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Über dieses Buch

Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte dieses Tagungsbandes beziehen sich auf emotionale Diskussionen um Verbrennungsmotoren um diese wieder auf eine sachlich fundierte Ebene zu führen. Effiziente Pkw-und Nfz-Motoren sind im Systemverbund mit neuen Kraftstoffen die Schlüsselentwicklung für eine CO2-neutrale individuelle Mobilität mit niedrigsten Emissionen.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

PLENUM

Frontmatter

Mastering the future of gasoline engines

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Christian Landerl, Christian Schwarz, Juliane Lerch

Powertrain 2030: driven by diversification

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Otmar Scharrer

Towards CO2-neutral mobility in off-highway applications

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Markus Schwaderlapp, Jürgen van Zadelhoff

TEIL I PKW-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - CO2-REDUKTION

Frontmatter

75 g CO2 / km – powertrain concept and optimized powertrain components

Zukünftige Abgasgesetzgebungen sind durch rein Verbrennungsmotorische Antriebe in Kombination mit Verringerung der Aggregatevielfalt, Downsizing und standardisiertem Einsatz vom Kleinwagen bis zum SUV nur schwer zu erreichen.Trotz der sinkenden Variantenanzahl von Verbrennungsmotoren steigen im hybriden Antriebsstrang die Komplexität und die Anzahl der Kombinationsmöglichkeiten mit den weiteren Komponenten Getriebe, elektrische Maschine und Speicher. Unter den Rahmenbedingungen zunehmender Fahrzeugderivate, marktspezifischer Kunden- und Gesetzesanforderungen sowie unsicherer Prognosen hinsichtlich der Fahrzeugflotten ist die Auswahl und Optimierung der Einzelkomponenten im Antriebsstrang eine komplexe und risikobehaftete Aufgabenstellung.IAV hat eine Methode und ein für Kunden im Einsatz befindliches Expertenprogramm entwickelt, welches die genannten Kriterien berücksichtigt und OEM-spezifische Antriebsstränge konfigurieren kann.Im Tagungsbeitrag beschreibt IAV unter den zuvor genannten Randbedingungen und unter Einsatz von unterstützenden Softwareprogrammen einen möglichen Weg zum Emissionsziel von 75g CO2/km für eine repräsentative Fahrzeugflotte im Jahr 2025 und stellt daraus abgeleitet eine beispielhafte Antriebsstrategie basierend auf einem Verbrennungsmotorischen Grundkonzept in unterschiedlichen Antriebskonfigurationen vor. Fortführend werden mit diesen Ergebnissen die Konfigurationen des Verbrennungsmotors, des Getriebes und der elektrischen Maschine detailliert erläutert und konkrete, ausgeführte Systeme und Antriebsstränge aufgezeigt und beschrieben.

Mirko Leesch, Matthias Kratzsch, Christoph Danzer, Jörg Müller

Future powertrain concepts for sustainable mobility

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Werner Willems

The Dual Mode VCS system as a modular variant for different engine families (Das DUAL MODE VCS-System als modulare Variante für unterschiedliche Motorenfamilien)

Zur Erreichung zukünftiger CO2-Ziele, nicht zuletzt unter realen Einsatzbedingungen, werden unterschiedlichste Antriebsstrangtechnologien zum Einsatz kommen. Neben der weitergehenden Elektrifizierung wird es unabdingbar sein, das gesamte Potential aus der Verbrennungskraftmaschine zu heben, wobei die variable Verdichtung das höchste Potential als Einzelmaßnahme bietet. Dies wurde bereits auf dem Aachener Kolloquium 2016 dargestellt.Das Grundprinzip des DUAL MODE VCSTM ist ein 2-stufiger Verstell Mechanismus für die Variation der Pleuellänge und damit des Verdichtungsverhältnisses. Die ausgeführte Lösung kann modular ohne gravierende Eingriffe in die Motorarchitektur in existierende Motorfamilien integriert werden, ohne die Fertigungsstraßen erheblich anpassen zu müssen und stellt damit eine kostenattraktive Lösung dar.In diesem Beitrag wird die funktionale Konzeptbestätigung dargestellt, sowie auf die Beeinflussung emissionsrelevanter Betriebszustände durch die Elastizitäten im VCSSystem und die Bedeutung kurzer Schaltzeiten detailliert eingegangen.Die OBD-Fähigkeit eines solchen Systems ist für die erfolgreiche Umsetzung in Serie mit ausschlaggebend, hierzu werden die zielführendsten Lösungsansätze beschrieben.Der Erfolg des Produkts hängt auch wesentlich davon ab, inwieweit die Industrialisierung durch einen modularen Aufbau unterstützt werden kann. Hierzu werden die besten Ansätze im Sinne einer Serienumsetzung hinsichtlich der Fertigungsseite, sowie der Anpassung an unterschiedliche Hubraumklassen vorgestellt.

Wolfgang Schöffmann, H. Sorger, S. Lösch, W. Unzeitig, A. Fürhapter, A. Krobath, G. Fraidl, K. Arens, Th. Weiß, M. Heller

TEIL I PKW-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - LAMBDA 1 IM GANZEN KENNFELD

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All lambda 1 gasoline powertrains

The introduction of new emission legislations in Europe (EU6d-TEMP) and China (CN6b) increases the pressure on the automotive industry to develop new and better exhaust gas aftertreatment and combustion systems. The fulfilment of PN and NOx targets in real world driving scenarios and increasingly electrified powertrains have led to the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) and enlarged catalytic converters. Now, on top of these major upgrades, the monitoring of CO emissions according to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) legislation puts a potential ban on high load enrichment for thermal component protection into focus. Hence, new technologies which enable Lambda 1 operation in the entire map of a gasoline engine are urgently required. This paper presents technology packages for component protection at high load stoichiometric operation as well as operational strategies for ultra-low CO emissions in all real driving scenarios. Assessed solutions span from base engine modifications to water injection and vehicle cooling concepts as well as to control functions. Favorable combinations are identified taking into consideration costs and realistic integration in ongoing vehicle programs.

Michael Görgen, Andreas Balazs, Marius Böhmer, Martin Nijs, Helmut Lehn, Johannes Scharf, Matthias Thewes, Andreas Müller, Norbert Alt, Johannes Claßen, Stefan Sterlepper

Technical opportunities to extend the stoichiometric operation area of boosted gasoline engines in the high-volume segment

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Claus Glahn, Ingo Hermann, Matthias Kluin, Achim Köngstein

High performance and stoichiometric operation – vision or reality?

Paul Kapus, Matthias Neubauer, Daniel Hilbert, Manuel Krenn, Günter Fraidl

TEIL I PKW-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - GEMISCHBILDUNG UND VERBRENNUNG

Frontmatter

Twin jet spray and droplet stream impact injectors for novel combustion processes in Otto and Diesel engines

There have been numerous studies of fuel sprays for internal combustion engines with an emphasis on Single-Jet Sprays (SJS). Various measuring techniques have been employed to acquire quantitative information on different spray properties, including droplet size and droplet speed, as functions of the supply pressure, the jet nozzle diameter and the jet nozzle geometry. Correlating the measured spray properties, e.g. the spray droplet size, with the performance of a particular engine, it has been discovered that droplet size reductions have very positive effects on the combustion process. Reducing the jet nozzle diameter and increasing the supply pressure yield smaller droplets.Smaller droplets are needed for improving the engine performance, through improved combustion. It is therefore understandable why diesel engines are aiming these days for pressures up to 3,000 bar. Injectors operating with such high pressures require material properties that are difficult to handle in manufacturing processes. This raises questions regarding other ways of producing sprays with small droplet diameters, achievable with much smaller supply pressures. Searches for such ways have resulted in additional and different methods for spray production referred to in this paper as:“Twin-Jet Sprays” (TJS) production method,and“Droplet-Impingement Spray” (DIS) production method.

Franz Durst, Mathias Etzold

Lean combustion, EGR or gHCCI at high-load: challenging tasks in the 0D / 1D engine simulation

Nowadays 0D/1D simulations are being widely used in the engine development process. Thanks to the high prediction quality of the models and the low computational times, this is a powerful tool used to reduce development costs by partially eliminating the need for cost-intensive test bench investigations. The trend of vehicle hybridization means that fuel consumption and emissions have to be reduced significantly over the entire engine map and especially in the area of 40 to 80% load, as the electric drivetrain is active in the low-load range. Hence, new concepts are needed to guarantee the efficient engine operation in a very wide range of engine operating conditions. In this context, technologies such as lean engine operation, high load EGR and gHCCI emerge as new, challenging tasks in the 0D/1D simulation.In order to achieve high model prediction accuracy, 0D/1D models used for the simulation of future SI engine concepts have to not only consider thermodynamic effects, but also account for the in-cylinder chemical processes in detail. Kinetic reaction mechanisms for different fuel types that have been intensively developed in the recent years can be used to perform simulations at in-cylinder conditions that provide better understanding of the chemical processes during the combustion. More importantly, they enable the development and validation of simplified approaches for the 0D/1D simulation that reproduce the real chemistry behavior very accurately.

Michael Grill, Alexander Fandakov, Sebastian Hann, Mahir-Tim Keskin, Lukas Urban, Michael Bargende

TEIL I PKW-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - DIESEL-HYBRID

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48 V Diesel hybrid: a strong combination for improved real-world fuel economy and driving performance?

In November 2017 the European Commission proposed the final CO2 fleet targets until 2030. Conventional combustion technology alone will not be sufficient to achieve these very ambitious targets due to thermodynamic limitations. Hence a broad introduction of electrification in powertrain technology is required to avoid penalties for missing the fleet targets.Based on those legislative boundaries, different studies predict the broad introduction of 48V powertrains in Europe as cost effective mass market solution. Main reason for this trend is seen in the variability of the 48V hybrid components which should enable a broad variety of hybrid configurations also for existing powertrain structures. But beside the legislative boundaries the main driver for the success of a powertrain technology depends on customer’s acceptance. Due to the political and social debate following the “Diesel Scandal” customer’s trust in cycle based test results is limited which leads to the necessity to prove todays and future powertrain technologies under real driving conditions.Based on this context Honda R&D Europe built-up a demonstrator vehicle to evaluate the benefits and limitations of the 48V mild hybrid technology in real driving situations. Base vehicle was a C-segment SUV with a very efficient 1.6l diesel engine. The vehicle has been equipped with a belt starter generator system as well as an electric supercharger. An overall power increase was realized by application of a bigger turbocharger. The final evaluation of the system has been done targeting significant CO2 reduction and improving the driving performance at the same time. The final results of these measurements will be presented in this paper answering the initial question if the 48V technology is “a strong combination for improved real world fuel economy and driving performance”.

Sebastian Barth, Jörg Böttcher, Michael Fischer

Diesel hybrid powertrains – enabling lowest emissions, minimum CO2 and fun-to-drive

Continuously tightened exhaust emission standards along with very challenging CO2 fleet emission limits represent major challenges for the automotive industry. Electrified powertrain concepts are considered as a major enabler to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve especially inner-city air quality. In this context, the combination of a modern Diesel engine, featuring a high thermal efficiency, with an electric machine represents a very appropriate, but also costly powertrain concept.In this paper, different Diesel Hybrid powertrain configurations are analysed with regards to added customer value, such as e.g. fun-to-drive by reduced time to torque, lowered fuel consumption, robust low emission behaviour to ensure city operation and attractive overall system costs. The powertrain concepts are investigated for a typical, currently very popular, medium SUV application, covering a wide range of different configurations, starting from a 48V Mild Hybrid up to a high voltage Plug-In Hybrid. In a first step, the base Diesel engine and the exhaust gas aftertreatment system are optimized for each Hybrid configuration in order to minimize the cost impact of the electrical components. Afterwards, the different configurations are evaluated in an extensive simulation study, assessing the functional performance in the WLTC and various RDE cycles. The impacts of different powertrain operating strategies are finally discussed and analysed individually for each of the proposed configurations. Besides pollutant- and CO2 emissions, customer relevant key attributes, such as transient acceleration potential and general driveability, are assessed as well for the final conclusion.

Joschka Schaub, Korbinian Vogt, Matthias Kötter, Thomas Körfer, Katharina Kronen, Giovanni Vagnoni, Benjamin Knobloch

TEIL II NFZ-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - NON-ROAD / REALEMISSIONEN

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Real-time on-road oil consumption measurements for a commercial heavy-duty Diesel engine

Oil consumption rate is a critically important parameter for modern commercial Diesel engines which commonly use cooled EGR and exhaust aftertreatment for emissions control. Specifically, it is related to several failure modes such as EGR cooler fouling, EGR valve sticking, Diesel oxidation catalyst poisoning and Diesel particulate filter ash loading. In addition, a low oil consumption leads to longer service intervals and a higher uptime of the vehicle.In response, oil consumption rate measurement technology has dramatically improved. With mass spectrometry, it is now possible to measure oil emission (and thereby oil consumption) with an accuracy of 1 to 2 grams per hour and response times shorter than one second.While these methods have been applied during dynamometer testing, that is only an approximation of real-world operation, which includes factors such as ambient pressure and temperature variation, angularity and g-loading. In-situ, on-road oil consumption measurement capability would be an important step forward, analogous to development of portable emissions measurement equipment that has revealed a new understanding of real-world emissions under real-world driving cycles and operating conditions.To that end, this presentation presents on-road application of mass spectrometry to measure transient oil consumption in a heavy-duty truck. Approaches to address instrumentation application and calibration are described, along with test measurements over a range of urban and intra-city highway driving conditions.

Tom George, Volker Schille, Thomas McKinley, Trenton Berardi

High-efficiency SCR system with integrated particulate filtration for non road mobile machinery

With the increasing awareness of the effects of engine exhaust emissions on human health and the environment, emission legislation has continuously been tightened for all internal combustion engines, including engines for NRMM. Figure 1 shows the development of emission limits for NRMM, starting with the EU Stage I legislation in 1999 up to the planned implementation of the EU Stage V emissions in 2019. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions will have been reduced by more than 95 % in this time span of nearly 20 years. Similarly, stringent emission standards have been introduced in the other triad nations as well. Emerging markets like China and India are catching up with the stringent emission limits of EU and the USA.

Adrian Troeger, Georg Töpfer, Heiner Bülte, Vinod Rajamani

How to assess the state of exhaust catalyst systems in driving vehicles?

Future emission legislation will focus even further on real driving emissions. With Euro VId there will be a shift of assessed driving profiles to lower load operation. A further step to include cold start emissions in the evaluation is presently discussed. To meet these requirements it will be necessary to understand better the behaviour of catalyst systems under real driving conditions, including the factors that drive the deterioration of such systems. To ensure this, it will not be sufficient to have a limited analysis on very selected missions e.g. by using a PEMS equipment. Instead, a more comprehensive approach by analysing long term data of various different vehicles will be needed. Such data can be gathered by on-board sensors.Umicore and the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems of the Technical University of Darmstadt are developing a corresponding methodology to assess the long-term state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system under real driving conditions. In order to access real driving data, a heavy-duty truck of the 13 l class is equipped with a data-logger, which records specific vehicle and exhaust aftertreatment parameters and additional NOx-sensor values during daily use. Data has been gathered over a period of more than 16 months. The challenge is to assess the actual state of the catalyst system in an always changing environment of different driving situations as well as flow and temperature conditions in the exhaust system. With such insights it will be possible to determine long term poisoning and ageing of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system and to potentially correlate it to specific driving modes.To achieve this, sophisticated methods of analysis are required. One approach is to define classes of recurring quasi-stationary operation conditions. The measurement data is then sorted according to those predefined classes. Each class is separately analysed for its catalyst performance as a function of operation time.As a result, this method enables the assessment of the state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system isolated from other influences. The method reveals the state of poisoning and ageing of the catalyst system at each point of operation and striking changes in the deterioration curve can be identified to look for potential triggers for deactivation or activation.

Christian von Pyschow, Nicolas Hummel, Christian Beidl, Andreas Geißelmann

TEIL II NFZ-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - ELEKTRIFIZIERUNG IM ANTRIEBSMIX 2025

Frontmatter

Electro fuels as an alternative to electrification – an energetic and economic analysis

With one third of greenhouse gas emissions and 40% of the CO2 emissions, road transport is responsible for the largest portion of climate gases of all energy sectors in Switzerland. These emissions have actually even slightly increased since 1990, while they decreased for example in the heat production sector. Private motorized road traffic in Switzerland, consisting of 4.5 Mio passenger cars and 0.4 Mio utility vehicles, performed a mileage of approximately 91.0 billion pkm (57.3 billion vehicle-km) and 17.2 billion tkm (6.4 billion vehicle-km), consuming 3.4 billion liters of gasoline and 3.2 billion liters of diesel. Thereby, 16.4 million tons of CO2 were produced, 10.2 million tons from passenger cars and 1.6 million tons from delivery vehicles and trucks.As part of the Paris Climate Agreement, Switzerland has set itself the goal of cutting CO2 emissions to 50% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The reduction is to be made minimally 60% domestically and maximally 40% abroad. If these goals are transferred 1:1 to road traffic, this would mean a reduction in road traffic-related CO2 emissions by 8.4 million tons. Thereof 5.1 million tons would have to be reduced domestically, which corresponds to a 32% reduction in current road traffic-related CO2 emissions.

Christian Bach

Electrification in the powertrain mix 2025 – effects on application development for commercial vehicles

CHANGE – The automotive industry as well as the transport industry are facing a big change. The demand for e-driven vehicles is getting higher, not just because of debates about “driving restriction within cities”, “fine dust” or “CO2”. But, the worldwide increase of urbanisation is the key driver for the alternative driven automobiles. Additionally, trucks and busses are an essential part of the city’s daily life.

Markus Uhl, Albert Beichtbuchner, Heimo Schreier

5 years experience of e-highways for heavy vehicles in review

Christer Thorén

TEIL II NFZ-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - GASMOTOREN – TECHNOLOGIE UND ANWENDUNG

Frontmatter

Neue Motoren für zukünftige Emissionsanforderungen (New engines for future emissions requirements)

Über die letzten 25 Jahre sind die Emissionsanforderung stufenweise und regelmäßig angepasst sowie die Grenzwerte reduziert worden. Parallel wurden ebenfalls auch die Messprogramme deutlich modifiziert, in dieser Folge hat die Technologie große Vorschritt realisiert.

Martial Suchet

Commercial natural gas vehicles: tomorrow’s engine technologies for most stringent NOx and CO2 targets

Engine developers for heavy duty commercial vehicles face major challenges in the coming years. On the one hand, the adapted in-service conformity load profiles will require a further reduction of pollutant emissions in low load operation, while on the other hand, limitations on greenhouse gas emissions will require further optimization of fuel efficiency. Due to its chemical composition, natural gas offers a theoretical CO2 reduction potential of 25% vs. regular diesel fuel, assuming the same fuel energy provided, but natural gas also offers great reduction potential for pollutant emissions.Several gas engine technologies are available on the market. This paper will describe two of the most promising technologies for mastering future increased requirements concerning pollutant criteria and GHG emissions reduction.The first technology focus on is the positive ignited stoichiometric engine with exhaust gas recirculation and a three way catalyst. It enables the lowest nitric oxide and particulate emission compliance without additional fluids. Stoichiometric operation makes the most stringent emission limits feasible, including in the low-load range.

Anton Arnberger, Stefano Golini, David Mumford, Gernot Hasenbichler

TEIL II NFZ-MOTORENTECHNOLOGIE - MOTOREN INTERNATIONAL

Frontmatter

Efficient MAN D08 light-duty Diesel engines series for a wide range of applications

The use cases of light and medium-duty utility vehicles are various. MAN vehicles in the TGL and TGM classes (7.5 tonnes to 26 tonnes) are used both in long-distance and distribution operations, as well as in tractor units. The key focus of this development was therefore directed towards a high degree of modularity, whilst simultaneously providing an increased variability of the four and six-cylinder engines. Thereby it was possible to realize not only the already known existing option packages, such as a rear PTO on the flywheel housing or hydraulic pumps, but it also enabled to provide new equipment, like a preparation for retarder usage, a FRIGOBLOCK generator or an arctic package across all performance levels.To achieve this high level of modularity, variability and simplicity the basis of the emission concept of the new MAN D08 is SCR only. By omitting exhaust gas recirculation and thereby reducing the level of boost pressure that is required to operate the engine, it was possible to reconfigure the engine completely and to utilize single-stage turbocharging, without sacrificing performance. Due to the single stage turbocharging and exhaust after treatment concept, also the number of engine components and therefore the weight of the engine itself could be reduced significantly.

Andreas Bug, Alexander Lienert

Diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles in Japan – latest emission regulations and responding technologies, fuel economy standards, and challenges for alternative fuels

Isuzu Motors Limited (ISUZU) is a commercial vehicle manufacturer founded in 1916 and established in 1937. Isuzu has 2 main manufacturing plants, Fujisawa & Tochigi in Japan and 47 other sites in 30 countries abroad. The annual production volume is now 617 thousand of commercial vehicles, buses, and pickup trucks and these products are sold in well over 120 countries.The enhancement of exhaust emission requirements in Japan, has been taken based on the air pollution, availability of new technologies to reduce exhaust emissions, and global trends for the exhaust emission regulations. Since October 1, 2016, the following requirements have been forcing for some GVW classes of heavy duty diesel vehicles and will be expanded to all classes within a couple of years.

Toshio Ichimasa

TEIL III INNOVATIVE KRAFTSTOFFE - GANZHEITLICHE BETRACHTUNGEN

Frontmatter

Electrifying the world – chances and challenges for sustainable energy carriers in the mobility sector

The worldwide society is facing a major challenge to secure and improve the mobility of persons and goods on one side and at the same time take care of the welfare of human beings and ensure the balance to our climate concerns. The ideal solution would be to shift from fossil-based resources to a general use of regenerative primary energy supply.This article draws attention to the multiple aspects of this subject. It covers dimensions like primary energy resources, energy carriers and energy conversion for mobility in general. It evaluates different options for suitable solutions and draws attention to feasible configurations of different applications. There is no – one fits all solution – foreseeable, but there will be a variety of options, depending on the type of transportation requirement and vehicle type, which will guide us into the future.The heavy-duty long-haul mobility will always favor energy carriers with high energy density capabilities, and with a strong focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Electrification in the variety and mix of options will be a key driver for the transition. The shift from today’s use of mainly fossil-based fuel, combined with the given infrastructure into a more regenerative primary energy supply, will take different bridging technologies and application-specific solutions.

Kurt Kirsten, Wolfgang Warnecke

Fueling clean transport to 2025+: update of JEC Well-To-Wheel (WTW) methodology for comparing alternative fuels and vehicle options to 2025+

Today in the EU, the transport sector is the second largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting sector after the power sector with 23% of total GHG emissions. Road transport accounts for the large majority of these emissions, reflecting the total amount of fuel consumed by the total EU fleet (measured by transport activity and fuel economy) multiplied by the GHG intensity of various transport fuels.According to the European Commission’s reference scenario (2016), the share of transport in total GHG emissions could continue to increase to reach 25% in 2030 becoming EU’s number one emitter with 32% in 2050 (SWD (2016)244). To tackle this anticipated trend, the European Commission published its European Strategy for Low- Emission Mobility (COM (2016) 501) in July 2016. The strategy highlights the most important transport policy measures for low-emission mobility based on three main pillars: moving towards low CO2 emission vehicles (decreasing Tank To Wheels GHG emissions); low emission alternative energy for transport (reducing Well to Tank GHG emissions), and improving the efficiency of the transport system. It is therefore necessary to look at a Well to Wheels approach when considering options to decarbonise the road transport sector.In 2003, JRC (the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission), EUCAR and CONCAWE, referred to as the JEC consortium, started their collaboration to produce an independent European Well to Wheels (WTW) analysis. The objective of the JEC WTW analysis is to have a common and transparent evaluation of energy use and GHG emissions for a wide range of current and forthcoming fuels and passenger car powertrain options reflecting European conditions. Forward looking and reflecting latest knowledge of industry and research experts, the JEC WTW analysis is considered as a European reference to quantify the decarbonisation potential of existing and future automotive fuels and powertrains. WTW JEC studies have been updated several times with the first version published in 2004 and the fully revised version 5 to be published in 2018. Updates reflect changes applicable to road transport. For example the emergence of biofuels as alternative transport fuels was addressed in versions 2 and 3 whilst the increased electrification of powertrain was included in version 4.

Dorothee Lahaussois, Heather Hamje, Per Hanarp, Laura Lonza, Yugo Marta, Heiko Maas

The holistic life cycle assessment caught between development targets, usage profiles and methodology

During the last decades there has been a growing debate in public and in policy about global warming and the influence of mankind on the environment due to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants resulting in an ongoing climate change and a degrading air quality especially within large cities. The importance of these issues is reflected by 197 nations participating in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and committing themselves to the protection of the environment and the struggle against climate change [1].As the transportation sector is one of the major contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases its importance within the public discussion grows. Figure 1 shows that this sector caused about 18% of the emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany in 2016 not least because of the growing demand for individual mobility. Therefore the pressure on the automotive industry via legislation has increased rapidly during the last years.

Lea Schwarz, Michael Bargende, Stefan Dreyer, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach

TEIL III INNOVATIVE KRAFTSTOFFE - ANWENDUNG SYNTHETISCHER KRAFTSTOFFE

Frontmatter

Potential of Dimethylether as an alternative Diesel fuel for a CO2 sustainable powertrain solution

Worldwide, combustion engines will remain as major power unit for vehicle propulsion in long-term. Consequently, immediate measures are claimed to reduce the current CO2 production from combustion engines which are accomplished by three approaches: (1) an increase of the thermal efficiency, (2) the application of fuels with low carbon content and (3) the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks. The first aspect clearly emphasizes compression ignition (CI) engines, the second aspect draws the attention to hydrogen and single C-bonded fuels and the third aspect has initiated sensitive discussions about renewable resources which lead to the commitments of first/ second/ third generation biofuels. In this context, the use of Ethers as neat or blended fuels for combustion engines has been discussed for more than 20 years. Among these, the simplest compound, Dimethylether CH3-O-CH3 (DME), has an exceptional position as a neat fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines due to its excellent ignition and combustion properties which have been well investigated published by many authors.However, Diesel engines must be specifically adapted for use with DME and one fuel system cannot be used for both Diesel fuel and DME. Due to the lower density and heating value of DME compared to Diesel fuel a 1.8 times higher fuel volume must be injected into the combustion chamber for same power output. Furthermore, the high vapour pressure indicates that DME behaves more like a gas than a liquid which limits the nozzle flow. On the other hand, this characteristic leads to a fast fuel-air mixing at moderate injection pressures (<1000 bar). Due to these outstanding properties, it is appropriate to consider new approaches to accomplish the fuel injection and fuel-air mixing process.

Herwig Ofner, Alexander Morozov, Jost Weber, Takamasa Yokota, Satoru Sasaki

OME in the Diesel engine – a concept for CO2 neutrality and lowest pollutant emissions

Currently the internal combustion engine is heavily criticized and associated with the poor air quality in a few german metropolitan areas and the progressive climate change, because of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. The engine development is under great pressure to meet the stringent CO2 reduction targets of the Paris Agreement of 2015. The defined goal is almost equivalent to eliminating CO2 emissions in the transport sector.There are a variety of different technologies to reduce pollutant and CO2 emissions. Depending on the particular application, different approaches are conceivable. An open competition of technologies should be sought, to identify the best solution for e.g passenger cars, commercial vehicles or other niche applications. Synthetic, liquid fuels have the advantage that they can be introduced in the market more easily due to the existing infrastructure. In addition, a retroactive, positive effect can be achieved in the existing fleet, if the compatibility of the respective fuel is ensured.

Markus Münz, Alexander Mokros, Christian Beidl

Potential of the sustainable C1 fuels OME, DMC, and MeFo for particle-free combustion in SI and CI engines

Current efforts to reduce the use of fossil resources towards a CO2-neutral energy and transport scenario 2050 involve the search for suitable energy platforms and corresponding synthetic fuels.C1 chemistry with methane and methanol (MeOH) as its well-established platform chemicals is not only an appropriate basis for a closed CO2-cycle, but provides also a convenient feed for the synthesis of functional fuels for internal combustion engines (e.g. [Bu10]). Such C1-fuels have a molecular structure without C-C bonds and feature a high oxygen content, hence meet the most essential requirements for soot-less combustion [MP11], [Ma14].Primary requirements for synthetic fuels according to Maus et al. are in hierarchical sequence: CO2-neutrality, availability of energy on a sustainable basis, low impact on environment, economic efficiency, and functionality (energy density) [Ma14]. Suitable fuels will have to be qualified in terms of long-term stability, low toxicity, good material compatibility, adequate evaporation and ignition properties, compatibility with infrastructure, and other material specific properties. This qualification needs to be defined bindingly for each fuel in corresponding standardisation.In this paper, an outlook on the next steps towards a broader use of C1 synthetic fuels will be given based on the work of multiple research projects currently being performed at the Technical University of Munich.

Martin Härtl, Dominik Pélerin, Patrick Dworschak, Thomas Maier, Andreas Stadler, Sebastian Blochum, Kai Gaukel, Eberhard Jacob, Georg Wachtmeister

TEIL III INNOVATIVE KRAFTSTOFFE - BRÜCKENTECHNOLOGIEN

Frontmatter

Options for decarbonization of future transport

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Andreas Kolbeck, Wolfgang Warnecke, Christoph Balzer, Karsten Wilbrand

Zero-emission logistics and hydrogen refilling stations in Switzerland – illustrated by the example of Coop

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Philipp Dietrich

TEIL III INNOVATIVE KRAFTSTOFFE - PRODUKTION SYNTHETISCHER KRAFTSTOFFE

Frontmatter

E-fuels – a central module for future engine design?

The ongoing development of the future spark-ignition internal combustion engine mainly focusses on a more efficient combustion process in combination with a further reduction of pollutant emissions to meet worldwide standards and customer demands. Conceivable measures of engine design are mainly associated with CO2 emissions, costs and the complexity of the measures. A supplement to engine design measures is the use of e-fuels. With e-fuels it is possible to optimize fuel properties for increased engine efficiency and reduced raw emissions across the entire engine map and improve CO2 reduction regarding a ‘well-to-wheel’ system.Driving with high compression ratio and at lambda = 1 across a wide area in the engine map calls for technological measures that prevent knocking and hence avoid the need to enrich the mixture to protect engine components. The effective mechanism of several technologies is to reduce knock tendency, which moves the Mass Fuel Burned (MFB) towards ‘early’, where combustion is more efficient, thus reducing the exhaust temperature. Other approaches are the implementation of high temperature materials for the cylinder head and the turbocharger or faster burning rate due to higher charge motion (tumble) to lower both combustion and exhaust gas temperatures. An alternative to the aforementioned technologies is the use of a higher-octane fuel. The lower knock tendency allows advanced spark-ignition timing or a higher compression ratio for improved efficiency. This reduces the exhaust gas temperature and the need to enrich the mixture to protect components.

Lars Hentschel, Karsten Michels, Thomas Garbe, Martin Hönig

Sustainable methanol-based fuel from CO2 and electricity: economic and regulatory perspectives

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Benedikt Stefánsson

TEIL IV MOTOR UND KRAFTSTOFF

Frontmatter

A systemic approach: chances for the engines of the future!?

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Wolfgang Maus

Emission potential of operating fluids and powertrain functions

The current socio-political debates on the sustainability of mobility and the related increasing awareness of air quality and pollutant emissions, as well as the pursuit of stricter emissions legislation, especially under real driving conditions, present the current challenges in powertrain development. The optimization of energy efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions are here the two key targets. A promising approach for this is the targeted formulation (or reformulation) of operating fluids. In this case, fuels, fuel mixtures or engine oils are formulated with additional synthetic components, which are produced with environmentally sustainable methods and at the same time lead to the reduction of exhaust emissions.

Christian Lensch-Franzen, Tobias Mink, Marcus Gohl, Morten Kronstedt, Ulrich Wahl, Martin Schäfer, Michael Friedmann

Energy transition and sector coupling – general framework for the future mobility sector

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

David Bothe

Diesel – e-fuel blends for simultaneous reduction of real driving NOx and CO2 emissions

In order to meet the target of not to exceed the 2°C in global warming until 2050, worldwide CO2 emitting processes have to be improved. Hence, transport industry and therefore propulsion systems of passenger cars and trucks have to reduce their CO2 emissions significantly, also having in mind that the overall number of vehicles will increase in the next three decades by app. 100%.The use of eFuels in combustion engines might become an important brick for significant CO2 reduction. Efuels are obtained from green H2 (produced from renewable electricity) and CO2 coming from sources like industry gases or atmosphere. Therefore, the Well to Wheel CO2 emissions of eFuels is close to zero: in fact the captured CO2 in the fuel production process (Well-to-Tank) is later emitted when the fuel is burned in the propulsion engines (Tank-to-Wheel).An attractive eFuel for CI engines is OME (Oxymethylene ether), which is liquid, nontoxic and the production can be realized with reasonable costs. Continental investigated pure OME and its blends with Diesel on serial engines and vehicles in combination with state-of-the art aftertreatment systems.

Gerd Rösel, G. Avolio, J. Grimm, O. Maiwald, O. Kastner, R. Brück

PLENUM

Frontmatter

Mobility for tomorrow – with or without the internal combustion engine?

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Peter Gutzmer

Mobility and climate protection – friends or enemies?

Die Unterlagen wurden nicht zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben.Wir bitten um Verständnis.

Thorsten Herdan
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