distribution mechanism application solutions in the transmission of the tractor, evaluated different packaging solutions for the power distribution mechanism in the tractor transmission. The authors proposed methodology to determine the parameters of the inter-wheel power distribution mechanism, which is used as a part of the 4th drawback category tractor transmission. Kinematic scheme solutions for such mechanism are proposed. The authors evaluated the effect of power distribution mechanism on the resistance torque in a steering mechanism of the tractor with a hinged frame.

Roman Didikov, Roman Dobretsov, Yuriy Galyshev

Stress-Strain State and Plasticity Reserve Depletion on the Lateral Surface of Workpiece at Various Contact Conditions During Upsetting

The stress-strain state and the indices of the plasticity reserve depletion on the lateral surface of workpieces at the site of the greatest barreling after upsetting with dry and lubricated dies are compared in paper. The estimation of the calculation results by methods of the plasticity flow and deformation theory was done. It was found that the application of lubricants to the contact surfaces of workpieces at upsetting reduces the depletion of plasticity reserve, which prevents to the formation of conditions for the formation of surface damages. A comparative analysis shows that the value of the index of depletion of plasticity reserve at upsetting determined with using the strain theory by 20…25% less than those calculated on the plastic flow theory.

Volodymyr Kukhar, Viktor Artiukh, Andrey Butyrin, Andrii Prysiazhnyi

Analysis of Stress Conditions of Rolling Stand Elements

A technical solution is offered in order to prevent wear/breaking of contact surfaces of rolling stand elements which affected by horizontal impacts during rolling. On the basis of results of suggested mathematical models stress calculations a material is proposed for lining straps of rolls chocks of a quarto reverse 4-hi rolling stand of 3000 thick plate rolling mill shop (PJSC «MMPP n. Illich») for their industrial application.

Viktor Artiukh, Vladlen Mazur, Andrey Butyrin

Researching of the Stress-Strain State of the Open-Type Press Frame Using of Elastic Compensator of Errors of “Press-Die” System

The calculating of stress-strain state in the frame of the open crank press using finite element method which allows algorithmizing the process of selecting an elastic compensator of required configuration with specified performance characteristics was designed. Solid models of elastic compensators with various designs are built. Their use is enables to determine the dependences of gap and stress-strain state of the frame in the certain indicative points of the frame from the shape and characteristics of the compensator. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data for the calculation of the stress-strain state of the frame of open crank press with elastic compensators working was made. It was found that the using of compensators reduces the angular deformation in the frame by 10…24%, and the tensile stress – by 6…42%.

Elena Balalayeva, Viktor Artiukh, Volodymyr Kukhar, Olga Tuzenko, Vladyslav Glazko, Andrii Prysiazhnyi, Vadim Kankhva

Online Energy-Efficient Train Traffic Adjustments

High quality dispatching ensures a good level of train punctuality and reduces operating costs. The main savings come from reduction of the traction energy consumption. The paper considers the issues of creating an adequate energy model, which is needed for efficient adjustment of train traffic. The authors develop a methodology for the meso-modeling and optimal traffic control. We describe two types of operational management such as regulation of a single train speed profile and the services flow control. Optimization criterion is the minimum energy rate. Detailed study of the traction energy consumption dynamics is carried out using correlation analysis. The main revealed regularities are: the correlation between the energy consumption and the relief increases with heaviness of path and falls when an unplanned delays occur. The conclusions obtained make it possible to improve the traction energy consumption model.

Boris Davydov, Vadim Gopkalo

Development of Transport Infrastructure

Frontmatter

Needs and Possibilities of Development of the Macedonian Motorways

The road network has been compared to the human blood circulation since the beginning of its development, the analogy referring to both its function and its hierarchically arranged and branching structure. In other words, the balanced development and the coordinated function, starting from the main arteries (motorways) until to the capillary system (local roads) is a precondition to the overall rationality of the existence and development of the organism (the country) and its vital functions (e.-g economy).

Slobodan Ognjenovic, Tamara Narezhnaya, Zlatko Zafirovski, Ivana Nedevska

Transport Complex of Primorye as a Factor of the Economic Status of the Region

To strengthen the economic and geopolitical status of the Russian Federation in Asia-Pacific region, it is expedient to create a modern multifunctional infrastructure of national importance, including transport and engineering in the coastal zone of Primorsky Krai. This is the Russian center for international cooperation with the countries of Asia-Pacific region (APR) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The article presents some problems, the fleet of the Russian Federation faces, and the probable ways of their solving. The main method of analyzing and researching this issue is a program-targeted approach to solving problems of balancing the interests of all participants in the transport and logistics center in the region. An unconventional financial method for ensuring the reproductive process of fixed assets of sea transport is proposed. In terms of improving the management efficiency of the subject of the federation, the issue of ensuring the renewal and replenishment of ships of maritime transport is urgent and relevant.

Tatyana Miroshnikova, Natalia Taskaeva

Modeling the Duration of Works During the Scheduling of Construction of the Transport Infrastructure Facility

The paper considers the scheduling of construction of the transport infrastructure facility – a one-storey building of production and technical complex. The main parameters of the construction process are the duration of construction, cost and quality. These elements are always closely connected and require constant monitoring. In a research various world regulatory bases of labor have been used: Chinese normative base, Unified Norms and Prices (further – UN&P, Russia), “Building Construction Costs with RSMeans Data” (further – RSMeans, United States of America, USA). Different approaches to the calculation of the duration of different types of work and the formation of the construction crew gave different total duration. The result of the study was the possibility of modeling the duration of various types of work, taking into account the change in the quantitative and qualification level of the work crew.

Marina Romanovich, Wang Ziyue, Shi Peiyu

Modified Method for Calculation of Vehicles Residual Lifetime with Regard of the Impact Factors Variability

Transportation infrastructure management methods analysis is provided. Scientific research main focus areas with highlighting future aspects and challenges for regional development are summarized. Transportation management tasks solution comprehensiveness is established, and the gap in insufficiency of the region-specific considerations for priority factors determination is discovered. Purpose of these studies is to determine the applicability of various scientific approaches for multi-factor region-specific circumstances and to elaborate a unified approach capable to eliminate the shortfalls of various methods. Model for solution of this task assumes the identification of parameters as the basic ones with further time lag control, and here the classical methods for outlining the impact factors are applicable, such as: driver; external environment; functional condition maintaining factor (service); randomness of the regional transportation infrastructure functioning peculiarity. Mathematical model for vehicle cost evaluation with regard of the residual lifetime is considered; significance of operation expenses parameter, vehicle mechanism elements wear intensity parameters are substantiated. Modification of basic target function by consideration of operation region-specific impact factors variability, human factor, service quality while maintaining the operability and safety is proposed. Example is given for substantiation of applicability of individual method for vehicle residual lifetime calculation and harmonization of the result with the averaged market value evaluation parameter; future cost intensity of operation for the given time lag, for owners, as well as to evaluate the vehicle operation profitability and the impact level on the region transportation infrastructure.

Nadezhda Sevryugina

Particularities of Public-Private Partnership Mechanisms Application for Implementation of Construction Megaprojects of Transport Infrastructure Development

The present article analyses particularities of public-private partnership mechanisms application for implementation of construction megaprojects in field of transport infrastructure. It is proposed to use public-private partnership mechanisms within toll road construction taking into account both interests of the state and interests of the private capital. Implementation of megaprojects in this field is reasonable using contract form of public-private partnership. Carried out analysis of the problems of public-private partnership mechanisms application in the Russian Federation as well as consideration of the project of construction of the toll road “Moscow – Saint Petersburg” on the section km 543 – km 684 allowed to justify a number of measures of improvement in this field.

Alexandr Orlov

Assessment of the Level of Balance of the Development of the Regional Transport Systems in the Russian Federation

This article explores the factors which influence on the balance of development of the regional economy and regional transport systems. New indicator of assessment of the sustainable development “stability of interaction” and the corresponding institutional and synergistic methodological approach was proposed. There was presented a concept of assessment of the level of balanced development of regional transport systems which includes three key criteria: stability, proportionality and adaptability.

Violetta Politi

The Priority Directions of Public Transport Transit Hubs Development on Commuter Railways

The article is devoted to the questions of development of the public transport transit hubs system based on the commuter railways on the example of Moscow city. The vast territory of the city, big quantity of transit hubs and expensiveness of their construction define the actual direction of the research addressed to find such solutions that will provide interests of population, authorities and investors. There is the presentation of new approach which allows to graduate all transport hubs and to select the most attractive both as a transport service for population and object of investment. This approach is based on system analysis, theory of graphs and quantitative method that determine the verification and the correctness of the obtained results. The article presents the theory of the approach, algorithm of calculations and description of the area of results application. The implementation of this scientific approach allows defining the structure of the public transport transit hubs system on the commuter railways in Moscow.

Denis Vlasov, Nina Danilina, Anna Shagimuratova

Management and Economic Performance of Sustainable Transport

The paper deals with management issues of the sustainable transport.We distinguish two aspects of this problem: (1) direct energy use for transportation vehicles; (2) indirect resources costs. Is considered the problem of the sustainable transport as a logical continuation of the problem of sustainable development, initiated by the UN General Assembly. Constructed the model of interaction between the components for the road transport system and the environment. Constructed the criterial for the optimal management of the sustainable transport.

Olga Shirokova, Lev Shirokov

The Risk-Based Approach to Rating the Competitiveness of Transport Enterprises in the System of Economic Security

The article is dedicated to the applications of risk-based approach. This approach allows assessing the threats. It is necessary for the ranking of competitiveness of small enterprises in the sphere of transport in the system of economic security. The purpose of the study is to test the technique of estimating the level of competitiveness of small enterprises in the sphere of transport. The methodology is based on objective and clear criteria and indicators of potential and risk. Criteria and indicators provide the basis for the formation of integrated information-analytical system of management decisions in investment. Methods of research: economic analysis, integral analysis, averages, ranking, cluster analysis. In the first part of the article, the authors write about economic security of the territory and the role of transport companies in providing it. The second part of the article considers the methodology of research, the main threats to the operations of small enterprises in the sphere of transport and their indicators. In the third part of the paper, the authors present the results of the generated ranking of competitiveness of small enterprises in the sphere of transport in the system of economic security.

Elena Karanina, Olesya Ryazanova, Alexander Timin

Methodological Approach to the Pricing of Construction Investment Projects for Road Construction in the Context of Sustainable Development

On the basis of a sound planning and cost determination of construction investment projects for sustainable development of road construction industry, the article suggests a methodological approach to the pricing through the resource approach. The methodology for determining the cost of engineering surveys and road design on the basis of enlarged standards is developed, that will be in demand at the stage of planning and appraisal the development of the road network in the regions. The pricing elements of design and protective archaeological work cost during the construction of highways are figured out. The article provides prospects to implement the suggested methodological approach with the focus on to improve the efficiency and quality of the investment projects for road construction.

Khuta Gumba, Svetlana Uvarova

Sea Transport of the Kamchatka Region: The Analysis, Tendencies and Mechanism of the Effective Development

The article deals with the problem of the negative impact of deterioration of the material and technical base of the marine transport fleet of the Kamchatka region for its implementation as a strategically important subject of the Russian Federation. The research methodology involves, in its turn, the use of the historical data and the analysis of different informational sources. Methodology of the content analysis is based on the four types of analysis: vertical, horizontal, comparative and retrospective. The study used an analytical method for the processing of statistical and corporation documentation. The article provides an analysis of the ship calls, quantity and age of the fleet operating in the transport direction in the Kamchatka and carried out an analytical review of the status and trends of marine transport. Based on the research, the Kamchatka region, due to its geographical position, has a high and imperfectly used transport potential. As a solution to the government, it is considered to ensure the relevance of updating and maintenance of maritime vessels, its more appropriate way of functioning.

Tatyana Miroshnikova, Natalia Taskaeva

Location-Based Potential for the Development of Cruise and Yachting Industries in the Protected Region of the Kotor Municipality

This work analyzes the development possibilities connected to the cruising and yachting industries in the area which is under the protection of UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in the Kotor Municipality, Montenegro. At the time of inscribing the territory of Kotor Municipality, i.e. the Bay of Kotor and Bay of Risan area, on the List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in September 1979, the key evidence of the universal value of this area was the existence of a harmonious relationship between the natural and man-made cultural and historical agglomerations, which comprise a unique symbiosis and a consistent whole. For centuries, the geographical location, natural, climate and hydrological conditions have been a good basis for the development of the maritime industry–which is a tradition here–so today this area is suitable for the sailing and mooring of watercrafts intended for tourists. The overview of the possible locations for the development of industrial and service activities connected to tourism and the area which is the subject of this paper, in accordance with the limitations due to the area’s status and legal framework, represents the essential part of this paper. For that purpose, the analysis of potential locations for the development of cruise and yachting tourism is of great importance, and at the same time it aims at the protection and integrity of the inherited natural and cultural universal values.

Nikola Konjević, Goran Radović

The Development of Underground Construction as a Way to Improve the Organization of Traffic

Currently, there’s a problem with the big population on the earth’s surface. This has an extremely negative impact on the transport network of cities and the overall comfort of living. There is a problem to reach in the morning for work, and in the evening home, roads are overloaded with transport in rush hours. In some cities, traffic jams are a constant problem. The construction of intercepting parking facilities near the metro, multi-level roads and other elements of transport infrastructure only lead to temporary improvement. The best solution for this problem is urbanization of the underground space. The purpose of the research was to examine the efficiency of reconstruction of underground structures for new facilities. The study showed that reconstruction of existing underground structures for new appliance is more quick and cheap. In our days there’re some objects, which have been restored and now they are amusement parks, shopping centers, etc. Were described the plans for future renovations, which will reduce the density of urban development on the surface of the earth and to repurpose unused underground structures. It was also noted that due to lack of existing underground structures new constructions are often used. There were given some recommendations of the organization and development of the underground space.

Ekaterina Utkina, Kirill Pshennikov, Natalia Braila

Organizational-Technological Solutions, Risks and Reliability of the Preparatory Period of the Renovation of Territories

Features of renovation of built-up areas are considered. The main difficulties in carrying out the renovation process are identified. The concept of the constraint factor of the building is defined. A method for analyzing and assessing constraints for selecting optimal organizational and technical solutions for the renovation of territories is proposed. The production of works for the reconstruction of a single object in the conditions of the existing urban development is a complex engineering problem that occurs in any developed city, the history of which totals at least several hundred years. It is associated with numerous restrictions, prohibitions and difficulties created by the city authorities, as well as with the need to use advanced engineering technologies and solutions. Renovation is one of the varieties of this reconstruction.

Vitaliy Chulkov, Arkadiy Kiselev, Garrik Maloyan, Anatoly Efimenko

Energy Efficiency: Energy Saving Solutions for Transportation Facilities

Frontmatter

The Study of Compact Convective Stream Formed by Use of Recessed Floor Convection Heaters with Natural Air Circulation

To prevent an inflow in serviced room zone of descending cold airflow from translucent structures recessed floor convection heaters with natural convection are used. The computational model and recessed floor convection heater’s operation simulation in “ANSYS Fluent 14.5” software package with different distances from a glassing to a convection heater are developed. Studies are carried out for “short” heat source given 0.4 relation of convection heater’s finned section length to a glassing length relative to each convection heater specified by a possibility of air bleed over convection heater’s sidewall. Temperature and velocity fields in the room are calculated. Room’s natural convective streams (descending cold airflow near the glassing and ascending warm airflow from the convection heater) are described. The conditions for use of recessed floor convection heaters with natural air circulation are determined.

Viktor Pukhkal, Voldemar Taurit

Analysis of the Strength Characteristics of Internal Sprayed Protective Coatings of Pipelines to Improve Energy Efficiency

The most part the RF pipelines require renovation because of their unsatisfactory state. Besides, the pipelines under operation are subject to biological fouling and at the result reduction of the living cross-section of pipes and increase of the hydraulic resistance and improve energy efficiency. One of the methods, which helps to prevent this situation, is application of a sprayed coating to the inner part of a pipeline. Due to many available market proposals, provision has been made of a complex of bench tests aimed at studying strength characteristics and computer simulation of two types of protective coatings to reveal their modifications during a period of time, i.e. Scotchkote 2400 («3M» Company), which is the most popular one and Subcote FLP, which is a prospective development by the NPP “Polyplastic”. Testing has been made at the electromechanical tensile testing machine Instron 3345 and simulation by the «Ansys» automated computer ware of the finite element analysis. The results of the performed tests permitted to determine the recommended coating thickness depending on the pipeline diameter.

Vladimir Orlov, Ilya Averkeev, Alexey Pelipenko

Outlooks for Building Solar Charging Infrastructure for Self-propelled Electric Vehicles

The article examines key issues and outlooks for use of recharging photovoltaic stations (PVS) by recharging infrastructure for electric self-propelled vehicles, to be created in Russia. Methodical justification of the use of charging PVS are presented according to the studies of different options for the development of power supply to consumers which are isolated from power systems, including consumers from the remote regions of the Russian Federation. It offers a methodology to design pilot algorithms to validate use of PVS in the electric vehicle recharging infrastructure to be created in some Russian regions; it is used as basis to analyze the potential of different regions for PVS implementation in the electric vehicle recharging infrastructure.Different approaches are analyzed, and the obtained results allow optimizing the operation and efficiency of the PVS charging taking into account the reduction of environmental impact. The results of the research work allow us to conclude that there is a great potential for using solar energy resources in Russia.

Liubov Shilova, Dmitry Solovyev, Aleksey Adamtsevich

Deformation Monitoring of Road Transport Structures and Facilities Using Engineering and Geodetic Techniques

Reliability and stability of transport facilities during their maintenance can be ensured by the application of the engineering and geodetic monitoring systems for deformation processes in structures supervision that allows avoiding emergencies. Nowadays, automatic engineering devices are successfully used in order to produce high-precision spatial measurements. Further development of deformation monitoring systems requires the development of software tools for deep analysis of structures based on data. The article considers the methodology and software for deformation monitoring of road transport structures and facilities using geodetic methods during construction, maintenance and reconstruction these structures in order to evaluate their technical availability and to prevent negative impacts on surrounding buildings and structures. In addition, it is reviewed the world’s researches on this subject, as well as practical examples of the application this methods.

Ekaterina Kuzina, Vladimir Rimshin

Thermal Properties of the Building with Low Energy Consumption (LEB)

Energy saving is one of the important directions in the development of modern technology and energy. The article presents thermal calculation of a building with low energy consumption based on the architectural concept, which was developed earlier. At the same time calculation, can be executed for any terrain and any climatic zone in case of its known climatological data. There are three basic approaches to increase the energy efficiency of modern buildings: level increase of the walling insulation; increasing the efficiency of heating control, ventilation, lighting, air conditioning; the use of renewable energy sources. The maximum effect of power outage savings can be purchased only with the full analysis of space-planning, engineering and design solutions.

Elena Statsenko, Anastasia Ostrovaia, Tatiana Musorina, Natalia Sergievskaya

Energy Efficiency Upgrading of Enclosing Structures of Mass Housing of the Soviet Union

In this article we consider about current state of mass housing of the Soviet Union. The vast majority of houses of that era has the lowest value of noise and thermal insulation. We calculate existing value of thermal resistance of external wall of OD-type building. Moreover, we find the insulation of enclosing structures and conclude that insulation of walls and repair can solve the problem of insufficient heat and sound insulation without demolition of mass housing of the Soviet Union era.

Eliza Gumerova, Olga Gamayunova, Tatiana Meshcheryakova

Energy Efficiency of Structural Regulation of Stress-Related Characteristics of Concrete

The article suggests carrying out a wide range research of efficient additives capable of regulating the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of concrete. It also provides experimental studies that prove the ability to solve this problem. Air-entraining agents can be an effective additive to reduce the modulus of elasticity and to increase the limit of the relative compression deformation. The article presents the results of short-term tests for concrete with/without NAR (neutralized air-entraining resin) additive, performed by the method of obtaining the full concrete deformation diagrams. It has shown that the introduction of an NAR additive greatly reduces modulus of elasticity and increases the limit compressive deformability of concrete. In conditions of prolonged load, the creep of pure sand concrete is compared to that of concrete with clay and lime additives. There is quite a significant increase in the creep deformation in concrete with a clay-limestone additive.

Igor Bezgodov, Elena Dmitrenko

Transport Interchange Hubs Under the Conditions of the Far North

In this article consider the issues of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RES) in the development of the concept of TIH for the Far North conditions. Transport interchange hubs (TIH) are the link that unites the transport infrastructure in a single structural. These unique facilities provide comfortable movement between the different modes of transport, efficient system of foot traffic, creating a ride car parks have an objects of social infrastructure, bring improved environmental performance, and security in general. Today, around the world launched the work on development of space north, are a vivid example of planar transport interchange hubs. Construction is already underway in the most congested areas. And TIH schemes are studied in a place with extreme loads and seasonal effects, the influence of the Sea on the atmosphere. Due to the geographic location of objects in conditions that fall under the definition of the Far North, the load on the design and the building as a whole should be taken into account in the principles and methods of design.

Ilya Dunichkin

Adjustment of Energy Strategy of Russia to Specific Nature of Far North: Analytic Hierarchy Process

The paper describes how the analytic hierarchy process can be used to select a strategic priority for energy development of the Far North regions. The paper also suggests the ways of the Energy Strategy of Russia adjustment to the specific nature of the Far North. There is a list of regional factors which have an impact on the selection of the energy development priority for the region. Preferred development trends for the Far North are presented in the framework of the Energy Strategy of Russia in respect of each group of regional factors. The paper sets forth measures to be taken to implement the energy strategy of the Far North regions selected using the analytic hierarchy process.

Irina Zaychenko, Svetlana Gutman, Olga Kalinina

Energy-Efficient Lighting Systems Design in Industrial Premises of Motor Transport Enterprise

The article deals with the approach to lighting systems design on the basis of energy-saving technologies. Switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest ways to decrease cost of lighting. Properly designed and executed industrial lighting increases productivity and improves product quality, increases safety and reduces injuries. During the construction of a new or modernization and expansion of the old industrial premises of motor transport enterprise it is necessary to consider the trend of the transition to LED lighting. The paper proposes a new approach to LED lighting design. In order to confirm the advantages of this approach to energy savings in industrial premises were undertaken the calculations of technical and economic efficiency of different options of the lighting systems. The article presents the results of the selection of the most appropriate lighting system for industrial premises of the motor transportation enterprises using the method of spectral analysis.

Irina Romanova, Petr Romanov

Thermal Resistance and Accumulation of Heat by the Wall Construction

Nowadays the energy efficiency is one of the main topics in the construction industry and transport infrastructure. Therefore, structural and technological activities are aimed mainly at increasing the wall’s thermal resistance. The object of the study is a multilayer enclosing structure (wall). The goal of the article is the selection of the optimal enclosing structures to increase the thermal stability and energy efficiency of the building. The article shows that the heat accumulation in the wall and its thermal resistance are opposite factors. Results of the study show that the thermal resistance of the wall does not depend on the layers alternation. Stationary and periodic temperature, humidity regimes of the walls depend substantially on the layers alternation. Sufficient thickness of the walls helps to reduce energy consumption for heating of building and structures. Consequently, the savings on energy consumption. The studies were conducted by the methods of thermal engineering.

Daria Zaborova, Tatiana Musorina, Anna Selezneva, Andrey Butyrin

Experimental Study of Thermal Stability of Building Materials

As of today, the energy issues remain relevant not only in civil construction but also in transport infrastructure. Nowadays, as the concern of sustainability and energy efficiency increases, it is important to evaluate a great number of resources and their behavior while exposed to diverse climate conditions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse the relation between the thermostability of the materials with its properties as density and specific heat, through experiments with various structural materials. The experiments were carried out in a thermal chamber with the temperature ranging from zero to 20 ℃ (periodic and non-periodic) without thermal insulation materials and with sensors installed all over the structure checking the temperature. Subsequently, graphics were drawn overlapped in order to compare the results obtained; showing how heterogeneous is the heat transfer in different parts of the structure within clay brick (full-bodied), lightweight concrete and reinforced concrete. Finally, the results show that clay brick is more thermally stable, in comparison with samples shown in this article.

Daria Zaborova, Gabriel Vieira, Tatiana Musorina, Andrey Butyrin

Measures of Improving the Accuracy of the Calculation of Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Construction Transport Infrastructure

The paper describes the main approaches to the definition of domestic seepage losses of the building and shown weaknesses in past approaches. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the results of calculations of total infiltration of air through the airport terminal Volgograd known engineering approaches and by using methods of calculating air regime of the building was made a quantitative assessment of how many times the result of engineering approaches overstate.

Olga Poddaeva, Alexander Kubenin, Dmitry Gribach

Choice of Thermal Protection of an Office Building of the Transport Infrastructure by Economic Reasons

Administration and office buildings make an important part of the facilities and utilities of airports, river and marine ports, road terminals. Lowering the expenses for their construction and operation is related to a right choice of the building heat protection despite of other factors. Cumulated Discount Expenses (CDE) have been chosen to provide economic estimation of the building heating. The CDE values have been taken for a 10-year limit. The CDE dependence on some factors has been investigated, and their range has been considerably enlarged by comparison with the traditional one. I has been shown, that it is not enough to take into account the capital investments only for the building thermal protection and the heating system operation. The results of the investigation permitted to determine combinations of the heated building geometrical parameters and the cost characteristics of several components of capital and operation expenses, which are reasonable for different types of thermal protection of an office building.

Elena Malyavina, Anastasya Frolova

The Study of Flat Convective Stream Formed by Use of Recessed Flood Convection Heaters with Natural Air Circulation in High Height Rooms with Continuous Glassing

Convection heaters built into a floor prevent descending cold airflow from vertical translucent structures from entering serviced room zone. The study assumes a convection heater with natural air circulation installed near a glassing. Convection heater’s length is equal to glassing’s length. The height of a room is assumed to be typical for public buildings and is equal to 6 m. Convection heater’s heat flow is equal to heat loss through glassing. The computational model is developed and recessed floor convection heater’s operation simulation in “ANSYS Fluent 14.5” software package with different distances from a glassing to a convection heater is produced. Studies are carried out for “long” heat source given that convection heater’s finned section length is equal to glassing’s length. Temperature and velocity fields in the room are calculated. Room’s natural convective streams (descending cold airflow near the glassing and ascending warm airflow from the convection heater) are described. The conditions for use of recessed floor convection heaters with natural air circulation are determined. It is recommended that the convection heater should be installed no further than 300 mm from the glassing (distance of 200 mm is optimal). Under such conditions warm airflow adheres to the glassing and uniform temperature field in room’s volume is established.

Viktor Pukhkal

Problems of Energy Efficiency When Design of Construction Objects for Transport Infrastructure

The main task of this work is focused on providing of energy efficiency by correction of requirements to heat- and sound-insulation of autoclave cellular concrete and development of special purpose materials. The high-effective technological solution is proposed. It is based on application of high-reactive aluminosilicate components in cellular concrete to improve porous structure. Using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas adsorption method (BET) the analysis of cellular material microstructure at macro- and micro-level is accomplished; criteria of optimal porosity formation taking into account amount, size and shape of pores as well as density of interpore partition are determined. According to refined parameters and experimental data the relationship between the concrete structure and its resistance to sorption capacity and vapor permeability when surround humidity variation in range of 80–97% are determined. Also reducing of heat-conductivity coefficient for the concrete is observed. It allows construction of stored buildings such as garages as well as light maintenance of vehicle without additional winterization. Generally, on the base of the data obtained in this work the developed autoclave cellular concrete is energy-effective and rational material when design, modernization and service of construction objects of transport infrastructure.

Ekaterina Fomina, Natalia Kozhukhova, Alexander Fomin, Elena Voitovich

The Issues of Energy-Efficiency Increase of Three-Layer Reinforced Concrete Plate Constructions

The article is about functioning of three-layer concrete plate constructions under load. The load bearing capacity, crack resistance and deformation of these elements were analyzed at different percentages of reinforcement, grade of concrete and etc. One of concrete drawbacks is that the weight of constructions is high compared to the payload which it can carry; so even a small reduction in weight of the construction can lead to significant technical and economic effect and significant increase of their energy-efficiency.

Alexey Belyaev, Grigory Nesvetaev, Dmitry Mailyan

Energy-Efficient Reinforced Concrete Columns Made of Concrete, Grade B90…B140

The article deals with functioning of the concrete columns made of high-strength concrete. The changing factors were flexibility of construction, eccentricity of the external force, reinforcement. The use of the given data will allow to design such constructions efficiently and safely. The increase of energy efficiency of compressed concrete elements can be achieved by using the high-strength concrete. Heavy or fine-grained concrete of compressive strength B60 grade and higher, prepared by using a binder based on Portland cement clinker (GOST 31914-2012), refer to the high-strength concrete. In the existing regulations on calculation and design of reinforced concrete constructions, the concrete of compressive strength B100 grade, inclusive, is provided, but there are not enough real samples of test data in the scientific literature [1–6].

Dmitry Mailyan, Vladimir Aksenov, Nikolay Aksenov

Review of Heat Pumps Application Potential in Cold Climate

Nowadays heat pumps become very popular in the Latvian construction market. The most actual types are air to air and air to water heat pumps. The main reason is low initial investments. The overall season efficiency of heat pump is not widely addressed in existing researches. This paper aims to analyze already existing experience of heat pump application in cold climate. The most appropriate simulation tools were defined and simulation modules were developed. In addition, paper provides deep analysis of Latvian climate in order to get objective data on outdoor air and soil temperature fluctuation. Obtained results allow to reach European Regional Development Fund project “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS” Nr. 1.1.1.116A048 main targets and provides collection and analyses of information for development of optimal mobile energy source.

Raimonds Bogdanovičs, Anatolijs Borodinecs, Aleksandrs Zajacs, Kristīne Šteinerte

Chlorella Microalga Biomass Cultivation for Obtaining Energy in Climatic Conditions of St. Petersburg

There is a special approach of modern science, connected with production and use of biofuel, recieved from the biomass that is widely developing nowadays. In current paper conditions of cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana for further use as a source of receiving biofuel and biogas are studied. In comparison with other microalgae, types of Chlorella have higher efficiency of photosynthesis. Climatic conditions of St. Petersburg are less suitable for cultivation of Chlorella, than conditions of warm regions. But it is possible to receive a sufficient gain of biomass with the help of creation of additional factors of cultivation. According to St. Petersburg conditions, June, July and August are optimum for cultivation of microalgae. In this study cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana under natural conditions of St. Petersburg was carried out, at natural lighting, without aeration when hashing once a day. Control experiment was made on populations which were grown up in vitro at a stable temperature in the same conditions of aeration and also on populations grown up with aeration and periodic hashing. The main condition of cultivation influencing growth of number of cells are aeration and hashing; in these conditions number of cells of algae in 16 days increases by 3.5 times. The same process made under natural conditions in St. Petersburg increases number of cells only by two times. The negative impact of environmental factors is shown in increase of part of dead cells in population that is revealed by means of coloring of temporary medicines by methylene blue. Thus, Chlorella sorokiniana cultivation is possible in the conditions of St. Petersburg, however it is necessary to correct cultivation conditions with aeration and periodic cultivation. The scheme of receiving valuable components and biofuel from the cultivated biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana has been offered in this work.

Natalia Politaeva, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Yulia Smyatskaya, Iryna Atamaniuk, Elena Trukhina

Energy Performance Simulation and Evaluation of Various Construction Types for a Residential Building (International ODOO Project)

The Hungarian ODOO residential building project has achieved an outstanding result on the international Solar Decathlon Competition which is an international innovation competition between the best universities all around the world, organized by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Spanish Government since 2002. The goal of the contest is to popularize the usage of solar energy in architectural solutions and to call into being the social and market support of green technologies. The Hungarian ODOO project according to the total scoring reached the 6th place from 18 participant countries. In the categories of Engineering and construction, and Comfort conditions it won the 2nd place and in energy efficiency category the 3rd place.The presented research motivation was to investigate the efficient utilization of the existing ODOO building and to assess project quality from the aspect of energy efficiency, building construction characteristics and envelope glazing properties. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the energy demands and construction-component-operation interaction we utilized multi-zone energy modeling and dynamic energy simulation software. The results presented that the final energy performance can be strategically influenced if a synergetic and deterministic methodological approach is applied.

Norbert Harmathy, Jenő Kontra, Vera Murgul, Zoltán Magyar

Calculation of Heat Energy Consumption by a Typical Historical Building with a Courtyard

The article presents the assessment of thermal protective properties for the enclosing structures of the particular historical residential building, considering the overall thermal balance of the building. Actual thermal resistance of the building was estimated taking into account the thermal resistance of all enclosing structures. In order to carry out the research and necessary calculations, external and internal environmental conditions were analyzed. The research exposes the calculations of transmission heat losses, heat losses occurring due to ventilation and air infiltration. Taking into account heat supply, solar heat input and all thermal losses, the annual heat consumption of the building was estimated. Proceeding from the results of the research the authors offer particular measures in order to improve energy efficiency of the building. Proceeding from the results of the research the authors prove the reasonability of creating a glass dome over the courtyard space in order to improve energy efficiency of the whole building.

Aleksandr Gorshkov, Vera Murgul

Employment of Skirting Board Heating Water System in Accommodation

The numerical simulation of skirting convector heater operation in accommodation has been substantiated and developed using STAR CCM+ software package. An accommodation with typical for living quarters dimensions and fresh air supply through adjustable window sash was specified. Skirting convector-type heating unit was computer-simulated which is to be mounted on accommodation external wall instead of plinth. Convector heat flow was sufficient to compensate accommodation heat loss underrating 10%. Rate and temperature field distribution was derived for accommodation and on internal faces cladding. Temperature increase of internal face cladding and resulting temperature inside apartment is found. Temperature decrease in the vicinity of external wall horizontal butt joints in flooring support area is excluded. The zone of discomfort in accommodation serving area is derived. The considered model of skirting heating water system was considered as the relations to ensure controlled microclimate parameters in the accommodation.

Kirill Sukhanov, Anatoly Smirnov

Transport Buildings and Structures

Frontmatter

Effect of the Structural Characteristics on Frost Resistance of Concrete

Today, in buildings and constructions for transport infrastructure, such as tunnels, elements of the bridges, viaducts, roads, are used concretes with high performance properties. This paper presents the results of the study of frost resistance of concretes for road infrastructure. The results of the study show the influence not only of water-cement ratio and porosity of the concrete for such transport buildings, but also of structural and technological characteristics: true water-cement ratio and volume concentration of cement paste in concrete. Investigation shows that the lowest frost resistance has pure cement paste. Frost resistance increases sharply up to a certain value with the increase of amount of aggregate. The increase of the aggregate content in cement compositions leads to the decrease of expectancy of unimpeded crack distribution. This effect increases the frost resistance of the material.

Lev Alimov, Victor Voronin, Oksana Larsen, Vasiliy Korovyakov

Concrete Waste Recycling and Re-use of Shielding Wall Materials After Decommissioning of Fusion Reactors

The paper considers possible processing and re-use of waste products obtained in the process of removal from service of pre-fabricated concrete structural elements of biological protection shields at thermonuclear fusion reactors. The experimental concrete compositions have been obtained through the mechanical-and-chemical processing of crushed concrete structures which had worked under neutron radiation with the energy of 14.8 MeV. These concrete compositions have been studied, and some ways of total or partial substitution of the Portland cement by crushed small-grain waste products in the process of erection of concrete or reinforced concrete structures are considered as well.

Andrey Pustovgar, Aleksey Adamtsevich, Liubov Shilova

Solving Problems of Distribution Network Tracing: Example of Gas Distribution Using the Search Optimization Methodology

The search optimization methodology was designed to address problems of optimized tracing for distribution networks. Apart from gas pipeline diameters, this methodology is able to vary the installation coordinates of gas-distribution stations and the network and trunk gas pipeline joining points. Such problems share the following features. Compared to similar problems with reinforced concrete structures, where increment of variable parameters must result in higher costs, and decrement in lower cost of the solution, such circumstances may be observed in the field of gas distribution only with the factors of the section’s diameter: the larger diameter, the higher the cost of the gas line construction, and the reverse. Meanwhile, changes in the coordinates of characteristic points of the gas distribution network may both increase and decrease total cost of construction.

Aleksej Klochko, Victor Zhila, Asmik Klochko

Stabilization of Low Bearing Soil Using Fly Ash and Chemical Additive Polybond

The results of laboratory research of high plasticity clay stabilization using liquid chemical additive Polybond and the fly ash from Serbian thermal electric power plant Kostolac are presented in this paper. In order to determine the effects of stabilization, extensive laboratory study of physical and mechanical properties of the stabilized soil (unconfined compression strength, shear strength parameters, CBR, deformation parameters, swelling, coefficient of permeability, resistance to freezing) were performed. The results of the research clearly indicate the positive effects of the clay stabilization using Polybond, as well as fly ash, and confirm that these additives can be successfully applied as a clayey soil stabilizers in various practical applications such as: stabilization of low bearing subgrade, construction of embankments and geotechnical structures of low permeability, improvement of mechanical properties of top subgrade layers etc. The use of stabilizers reduces energy consumption, as well as the usage of natural materials such as stone aggregates.

Mirjana Vukićević, Veljko Pujević, Miloš Marjanović

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Creation of Antifiltration Curtains in Hydroelectric Power Plant in Syria

Meeting demands of water and energy is a vital question for any country, especially for Syria. There is a shortage of water suppliance for people and for most of industries in this country. Syrian authorities should concern more about hydroelectric power in order to increase electricity production at hydroelectric power plants. The article analyzes the efficiency of works on creation of ant filtration grouting curtain in the dam Foundation (Zeta, Homs) in Syria.

Konstantin Mordvintsev, Yaser Abd Alwahab

Research on Long-Term Strength of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Concrete

The article describes the research results of physical & mechanical properties of glass-fiber reinforced concrete through time, at different dosing of alkaliproof fiber and metakaolin of MKZhL-2. The bending strength data of glass-fiber reinforced concrete, modified by metakaolin, in the age of 28 and 180 days were obtained. The co-effect of metakaolin and microsilica on strength properties of fine glass-fiber reinforced concrete was considered. It was demonstrated that the injection of metakaolin in a quantity of 30% of Portland cement allows retaining the long-term strength of fiber reinforced concrete. The complex usage of MKZhL-2 & MK-85 allows retaining or even increasing the bending strength in the age of 28 and 180 days.

Antonina Ryabova, Alexey Kharitonov, Larisa Matveeva, Nina Shangina, Yuri Belentsov

Foundation Deformations Modeling in Underworking and Hydroactivated Rocks

The article investigates the deformation behavior of foundation bases in conditions of underworking and flooding. The vertical dislocations of the foundation and the soil mass in hydroactivisation state and under its injection stabilization have been analyzed by the finite element method. The change regularities of the absolute deformations on three types of engineering-geological sections have been established which are peculiar to the conditions of Donbass.

Peter Dolzhikov, Albert Prokopov, Vladimir Akopyan

Subminiature Eddy-Current Transducers for Conductive Materials and Layered Composites Research

The measuring system based on subminiature eddy-current transducers has been developed to carry out local investigations of aluminum-magnesium alloy plates for flaws. The Delianna filter has been modified to allow the significant increase of signal-to-noise ratio. A scheme that uses a computer as a generator and receiver of signals from windings is proposed. It is capable of automatically changing the filtering cutoff frequency and operating frequency of the device. The transducer has been tested on a number of aluminum-magnesium alloy plates with flaws. The article presents data on the relationship of eddy-current transducer response to the presence of flaws in alloys as hidden holes at signal frequencies comprised between 300–700 Hz on an exciting winding.

Sergey Dmitriev, Alexey Ishkov, Alexander Katasonov, Vladimir Malikov, Anatoly Sagalakov

Influence of the Longitudinal Compressive Force on Parametric Vibrations and Dynamic Stability of Thin-Walled Above-Ground Steel Oil Pipelines with Large Diameter

This article deals with the problem of parametric vibrations of the above-ground main oil pipelines of large diameter subjected to the action of non-stationary internal operating pressure and the parameter of the longitudinal compressive force. The main pipeline is considered as a thin-walled cylindrical shell, because only with the use of this design scheme one can account for the deformation of the cross section and the effect of internal operating pressure on parametric vibrations and dynamic stability. The pipeline is set on an elastic ground base, which corresponds to the Fuss-Winkler model. To solve the problem of parametric vibrations, differential equations of the middle surface of the shell are obtained on the basis of the geometrically nonlinear semi-momental theory of cylindrical shells of middle bending. After mathematical transformations, we obtain a separating system of homogeneous Mathieu differential equations. The resulting system of Mathieu’s equations allows to investigate the dynamic stability of an above-ground thin-walled large-diameter oil pipeline by constructing regions of dynamic instability, such as modified Ains-Strett diagrams, for different values of wave numbers m, n = 1, 2… Dimensions and positions of dynamic instability areas strongly depend on the geometric and mechanical parameters.

Vladimir Sokolov, Igor Razov

Methodology of Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Transportation Hydraulic Reliability

The author developed a complex of indicators to assess the functional reliability of hydrocarbon transportation facilities. The results of modeling of the hydraulic reliability indicator in petroleum and petroleum product transportation are presented as an example. It is proved that the proposed indicator allows performing the reliability monitoring of the facility, as well as monitoring its technical and economic efficiency. Using a registered block of dispatching data in online mode, the suggested method of reliability assessment and the indicator model allow tracking the development of the technical system state and obtaining different stable expert assessments of reliability, which provides constant control of the petroleum pipeline efficiency.

Maria Zemenkova

Trenchless Technology Application of Protective Coatings That Provide Energy Savings Associated with Transport of Water via Pipelines

The article presents the analysis of trenchless technologies and different types of inner protective coatings of the pipelines, which may be used as the repairing materials to enable the power saving effect during the water transport. As the protective coatings the article examines round and deformed profile pipes, sprayed coatings on the base of non-organic and organic materials. The notion of a power saving potential has been formulated, when the protective coatings are used for trenchless repairing works of water supply pressure pipelines, as well as the methods of its calculation per running meter of a pipeline length per year. The Swagelining power effective technology was subject to a complex examination on the basis of the created automated software. There is presentation of the algorithm for calculation of some geometrical and power parameters, in particular, the wall thickness of a polyethylene pipe to be pulled after its compressing and straightening into the old pipeline, as well as the dynamical changes of the pressure losses before and after the renovation works in the pipeline by the Swagelining technology, when SDR are taken within a wide range of limits determining the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness. The data, which have been got at the result of the automated calculation, show that during renovation of old pipelines by the Swagelining technology the required effect may be got both from the technical point of view (complete restoration of the old pipeline part by elimination of damaged points) and the economical one due to a great power saving effect.

Vladimir Orlov, Sergey Zotkin

The Neural Modeling for the Assessment of Hazardous Hydro Meteorological Phenomena Including the Case of the Providing a Sustainable Work (Reliability) on Transport

The article presents a comprehensive analysis of using artificial neural networks and neural modeling to assess hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena. The techniques of the undertaken studies are the elements of the mathematic modeling, neural modeling based on the integrated environment MATLAB R2017a, the regression analysis. According to the survey, the conclusion has been made on the expedience of applying the neural modeling to analyze big bulks of data for the assessment of hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena (hydrological and agro-meteorological inclusive); the geometry of the neural model was selected; the regression analysis of the predicted results and the target outputs was carried out, the regression lines equations and the correlation coefficients were obtained to assess the forecast the neural model utilization under the obtained architecture of the neural network, various training functions, and transfer functions. According to the performed calculations, it was revealed that using the neural network for neural models to assess hazardous hydro-meteorological phenomena (hydrological and agro-meteorological ones included) in the given range of sizes, the normalization of an input, target results in the lesser value of the MSE. In this case, it is appropriate to use the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and the transfer function – hyperbolic tangent.

Larisa Haritonova

The Principles of the Layout and Evaluation of Systems for Protection from Dust Pollution of the Air

The technical condition of vehicles directly depends on the condition of highways. Maintaining the quality of the pavement will ensure the reduction of overhauls. The use of dust collection systems in the technological process for laying the asphalt concrete pavement and other layers of the pavement construction will provide protection against dust pollution of atmospheric air. A significant part of modern technological processes are associated with the manufacture, processing, transportation and use of powdered materials, and is accompanied by intensive release into the atmospheric air of significant amounts of dust. In the current environmental situation, even at relatively low initial concentrations, it increases the technogenic impact on the surrounding environment, and also entails the loss of valuable components and the increased costs of air treatment in ventilation and air conditioning systems. In the prevailing practice of design and operation, multistage plants for cleaning industrial emissions from suspended solids have become the most widespread. The article provides a systematization of the basic principles of the layout of such systems, as well as a calculation for a preliminary evaluation of their effectiveness using the example of a dust collection system proposed for the production of aerated concrete.

Natalia Sergina, Tatyana Kondratenko, Maxim Nikolenko, Sergey Pushenko

Blasting Operations in Conditions of Buildings and Facilities Reconstruction

Drilling and blasting work carried out in transport construction, is considered in the article. They are quite common. Different ways of performing these operations is proposed. The various methods of blasting operations execution are described for such purpose. The operations technological order is given herein. The application of various methods and ways for the blasting operations execution in conditions of buildings and facilities reconstruction permits to speed significantly the construction process and to improve its efficiency.

Denis Synitsyn

Methodology of Comprehensive Slope Stability Evaluation Based on Engineering Geodesy and Soil Mechanics Methods for the Road Engineering Application

Issues related to the road engineering in the slope areas are the critical and topical ones. The article in point offers the packaged slope stability analysis under the geodesic monitoring and soil mechanics data. The geodesic data allow to adjust the design characteristics of soils, and the further soil deformation analysis subject to the joint techniques allows to forecast the time deformations of soil bodies with the utmost accuracy. Ignoring the geodesic data, the forecast error is equal to 12%.

Vladimir Simonyan

Fire Resistance of Prefabricated Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Slabs of “Marko” Technology

Prefabricated monolithic slabs represent a construction structure that effectively combines the positive properties of precast reinforced concrete structures and monolithic concrete with additional reinforcement. Systems of the prefabricated monolithic constructions correspond to the modern trends, but require special attention and scrutiny. There are results of prefabricated monolithic slab fire test in the article. The prototype of the reinforced concrete slab was installed on the fire chamber of the test installation with an applied static load in accordance with the design scheme. There are results of prefabricated monolithic slab fire test on the temperature effect in the article. Signs of construction limit states and collapse of the structure were not registered after 125-min fire testing, and also there are no through cracks and holes on the unheated side of the samples. Visual inspection of prototypes of prefabricated monolithic reinforced concrete slab was carried out after their removal from the test installation, according to the results of which it was established that there was no deformation (kink), a slight damage to the heated surface and no destruction of the metal and concrete of beams. To create a methodology for calculating the prefabricated monolithic slab on the flame impingement, it is necessary to carry out further tests for fire resistance taking into account the span of the structure, as well as the type of filling blocks.

Ekaterina Nedviga, Natalia Beresneva, Marina Gravit, Angelina Blagodatskaya

Mechanization of Technological Processes Assembly of Threaded Joints

The paper proposes a methodology to calculate indicators of the process of tightening threaded joints using impact wrenches. Such indicators include the “moment – number impacts” diagram, and the limiting tightening torque. Calculations consider the elastic-friction properties of the joint itself and the energy of single impact by the wrench. Having no data on wrench energy, we provide a method to measure it indirectly in production conditions based on the proposed methodology. The computing algorithm has produced accuracy level sufficient for engineering calculations (at least 10%) in the course of tests. The resulting methodology reduces bolt driver calibration time and improves accuracy of assembly manipulations; it also identifies the area of rational use of available assembly tools. The above aspects are particularly relevant when critical joints are assembled.

Anatoly Drozdov, Vitaliy Stepanov

Modeling of Movement the Flowable Building Load in the Operating Vessel of Vehicle

The result of metering movement of the flowable building load in the working vessel is installed, the excitation of stable oscillations of the free surface of the load transported in a particular plane of the first form of oscillations. Established ideas about the rheology of the building mixes associated with the study of the movement of the last positive coordinate of shear stress and velocity gradient. Elaborated rheometer of type “ring – ring” rheograms transported the mortar and fine concrete mixtures are hysteresis shape. The revealed hysteresis of the viscous flowable building load under alternating deformation mode is similar to the elastic hysteresis and can be represented in complex form with the coefficient of resistance determined by the area of the hysteresis loop. It is shown that for deriving the equations of motion flowable building load can be used the equations of fluid mechanics in terms of stresses based on the above modified formula of Newton. Determined rheodynamic characteristics of partially filled working vessels: amplitude, frequency and decrement of oscillations of the free surface of the flowable building load, the interaction forces it with a vessel, geometry of the masses. The system of equations consisting of three equations of the second order describing the motion of the system “working vessel – flowable building load “ by coordinates of lateral displacement, the roll angle of the working of the vessel relative to the longitudinal axis and wave motion of the free surface of the flowable building load.

Evgeny Plavelsky, Rashid Sharapov

The Interaction of Piles in Double-Row Pile Retaining Walls in the Stabilization of the Subgrade

In the practice of designing anti-landslide structures for stabilization of the subgrade along with the single row pile walls find use two-row wall. The second row of piles contributes to the bearing capacity of retaining structure. However, the conditions in the most efficient capacity utilization of the second row to be studied. The article presents the results of analytical studies frame construction flexible piles, the combined grillage hard, perceiving landslide pressure. Effective capacity utilization of the second row of piles was assessed using the utilization of the bearing capacity of piles second through 4.000 different designs double row of walls made of piles of various cross-sections, length, their reinforcement, the depth of application of landslide pressure, as well as with different variants of soil conditions.

Anatoly Buslov, Vladimir Margolin

Reasonability of Application of Slags from Metallurgy Industry in Road Construction

In this paper the analytical studies of metallurgical slag properties from three plants are curried out. The obtained results demonstrate low values of radioactivity, comparable with widely used construction materials. The possibility of high-performance construction composite (including road construction) is confirmed. The results of study allow recommendation of metallurgy slag as effective low-radioactive raw materials in construction composites.

Natalia Kozhukhova, Nikolay Kadyshev, Alla Cherevatova, Elena Voitovich, Kirill Lushin

Problems of Fire Extinguishing in Buildings of the Transport Transit Hubs Using Carbon Dioxide and Gaseous Chladones

Emergence of the fire inside the transport transit hub (TTH) leads not only to injury and death of passengers and transport workers, but also to destruction of transport facilities. Therefore, solving of such problems as localization and extinguishing fires in TTH buildings is actually. As a result of conducted analysis of the indoor flame suppression process we have received quantitative ratios for calculation of the time and the specific consumption depending on flow rate of extinguishing agent. It is shown that in case of application of gaseous compounds, as well as other extinguishing agents, dependence of the specific consumption on the flow rate passes through the minimum point that allows defining optimum flow rate during extinguishing of combustible materials of different nature.

Dmitry Korolchenko, Andrey Pigurin

Railway/Road Level Crossing Design – Aspect of Safety and Environment

At the railway/road level crossings, two essentially different modes of transport intersect, both with a variety of vehicle performance parameters and traffic organization rules. Level crossing presents a collision zone for both transport modes from the aspect of traffic safety. Unfortunately, the probability of accidents at level crossings is still high. Railway Infrastructure Manager controls only one part of the problem (traffic management and ensuring the safety of level crossings using technical equipment and signalization). Level crossings are not always avoidable on the existing railway lines, although the preferred solution is overpass crossing. On the European railway network, level crossings occur even on the reconstructed railway lines for speeds up to 200 km/h, with the appropriate design principles and safety measures for both transport modes. This paper describes the basic design principles for the level crossings where rail vehicles reach speeds up to 200 km/h, as well as the review of the necessary measures to increase safety level.

Milica Vilotijević, Luka Lazarević, Zdenka Popović

Building Platforms of Polymer Matrix Based Composite Construction Materials for Transportation Facilities

The paper proposes that full-pack platforms of composite structures based on single-direction pultrusion fiberglass reinforced plastic based on polyether matrixes be built for transportation facilities. The test results of some fragments of real-life platforms are presented. Engineering solutions are developed to build railroad platforms with structures of polymer composite materials. Static field tests have been conducted, including continuous load tests.

Andrey Glasunov, Victor Bobryashov, Victor Bobryashov, Nikolay Bushuev

Finite Element Modeling of the Creep of Shells of Revolution Under Axisymmetric Loading

The article is devoted to the development of a method for calculating the shells of revolution under conditions of axisymmetric loading, taking into account the viscoelastic properties of the material. When solving the problem, finite element modeling is used. The derivation of the resolving equations for one-dimensional axially symmetric finite elements in the form of truncated cones with allowance for creep is presented. The solution is performed in a quasi-static setting: the calculation is performed step-by-step, the creep strains are assumed to be constant at each step, and a linear approximation of the deformation growth rate is used to determine their values at the next step. Calculations were made in the package Matlab.

Anton Chepurnenko, Natalia Neumerzhitskaya, Michael Turko

Increase of Fire Resistance Limits of Building Structures of Oil-and-Gas Complex Under Hydrocarbon Fire

The article deals with the technical documentation in design of building constructions of oil-and-gas complex under special load – fire in case of hydrocarbon fire. It gives the detailed review of international, European and American standards for determine of the fire resistance limits in the modeling of hydrocarbon combustion. Much attention is given to analysis of technical regulations in fire protection designing of ships and sea platforms. It should be stressed that requirements for the fire resistance limits in conditions of hydrocarbon fire for some buildings and structures are absent. Therefore the building structures testing without appropriate calculations is superfluous and economically inadvisable. It is necessary to evaluate the time variation in the area of oil or oil products under various spreading conditions and to justify the need for the structure protection from the hydrocarbon fire. The development of industry standards for Russian oil and gas enterprises with a list of indicators for fireproofing and flame-retardant coating for building structures in the conditions of a hydrocarbon fire is proposed.

Marina Gravit, Eliza Gumerova, Alexey Bardin, Vitaly Lukinov

Experimental Determination of Permeability Coefficient

The article exposes a new concept of structural (partition, construction pit, the road network, etc.) permeability coefficient which is different from the concept of the material permeability coefficient. Substantiation of the differences of those concepts is given. Permeability coefficient is essential for solving the most of foundation engineering problems and transport infrastructure. The permeability coefficient of a structure (partition) is determined according to the value of seepage through the partition in case of a variable water-level in the backwater. The study proves that permeability coefficient value for the partition depends on the water pressure, which allows to reconsider the Boussinesq’s hydraulic filtration theory. Soil permeability characteristic depends not only on head pressure in the backwater and initial ground water level, but first of all depends on mechanical and physical properties of soil.

Gulnara Gabitova, Daria Zaborova, Sergey Barinov

Photoelasticity-Based Study of Stress-Strain State in the Area of the Plain Domain Boundary Cut-Out Area Vertex

In the article, the local stress-strain state of structures and constructions is investigated, various variants for the design of the boundary are taken into account: special lines, points. The acting forced deformations don’t satisfy the compatibility conditions. They have a finite discontinuity along the contact line (surface) of the domains, including the irregular point of the boundary, causing stresses. The subject of article is stress concentrators - the singularity of the stress-strain state of structures and constructions exhibiting “constructive heterogeneity” and discontinuous forced deformations determined on polymer models of photoelasticity and defrosting of deformations. A complex theoretical-numerical-experimental approach, for obtaining and analyzing the stress state in the neighborhood of the irregular point of the plane domain boundary, is proposed to extrapolate reliable experimental data to a domain where the fringe contour is not readable.

Lyudmila Frishter

Simulation of Blast Load on a Reinforced Concrete Slab in the Time Domain

The article aims at simulation and analyses of reinforced concrete slabs under blast load by finite element method in LS-DYNA. Properties of rebar and composite materials have been changing. The study of efficiency has been performed. The problem of estimation of bearing structures of buildings is extremely urgent due to the increasing incidence of domestic gas explosion in emergency actions, hitting vehicles on the construction of buildings and structures, man-made disasters, acts of terrorism. At present, when calculating the frame of a building for progressive collapse, the technique of removing the heaviest column of the first floor is applied. However, existing methods for calculation of buildings on the progressive collapse caused many disputes. The paper considers simulation of emergency response using the finite element method in the calculation of reinforced concrete frame elements of a building.

Galina Kravchenko, Dmitry Kostenko, Sergey Tsurikov

The Modified Fiber Cement Panels for Civil Construction

At present for decoration facades of buildings are used ventilated facade systems, that allow restoring the old facades by giving them a more modern look. As a covering material, these systems use different materials, among them fiber cement board (FCB). However, they have high cost and they cannot always be used for building in harsh weather conditions like in Russia.The most widespread and available facing material on the domestic Russian market is fiber cement panels, based on the asbestos fibers. Due to the meanwhile proven carcinogenicity of asbestos, the demand for these products is decreasing year by year to almost zero.Therefore, it becomes urgent to develop a new effective facing material made from environmentally safe and pure raw materials of low cost, capable of ensuring the reliability, durability and energy efficiency of buildings. One of these materials are FCB on the basis of cellulose fibers.Existing FCB based on the cellulosic fibers have following disadvantages: low strength, high water absorption and low resistance to frost. These problems require urgent work to develop issues of quality and durability of FCB, based on cellulose fibers.Based on the realization of three-factor plan of the second-order, the influence of modifying agents on physico-mechanical properties and durability of fiber cement boards, based on cellulose fibers was investigated.

Rustem Mukhametrakhimov, Liliya Lukmanova

Designs from Innovative Materials in Transport Construction

The main purpose of testing dealt with determining the bearing capacity of a bored composite pile in respect to vertical static and cyclic loads. Both field and laboratory tests were carried out. Tests were performed using composite bored piles made of fiberglass having 100 mm diameter with a single-screw blade of 450 mm diameter. The testing technique is explained. The results of settlement of bored composite piles using various metal tips are reported, and cyclograms of static and cyclic loads are plotted. Based on the results obtained, recommendations are given to use composite fiberglass bored piles to develop structures for transport facilities. The main areas to proceed with further studies are discussed to obtain performance indicators of composite fiberglass piles in real structures of transport facilities.

Alexandr Kvitko, Viktor Shendrik

Task for a Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Cylinder with External Reinforcement and Cylinder Optimization by Varying the Modulus of Elasticity

We consider the calculation of the shell in the case when the stressing reinforcement is located on the outer surface. The solution is carried out numerically by the finite element method. A distribution of the modulus of elasticity is determined for which the maximum stresses are zero throughout the entire cylinder.

Serdar Yazyev, Mukhtar Bekkiev, Evgeniy Peresypkin, Mikhail Turko

Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures of Buildings at Seismic Exposure

Considered numerical experiment model considering simplified-tion, and approximation on the basis of resonance-oscillatory scheme. The idea is based on the cross-shear diagrams of structural failure. Reduce their thickness or increase the possible load. The local nature of the action of the traveling wave leads to the fact that the main phenomena in the wave process are concentrated on the wave front, where the features in the distribution of deformations and forces are concentrated. When the transverse wave propagates, local shifts arise, generating transverse forces of large magnitude. The impact of a wave can significantly exceed the ability of a structure to absorb energy by forming fracture surfaces (cracks).

Mukhtar Bekkiev, Sergey Skuratov, Evgeniy Peresypkin, Dmitry Vysokovsky

Optimization of the Solution of a Plane Stress Problem of a Polymeric Cylindrical Object in Thermoviscoelastic Statement

The article deals with the problem of calculation of a hollow polymeric object in axisymmetric statement under the influence of temperature load taking into account temperature-dependent physical and mechanical parameters (elastic and rheological) of the material. The results of problem solution are given, received with application of two methods: finite difference method and finite element method. To increase the accuracy and improve the convergence of results a number of optimizations is carried out that is urgent when using step-by-step methods.

Lyubov Trush, Stepan Litvinov, Nadezhda Zakieva, Salis Bayramukov

Optimization of the Thick-Walled Sphere by the Energy Method on the Basis of the Strength Criterion of P. Balandin

A centrally symmetric problem of the theory of elasticity of inhomogeneous bodies for a thick-walled sphere loaded with external pressure and located in a stationary temperature field is considered. The essence of the problem is to determine such a dependence of the modulus of elasticity on the radius at which the stress state of the sphere will be given. The third theory of strength is considered - the theory of maximal tangential stresses and the theory of Balandin P. Thus, the introduction of artificial heterogeneity leads to optimization of the shells, which makes it possible to reduce their thickness or increase the possible load.

Serdar Yazyev, Sergey Skuratov, Valery Bondarenko, Svetlana Yazyeva

Forecasting the Strength of an Adhesive Bond Over a Long Period of Time

We consider the problem of the adhesion compound of calculation by finite element method in axisymmetric along two axes: the axial z and radial r. To improve the accuracy of the solution to the problem posed, a number of optimizations are introduced: obtaining an exact solution of the stiffness matrix and the load vector for a given interpolation polynomial, using a nonconstant approximating time interval, thickening of the finite element grid to the edges of a cylindrical body, etc. At the end, predicting the strength of the adhesive compound in question. At the end, an analysis of the result obtained and a prediction of the strength of the adhesive compound under consideration are given.

Stepan Litvinov, Alexander Zhuravlev, Salis Bajramukov, Serdar Yazyev

MSW Landfills Reclamation Based on Monitoring of Biogas Emissions

In the paper the problem of reclamation of solid waste landfills is considered. The way of reclamation is defined by a condition of the ground and its sites. Data on emission of biogas and its component structure can give information on this process. Results of actual-service tests are given in a number of the Russian solid waste landfills. The essential zonal distribution of methane emissions from waste landfill body reflecting processes of decomposition of the buried waste is revealed. Experience of waste management biodegradation are analyzed and on the example of the operating ground options of reclamation the sites with a possibility of an intensification the biochemical processes are considered.

Vladimir Maslikov, Alexander Chusov, Viacheslav Zhazhkov, Olga Vasilyeva

Mathematical Simulation of Flood Management by Hydro Systems with Temporarily Flooded Reservoirs

The mathematical model for calculating the parameters of a hydro system to control flood waterflows is proposed. This model is implemented in the mathematical software Octave and allows to specify the parameters of several types of anti-flood hydro systems, considering the design of the hydro system and data from the GIS systems, and can be used to calculate the maximum flow rates for specific rivers, as well as for joint management of floods in the river basin with the river water reservoirs of the hydroelectric power station.

Roman Davydov, Valery Antonov, Dmitry Molodtsov, Anatoliy Trebukhin

Functional Model That Evaluates the Impact of Hydrotechnical Works and Facilities on a Water Object

The article contains a functional model to evaluate the impact of hydrotechnical works and structures on water areas. There are classified main types of hydrotechnical works which lead to the pollution of water areas. The choice and methods of the hydrological non-stationary model of wind and effluent currents of the water object are explained. Furthermore, some standard models of convection-diffusion transfer and transformation of pollutants are mentioned. There is proposed the structure of the initial database and the results of calculations based on a geo-informational foundation.

Alexander Shishkin, Alexander Chusov, Marina Epifanova, Dmitriy Silka

Assessment of the Subsurface Fire-Fighting System Pipeline Impact on the Tank Stress State During the Foundation Settlement

The paper objective is to conduct a numerical study of the subsurface fire-fighting system pipeline impact on the structure stress-strain state during the tank settlement. The numerical simulation of the subsurface fire-fighting system pipeline was performed on the basis of the previously designed vertical steel tank model. The PC ANSYS finite element software complex was used to calculate the deformation of the tank structures during the foundation settlement. The values of the obtained stress results indicate that when the vertical steel tank settlement is 20 cm, the equivalent stresses in the wall do not exceed 30 MPa. The paper presents the proposals for possible use of compensating devices for small-diameter technological pipelines in order to minimize the risks of destruction in case of the tank foundation settlement.

Alexander Tarasenko, Petr Chepur, Alesya Gruchenkova

Justification of the Most Rational Jack Method in the Corroded Tank

The article considers the problem of carrier reconstruction capacity of tanks with intolerable corrosion flaws. The authors propose a method for the temporary carrier reconstruction until the next overhaul repair. Analytical dependences of binding band ring parameters for tanks with the capacity of 20.000 m3 are obtained. The installation process of the banding ring is developed. The proposed method was tested on OPS “Grushovaya” to strengthen the shells in VST-20000.

Mikhail Tarasenko, Alexander Tarasenko

The Investigation of Freezing and Thawing Processes of Metal Foundations Ground of Pipelines

The paper considers the definition of the freezing and thawing indices of soils in settlements along the route of the oil pipeline “Kuyumba-Taishet-Kozmino”, estimated geocryological conditions, determine the depth of soil freezing and frost heaving force with the help of numerical simulation and developed measures for their elimination. In areas with seasonally freezing soils accepted measures to eliminate frost heaving forces and in areas with permafrost are used seasonally cooling devices.

Sergey Kudryavtsev, Vyacheslav Kovshun, Aleksandra Mut

Sizing the Residual Deformation of Metal Structures in the Tank After Shell Replacement

The work focuses on numerical simulation of the deformation process in a metal tank after shell replacement of the first ring taking into account thermal effects during the welding process. SYSWELD 2016.5 was implemented so as to determine the welding deformation of T-joint area of the shell and annular plate. The average value of the vertical displacement for the entire part has made up to 0.86 mm, this value is adopted as the base for further calculations in ANSYS. The calculations showed that the neglect of thermal deformation caused by welding process impairs the accuracy of the final values of stress and strain by 4.4% and 5.9%, respectively.

Alexander Tarasenko, Petr Chepur, Alesya Gruchenkova

Numerical-and-Analytical Method of Estimation Insulated Glass Unit Deformations Caused by Climate Loads

The numerical-and-analytical method of estimation of sags of glasses of the insulated glass units deformations, developed in Moscow State University of Civil Engineering taking into account the internal (climate) loading allowing to predict the level of “lensing” of insulated glass units and mutilating the curvature of glasses is offered in this article. Two physical models of insulated glass units as hermetic gas are offered. In the first model the glasses have high rigidness, and their deformation is close to zero. The difference of pressure is perceived at the expense of tension in glasses, which works as plates. In the second model the glasses are flexible and easily deformed. The difference of pressure is perceived according to the estimation of changes of the chamber. The theory of flexible plates is used in the analytical decision. The numerical algorithm consists of iterative loop of computation. The pilot studies of a insulated glass unit under loading are completed. The offered method was realized in the form of the computer programme “Calculation of Insulated Glass Unit under Climate Loading”.

Pavel Stratiy

Statistical Test Data Evaluation of Track Rutting in Stone Mastic Asphaltic Concrete

The paper presents results of the test conducted to determine the durability of stone mastic asphalt concrete with stabilizing additives “Viatop 66” (Germany) and “Armidon” (authors’ development) to rutting. Durability to rutting was determined using the asphalt pavement analyzer APA, Pavement Technology Inc. It was established experimentally that SMA-20, containing SA “Armidon”, has increased performance properties. Due to a large number of obtained results, errors assessment in measurements was performed using the standard deviation values. The authors specified the rate of rutting υ at the time of the N-th pass of the wheel, it was established that the rate of rutting decreased by 17% due to the introduction of the developed additives. The stages of rutting were determined in the course of the research.

Dmitry Yastremsky, Tatiana Abaidullina, Petr Chepur

Mathematical Models of the Output of Major Pollutants in the Process of Burning Water Fuel Oil Emulsions in Boiler Plants

We have studied the influence of the parameters of the combustion process in the existing low capacity boiler plants on the level of formation of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and soot. This study resulted in regression equations that describe the emission of these substances. The developed mathematical models of the ecological characteristics of boilers can be used for selecting rational regimes of burning water fuel oil emulsions from the point of view of minimal emissions of harmful substances and improved operation of boiler plants.

Viktor Katin, Vladimir Kosygin, Midkhat Akhtiamov, Igor Vol’khin

Method of Evaluation of Ground Frost Heaving Pressure on Ice-Ground Barrier of an Underground Construction and Well Strengthening Walls

This article describes experimental and theoretical investigations of heaving pressure formation regalities in freezing grounds, as well as the application of the investigations in practice of building of underground construct ions in frost hazard grounds. The experimental and theoretical investigations demonstrated that it is necessary to make a distinction between a pressure arising at the expense of free (gravitational) water crystal1ization and the pressure ensuing arising at the expense of bound (film) water crystallization freezing ground systems. The implementation of the obtained regularities together with the elaborated analytical methods has permitted to carry out the practical realization of research results. The comparison of a design pressure with actual magnitudes of pressure of rocks (grounds) on shafts strengthening walls (tubings) of Jakovlevskiy mine (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly) obtained on the base of experimental researches of the institute WIOGEM shows sufficiently high convergence of design and actual magnitudes. This fact attests that the application of the proposed method would be appropriate.

Vyacheslav Kim, Marina Kim

Comparative Analysis of the Simplest Finite Elements of Plates in Bending

The triangular finite element with nine nodal degrees of freedom built up using displacement function as a complete cubic polynomial in Cartesian axes is described. The element is formed by averaging the characteristics of the three sub triangles; the function of the displacements for each sub triangle is given in the form of incomplete cubic polynomial in the local coordinate system, rotated with respect to the general system for the entire triangle. After adduction of all of the sub triangle characteristics to the total coordinate system for the whole triangle and averaging them, the final displacement function contains all ten terms of the complete cubic polynomial. The quadrilateral element, which is obtained by averaging the four basic triangle characteristics, is also described. The results of the test analysis of the developed elements are presented.

Vladimir Agapov, Roman Golovanov

The Influence of Cement Plant on the Atmospheric Pollution with Microscale Particulate Matter in Spassk-Dalny Town (Primorsky Region, Russia) – Particle Size Analysis

The paper is focused on the research of the influence of a large cement plant on the atmospheric particulate matter of Spassk-Dalny town by laser granulometry methods. Atmospheric particulates were studied in the snow cover collected during snowfall in January 2015. The sampling points were located near plants, along major streets, as well as in the residential area. It is shown that the atmosphere of this town is notably polluted with particles under 10 µm (PM10). In 8 sample points out of 12 we found hazardous to health microscale particles in significant quantities – from 16.8 to 27.8%. Large particles sized above 400 µm prevail in residential areas of the town amounting to 69.7%. We can conclude that the atmosphere of Spassk-Dalny suffers from the negative influence of a large source of microscale pollution. It is evidenced by the presence in almost all areas of particles under 10 µm in size which may be hazardous for human health and the environment.

Aleksei Kholodov, Sergey Ugay, Vladimir Drozd, Svetlana Gulkova, Kirill Golokhvast

Estimation of Practical Significance for Application of Composite Pipes in Comparison with Metal and Polymer Materials

In recent years, highly efficient pre-insulated pipes, made of heat-resistant polymer (usually polyethylene) materials are used during the reconstruction and repair of heat networks. Their advantage is the convenience and ease of installation, long service life, corrosion protection. This material is often used for internal heating circuits when water temperature is up to 95 °C and pressure is up to 1.6 MPa due to limitations of the physico-chemical properties of the material. At the same time for manufacturing of modern, highly efficient and durable pipe system, depending on destination, location and method of installation various composite materials: basalt, glass or carbon fiber; synthetic fiber; rubber, fluoropolymers and others can be used. High specific strength and stiffness of fibrous composite materials, along with chemical stability, relatively low weight and other properties make these materials attractive for the manufacture of pipes for various purposes. The advantages of using pipelines made of composite materials is to increase the estimated service life of heat networks in two times in comparison with metal pipes, reducing the hydraulic and thermal losses due to the physico-chemical properties of the material, and also lower labor and financial costs for the construction of heating mains.

Konstantin Strogonov, Alexander Fedyukhin, Tatiana Stepanova, Oleg Derevianko

Autodesk Revit and Robot Structural Analysis in Design of Framed Buildings

The Russian state began the gradual introduction of building information modelling (BIM) technologies in construction in December 2014. BIM is difficult to implement in a short time, as it requires a complete re-equipment of the company, retraining of the employees and accumulation of experience and knowledge. The main difficulties in collision with new technologies are the degree of correspondence and adequacy of the obtained results to reality. The solution is the comparison of the calculation methods by new technologies and the traditional approach application for the building and structure analysis. This is the fundamental method of solving the problem in this article. The real project of autocenter has been analyzed. The analysis of individual load-bearing structures of the object is performed: manually, using SCAD Office and Robot Structural Analysis software. The difference between three methods of not more than 4% was obtained. It is good for BIM implementation.

Rustam Gilemkhanov, Ruslan Bagautdinov, Vadim Kankhva

Determination of Environmental Impact Factors of Flood Control Hydrosystems with Temporarily Filled Self-regulating Reservoirs

In the paper, the way of lands protection from torrential floods is considered by control of flood discharge in a river basin using the system of reservoirs distributed on the catchment-basin as part of a hydrosystem with a hydroelectric power plant of a complex purpose on the main river, as well as flood control hydrosystems in the upper reaches of the river and on lateral streams with temporarily filled self-regulating reservoirs. The task of determining the main impact factors on the environment of flood control hydrosystems and their quantitative assessment is considered. The most frequently encountered impact factors on the natural environment during the creation and operation of flood control hydrosystems are determined and considered. For specific hydrosystems, the choice of priority impact factors on the natural environment is proposed to be carried out using expert analysis. It’s recommended at the stage of choice of the location for flood control hydrosystems and the substantiation of their parameters, use the express-assessment of the impact on the natural environment. The article considers the impact of inundation caused by temporarily filled self-regulating reservoirs of flood control hydrosystems on forests, bogs, water quality and ecosystem diversity. The final parameters and operation modes of flood control hydrosystems are proposed to be determined for the minimum of permissible areas of short-term inundation of the upper pool, calculated for each priority environmental impact factor.

Alexander Chusov, Vladimir Maslikov, Dmitry Molodtsov, Olga Manukhina

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Solutions of Excavation for Section of Hydropower Tunnel HPP “Dabar”

The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the alternative solutions for the construction of the supply tunnel section of HPP “Dabar” from km 4 + 272.54 to km 12 + 125.0 with the application of TBM technology, milling machines technology and combinations of TBM technology and milling machines. Hydraulic tunnel of the HPP “Dabar” is a tunnel under the pressure with a length of 12125.0 m, which will conduct water from the reservoir Nevesinje to the machine building of the hydropower plant “Dabar” in Dabarsko polje (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Four different construction alternatives of the mentioned tunnel section were analysed: use of milling machines, use of Gripper TBM, use of Double Shield TBM, a combination of Gripper TBM and milling machines.

Uroš Mirković, Slobodan Radovanović, Ljubo Divac, Nikola Mirković, Nikola Obradović, Zdenka Popović

Evaluation of Surface Deformations of Rolling Mills Stands Elements Resulting from Horizontal Forces Acting at Rolling

Paper describes theoretical deformation of housing vertical surfaces of hot thick strip rolling stand resulting from a single strike from bottom work roll chock. At multiple horizontal impacts of roll chock against housing residual deformations arise in the corresponding elements of rolling stands which values should be controlled. Detailed diagram is shown indicating wear of flat contact surfaces of rolls chocks, surface panels and stands, also showing their degree of wear in the form of wedges, thus simplifying considerably the analysis of the wear of contact surfaces.

Victor Artiukh, Vladlen Mazur, Elena Nidziy

Low-Temperature Swirl Burning as Technological Method of Simultaneous Decrease in Emissions of Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides (Part 1. Principles, Organization and Mathematical Model of Furnace Process)

The work is devoted to the solution of the problem of increasing ecological indicators of power boilers. The technology of simultaneous decrease in content of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in combustion products by the organization of low-temperature vortex burning is considered. The model of burning process of solid fuel considering generation and transformation of gaseous pollutants in the furnace camera is developed. Results of modeling and numerical researches of generation and decomposition of nitrogen oxides on surface of carbon particles are given, decrease in concentration of sulfur oxides due to their binding with components of mineral part at combustion of organic fuel is shown.

Aleksey Trinchenko, Aleksandr Paramonov

Low-Temperature Swirl Burning as Technological Method of Simultaneous Decrease in Emissions of Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides (Part 2. Results of Modeling, Their Practical Implementation and Analysis)

The results of energy efficiency increase reached due to implementation of low-temperature swirl technology on boiler of BKZ-220 of the Novomoskovsk state district power plant are given in the work. With use of the developed model numerical researches of generation and transformation during burning fuel of gaseous nitrogen oxides are conducted and assessment of their concentration in combustion gases of the reconstructed boiler is gray, executed. Results of reconstruction and the analysis of the obtained experimental data have confirmed advantages of low-temperature swirl burning when using low-grade high-ash fuels.

Aleksey Trinchenko, Aleksandr Paramonov

Problems of Magnesium Oxide Wallboard Usage in Construction

Magnesium oxide wallboard is the building and finishing material, which has a reputation of new generational ecological constructing material. It has a wide range of uses: as a revetment in ventilated facades’ production, as a decorative material, as different types of formworks for a foundation filling and as a protector against a fire threat. During the study it was considered that magnesium oxide wallboards have some defects, such as moisture formation as a concentrated brine on the surface under special climatic conditions and absence of clear distinguishing between different types of magnesia boards. Usage of this material can become a cause of frame’s corrosion and origin of mold on wooden details. Authors provide the information from a foreign data source about negative consequences of SML usage. In conclusion researchers state that it is necessary to provide a clear magnesium wallboards classification and define technical requirements, which will, in their opinion, lead to Russian standard formulation.

Marina Gravit, Olga Zybina, Artem Vaititckii, Anna Kopytova

Additive Technologies in Construction of Temporary Housing for Victims of Natural Disasters and Other Emergencies

The article considers the possibility of applying modern additive technologies in construction of temporary housing for victims of natural disasters and other emergencies. A number of technologies for printing sheltering structures using mobile 3D printers is discussed. The suggested examples present not only a fundamentally different technology of construction, but also show how differently materials can be used for 3D printing of temporary housing facilities. There is proposed a construction of dome shape structures, that are the most resistant to possible disasters and demonstrate the possibilities of additive technologies. Special attention is paid to the state and ways of development of material science in the field of 3D printing.

Alexander Lanko

Management, Analysis, Monitoring, Organizational and Technological Solutions

Frontmatter

Management and Monitoring of Urban Environment in the Integrated Development of Underground Space

The paper presents the results of developing the system of managing and monitoring the urban environment in the integrated development of the underground space. Its main elements are a block of geotechnical management and monitoring, a block of energy management and monitoring of life support systems, a block of ecological and socio-economic monitoring. The essentials and principles of construction of each block are considered. The key attention is paid to geotechnical monitoring in the construction of underground structures with the use of protective screens. The features of stress distribution in the span tubes and the side walls of the protective screen are established based on the analysis of monitoring data. By means of numerical simulation by the finite element method, the stresses in the span pipes and vertical deformations of the soil mass are obtained over the span from the rigidity of the pipe section area. An improved design of a protective screen with the possibility of regulating its vertical resistance by means of hydraulic jacks is proposed. The effectiveness of this technology in the development of underground space is determined not only by economic, but also by social and environmental aspects.

Galina Romanova, Michael Pleshko, Marina Rossinskaya, Nelli Saveleva, Alexander Pankratenko

Integrated Approach to the Improvement of the Information Support of Management During the Transporting and Distribution of Heat

The current performance of heating systems of the centralized heat supply does not provide reliability of heat transportation and distribution processes due to existence of considerable wear. The analysis of damageability of the heating systems is submitted, where the authors noted the prevailing type of the reasons of their emergence, which are the corrosion processes. The matter of defining methods of their diagnostics, which were established within the Russian practice by hydraulic tests, is considered depending on the identified types of damages. The research of their positive and negative aspects allowed to present the integrated approach to the improvement of information support of managing transportation and distribution of heat. It is suggested to form it on the basis of joint consideration of technical, organizational and economic aspects of the organization of information formation processes in heat-supply organizations. At the same time, the authors pointed out the need of the use of the economic indicators along with the data of technical control.

Natalia Verstina, Evgeny Evseev

Methodic Approach to Energy Costs Reduction on the Basis of the Energy Service Contract

On the basis of energy consumption management process studies under conditions of ESC use at the industrial enterprise it was revealed that in contrast to the traditional approach to energy saving, the approach based on ESC allows imposing the responsibility for the implementation of required activities and risks in achieving the declared results on ESCO. With account of this, authors decided to lay in the basis of economical evaluation of ESC the mathematical model for estimating the real option cost, which allowed considering its specifics. The calculated data on the real option cost allow concluding that ESC cost grows significantly. The article presents the following highlights: the analysis of energy saving issue and energy efficiency enhancement in the Russian Federation on the basis of Federal documents; the process of energy consumption management organization is based on Deming cycle of continuous improvement in accordance with ISO-50001 principles; justification of energy saving procedures as part of the Energy Service Contract using three calculation options: withholding activities, timely performance of activities, multistage performance of activities; application of real options method when evaluating a multi-stage project, which allows consideration the specific risks of energy service.

Tatiana Meshcheriakova, Natalia Verstina

Influence of the Sustainable Development of the Fuel Power Complex on the Formation of Competitiveness of the Region

Various criteria for the evaluation of competitive capacity of territories, considering first of all economic infrastructure and innovative development, human potential and the standard of living of the population, are considered in the article. The study is dedicated to the resource potential as the objective basis of the formation of competitiveness of the region. The author studies the role of sustainable development of the fuel-and-energy complex on the formation of competitiveness of the region. The author proves that the leading element in the development of energy industry is the natural capital because of the high material capacity of products and services of the complex, while the lack of any real competition in the energy industry of regions creates all the complex of the social-and-economic problems, peculiar for exclusive market structures.

Angela Mottaeva, Jasmina Ćetković

Organizational-Technological Reliability of Monolithic Construction

Reliability and quality of the organization of work at the transport infrastructure facilities is determined through the analysis of the system of preparation for the implementation of certain technological operations, the establishment and maintenance of a common order, the timing of work, and the supply of all types of resources. During the execution of construction and installation work are conducted periodic inspections of compliance with construction norms and rules. Nonconformities issued in the form of regulations, which indicate the time of elimination of this violation. The calendar plan does not provide for the time spent on eliminating violations. For this reason, the actual period of construction of transport infrastructure are often considerably longer than planned. In this connection, the task was to assess the degree of influence of violations on the efficiency of the functioning and quality of the organization of production processes in transport infrastructure. Analytic studies of this problem concluded that it is necessary to develop a mathematical model for estimating the construction period, taking into account the random nature of the appearance of violations. The study contains a diagram of the technological operations in monolithic construction, the Pareto chart for the number of violations identified by the construction supervision, the main factors affecting the duration of construction.

Alexander Ginzburg, Alina Bolotova, Andrey Dolganov, Ivan Vedyakov, Michael Vaynshteyn

Automation of Roof Construction Management by Means Artificial Neural Network

To enable efficient managerial decisions in planning and generation of construction process, we need technologies to analyze and evaluate their conditions and to predict their further evolution. One of advanced methods to generate them is based on artificial neural networks (ANN). This paper represents the outcome from a research in construction process organization and management to build roof structures at the planning and operation stage, assisted by the ANN methodology. Relying on systems analysis and expert survey, the authors have designed a 4-layer feedforward ANN with a node pattern of 15-6-3-1. The authors used the concept of fuzzy sets to measure input and output of the network. The paper clearly illustrates the function of ANN and describes the learning algorithm by the backward propagation of errors relative to the resulting ANN. The authors have identified problems related to generation of the labeled training data in the researched field and developed a network learning approach that combines extraction of expert knowledge about the system with learning on training examples from real-life construction project.

Azary Lapidus, Alexander Makarov

Organization of Concrete Works on the Bases of the Information System of Tracking

Classification of the origins of refusals of structural elements, depending on the character of their origin is presented in the article. The approach to the quality assessment of the performed works and the enterprises, carrying out the works on construction of artificial structures, which is based on the mark assessment according to four categories is offered. Detailing has been completed for each category and the main features of the controlled elements have been described. The most admissible points are determined depending on filling of the verification processes and according to the criteria and controlled parameters for each group, which are included. The results of practical implementation of the offered approach to the capital construction project in the field of bridge construction, displaying summary quality assessment of the works performance on the basis of the analysis of two construction enterprises and three concrete plants are provided. According to the practical use of the developed approach the analysis in comparison with the process of the organization of construction production, developed in practice, is carried out, the benefits of the first are established as well. Values of specific weight of each criterion for the purpose of carrying out the most qualitative and rational analysis are also obtained.

Alexander Ginzburg, Sophia Kozhevnikova, Alexander Afanas’ev, Vitaliy Stepanov

Information Support for the Operational Management of the Construction Organization

The technology and efficiency of the organization of construction industry largely depend on the timely provision of all internal processes with the optimal amount of information sufficient for making managerial decisions. The operational management of construction and production activities includes planning and accounting of works, control of execution, logistics and logistics. Information support defines the basis of the information technology application platform. The life cycle of any building object is extremely informationally saturated. With the introduction of innovative materials and technologies, with the connection of a large number of process participants at different stages, more information is required for prompt decision-making, pressure on time and resources is increasing. The distribution of information flows along the stages of the life cycle of a construction site, its spread over time and among the involved specialists is the main task of information support, on the basis of which the effectiveness of operational management is increased by building an information model for the construction of the facility and automation of the issuance of organizational and technical documentation.

Nataly Knyazeva, Vitaliy Chulkov, Mark Abelev

Production Skills and the PC in Training of Students

The paper evaluates the impact of innovations on the practical level of workforce training for the construction and transportation sector. It has been established that students’ practice skills tend to deteriorate due to economic issues of cooperation with real-life production. It is apparent that the shift of emphasis between manufacturing businesses and schools from partnerships to market relations has become an adverse factor. It is proposed to engage the pedagogical experiences of the sector’s researchers as regards imparting practical skills to students in the environment of academic laboratories. As an example, the paper examines the chair faculty’s working experience in preserving computer-based practice-oriented training processes. It presents a laboratory complex where students of mechanical engineering gain practical skills by using a scale model of working equipment to learn the production technology of topsoil excavation. The paper describes a methodology for a construction student to learn academic knowledge and hands-down skills by engaging their understanding of physical substance of production process components in construction in order to convert their knowledge to a socially useful product, including during construction of transportation facilities and utilities lines. The methodology comprises two stages: practical fieldwork, gaining experimental data, and academic (manual and computer-assisted) calculation of the parameters of the working organ and technological performance. The paper obviously demonstrates how basic safety products can be used efficiently to complement experimental activities with mathematical computation.

Il’ja Cipurskij

Labor Management in Organizational Structures of Russian Energy Enterprises

The article is devoted to designing the organizational structure of labor management service and determining its location in general management structure of organization. Basing on the analysis of scientific publications, the author assessed existing developments in field of forming labor management system at the enterprise, and substantiated the necessity of their further development in accordance with the concept of modern management. It is established that labor management in accordance with theses of the modern management concept should be based on the management system, i.e., the complex of functions and powers necessary to implement the management impact; mechanism of management as a set of tools for implementing a targeted impact on the organization personnel, the management process - the sequence of actions of the management subject in the field of work. Recommendations are given on formation of labor management mechanism. Logical model of their interaction is presented. The typical organizational structure of the labor management service of a large organization is proposed based on a survey of Russian enterprises in the Tyumen region, its location in the management system is determined, variants of modification are considered depending on the specifics and scope of activity, recommendations for redistribution of functional responsibilities of the labor management service are given.

Natalia Zotkina, Miroslava Gusarova, Anna Kopytova

Enterprise Architecture Analysis for Energy Efficiency of Saint-Petersburg Underground

Energy efficiency is one of the important factors of efficient performance of municipal passenger transport. An implementation of energy efficient solutions, as any other organizational changes, require a systematic approach in order to be fulfilled effectively. A systematic approach to the development and/or reengineering of business management system is realized by means of an enterprise architecture concept. The latter enables to create a holistic management solution, which provide effective operations of the enterprise today and create conditions for its sustainable development for the future. A proper process reengineering enables to adjust a number of managerial aspect, including resource consumption control. The paper describes the process reengineering project in Saint Petersburg Underground, which was aimed at adjustment of the company performance to the requirements of energy legislation. The process reengineering was performed using enterprise architecture analysis of the problem area. The example of the Saint Petersburg Underground proved the efficiency of using enterprise architecture approach for process analysis and reengineering during energy audit.

Igor Ilin, Anastasia Levina, Oxana Iliashenko

The Energy Saving Motivation of Certain Categories of Personnel in the Company

The problems of energy saving in Russian companies are studied in this article. The possibilities of reducing the consumption of energy resources through the motivation of the personnel within the company are considered by the authors. The expert evaluation of the importance of the human capital factors affecting the motivation of energy saving in the company is proposed in the article for this purpose. The expert evaluation allows determining the certain categories of the company personnel, requiring the development of the incentive measures for energy saving, as well as the most significant human capital factors affecting the certain categories of the company’s personnel. To confirm the applied nature of the proposed methodology, the opinions of 40 experts who are the employees in large construction companies of the Tyumen region, in some way related to the process of energy consumption in the company, are assessed by the authors.

Anna Minnullina, Rais Abdrazakov

The Problems of Market Orientation of Russian Innovative Products (Electric Cars as a Case Study)

The aim of this research is to analyze the results of realizing the market-oriented concept in Russian car market and to determine the impact of marketing on its development. M. Porter and R. Grant’s model of competitive forces was used to assess the prospects for changing the situation and the main moving forces which determine the state of the car market. The analysis of the empirical data, characterizing the electric and hybrid car markets in separate countries and in the world, as a whole, was done. Using the method of expert assessments allowed to identify the following key attributes of the competitiveness in Russian market: the acquisition cost, the rapidity, the economy of travel, the duration of travel and the capacity of the trunk. For the competitive analysis, we applied the calculation methods, which allowed to determine the individual and weighted indicators of competitiveness for each characteristic of the considered models of electric cars in Russian market. As a result, it was revealed that the impact of complementary goods and services: fuel (energy sources), car insurance, car loans, car parking, maintenance and repair services is the main moving force in the car market. The car manufacturers should build their market orientation on the balance between innovation and marketing competences.

Svetlana Bozhuk, Natal’ya Pletneva

Automation of Calculations for Selecting Construction Equipment Purchasing Techniques

Considering high material consumption and the wide range of performed construction works, and the resulting variety of required construction machinery, it is essential to define the most beneficial way of purchasing the machinery and to establish its most efficient lifetime for effective operation of both a certain construction company and a whole construction complex. To reduce material consumption, increase accuracy and optimize calculation time it is recommended to develop a software product allowing to evaluate the efficiency of any purchasing technique. The proposed method and correspondingly the developed software product makes it possible to compare the methods visually and having analyzed them to make a reasonable decision. They also provide an opportunity to perform complex analysis of the methods of purchasing construction equipment.

Zalina Tuskaeva, Gevork Aslanov, Zalina Alikova

Analysis of the Reproduction of Generating Capacities of Electric Power Industry of the Russian Federation

To achieve sustainable growth in electricity consumption is possible by a more intensive use of the existing facilities of generating equipment of power plants (PP) and/or through the construction and commissioning of new power plants, reconstruction, modernization and technical re-equipment of existing PP, i.e. by the use of extensive factors of development. The article discusses trends in reproduction of the BPA (Basic Production Assets) of Russian power plants for the period of market reforms, evaluated execution of the assignment phase of the Program for modernization of electric power in the country until 2020, lists the reasons influencing the insufficient construction level of new and modernization of existing power generation capacities of power plants. The article also contains recommendations on accelerated development of electric power in comparison with other sectors through the construction of new and modernization of existing power plants. The paper calculates summary rates of inflation growth and electricity tariffs over the last 7 years. The author came up with recommendations for radical improvement of the pricing policy for electricity in Russia and an increase in investment in the fixed capital for the construction and modernization of power plants on an innovative basis.

Lyubov Manukhina

Green (Ecological) Marketing in Terms of Sustainable Development and Building a Healthy Environment

The environmental (ecological) marketing is increasingly present issue at the global level while environmental changes have created a new segment of environmentally responsible consumers, known as green consumers. Previously said, led to the emergence of new forms of marketing, also known as green marketing, which means that the production processes, products, services, and all marketing activities are created and implemented in accordance with the impact that can have on building a healthy environment and society as a whole. In this paper, besides theoretical basis of understanding key terms related to the segment of green marketing and green consumer, we will present the results of primary data from our own research, which aims to determine the awareness and attitudes about green marketing, green consumers and products. The conclusion to which the authors come states that although there is a relatively large consumer awareness about the concept of green marketing, it is still a very small percentage of those who regularly buy these products, which is largely a consequence of higher prices that green products have over conventional (traditional) ones.

Boban Melovic, Slavica Mitrovic, Biljana Rondovic, Irina Alpackaya

Quality as a Determinant of the Customer’s Satisfaction on the Mobile Communication Market

The telecommunication market is characterized by continuous growth in the last fifteen years, especially in the field of mobile telephony and internet communications. The aim of this paper is to examine the level of users’ satisfaction regarding the quality of services that is offered by mobile operators in the Montenegrin market of mobile communications, as well as to provide guidance to mobile operators in which direction should the improving of the quality of services go. The proposed process, research methodology and research results may be important for mobile operators, who operate not only on the Montenegrin market. Research has shown that users of mobile communications have clearly defined views regarding the quality of the service that is being provided. On the basis of the research, it can be concluded that if mobile operators understand market demands and requests, transform their knowledge into appropriate service as well as deliver the service with the least possible difference between the delivered and what was promised to customers, the positive effects of service quality management will be multiple.

Boban Melović, Biljana Rondović, Slavica Mitrović, Vitaly Shoshinov

Methodological Approaches to a Substantiation Resurso - and Energetically Effective Economic Model of Object of Placing of a Waste

In article questions of the feasibility report saving up energy and resources of economic model of object of placing of a waste of housing and communal services, industrial, civil and transport building, various industries are considered; the organisation and activity planning in sphere of recycling of a waste, manufactures of various kinds of production from secondary raw materials. Parametres of activity of proving grounds of housing of a waste saving up resources, economic productivity in the field of the reference with a waste are offered and resulted at economic activities realization.

Edward Tshovrebov, Evgeniy Velichko, Andrey Shevchenko

Analysis of Factors, Defining Software Development Approach

The issue of software development approach choice is one of the most controversial in software engineering research. Different authors argue whether Agile or Waterfall practices could be potentially admitted as efficient for developing software or there might be a place for their combination. Currently, the software engineering research is full of studies, describing the differences between these two baseline approaches, comparison of their characteristics and analysis of suitability. But the issue of reasoning why the specific approach has been chosen is potentially undiscovered area. This research paper addresses the analysis of difference between the ways how companies perceive the problem at hand. Specifically, the focus is put on requirements aspects and which factors do the companies consider, when defining the software development approach.

Igor Ilin, Aleksandr Lepekhin, Anastasia Levina, Oksana Iliashenko

Human Capital Management as Innovation Technologies for Municipal Organization

Effective human capital management system is one of the key factors of business success of any enterprise. Human capital is very important part of each person. During the whole life, people invest in it, both consciously and unconsciously. To become successful, people have to develop in professional way. Municipal enterprises show less ways for professional development, and consequently have more problems with competitive staff. Article defines ways for improvement of human capital system in municipal enterprise to attain competitive advantages and grow effectiveness.

Olga Kalinina, Olga Valebnikova

Financial Literacy as a Driver for Responsible Energy Consumption

The article examines the linkages between the interrelation of financial literacy of the population in questions of household use of the electric power and energy efficiency. This relationship is illustrated by the example of different countries grouped by the standard of living of the population. To classify countries that fall into the sample, the happiness index was used. The analysis was carried out for such indicators as GDP per unit of consumed electricity, consumption of renewable electricity and electricity consumption (kWh per capita), and financial literacy of the population in points. It is noted that a higher correlation between energy consumption and financial literacy is observed in countries with a higher standard of living. The author gives recommendations on the basis of the revealed regularities for a comprehensive impact on the level of household energy saving by including the information on the possibility of reducing household expenditure by the way of saving energy in the financial literacy programs.

Mariia Sigova, Inna Kruglova, Marina Vlasova, Irina Shashina

Matrix Tool for Efficiency Assessment of Production of Building Materials and Constructions in the Digital Economy

The construction industry, in the global trends, determines the level of economy development and production capacity increase in the country. The article reveals the modern approaches to the evaluation of the production of innovative construction products. Professor M.D. Kargopolov’s universal matrix formula is proposed, allowing to identify the efficiency of production of both the finished construction products, and the effectiveness of the use of intermediate production components, including the transport component of micro- and macro-logistics produced by different economic entities. This approach is especially useful for assessing the efficiency of production in an innovation cluster that is located in a macro-region with different production conditions that affect the cost indices of products produced under market conditions.

Tamara Kuladzhi, Aleksandr Babkin, Said-Alvi Murtazaev

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