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2020 | Buch

Internet Computing

Principles of Distributed Systems and Emerging Internet-Based Technologies

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This book introduces the reader to the fundamentals of contemporary, emerging and future technologies and services in Internet computing. It covers essential concepts such as distributed systems architectures and web technologies, contemporary paradigms such as cloud computing and the Internet of things, and emerging technologies like distributed ledger technologies and fog computing. The book also highlights the interconnection and recombination of these Internet-based technologies, which together form a critical information infrastructure with major impacts on individuals, organizations, governments, economies, and society as a whole.
Intended as a textbook for upper undergraduate and graduate classes, it features a wealth of examples, learning goals and summaries for every chapter, numerous recommendations for further reading, and questions for checking students’ comprehension. A dedicated author website offers additional teaching material and more elaborate examples. Accordingly, the book enables students and young professionals in IT-related fields to familiarize themselves with the Internet’s basic mechanisms, and with the most promising Internet-based technologies of our time.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction to Internet Computing
Abstract
Over the past decades, the Internet has fundamentally influenced almost all areas of our everyday lives. It has profoundly changed the ways in which we communicate, gather information, and consume media, and has led to the emergence of Internet companies that are based on fundamentally new business models. This chapter introduces Internet computing as a scientific field that is concerned with applications provided via the Internet, the underlying architectures and technologies necessary to build such applications, and systemic matters that inform the design of such applications. Based on these foundations, this chapter outlines this book’s structure. In addition to defining Internet computing and briefly presenting the chapters, an overview of the historical background and development of the Internet is provided. This chapter also introduces the concepts of information systems (IS) and distributed systems as important related scientific fields that shaped the ways Internet-based applications have been designed. To round off this introduction, several common Internet-based applications are presented.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 2. Information Systems Architecture
Abstract
Information systems (IS) are composed of different, interrelated elements that aim to fulfill desired features. This chapter introduces the concept of IS architecture as a way to meaningfully describe and design the underlying structure of an IS. It presents nine basic principles of IS architectures and explains them using the example of the cloud-based storage service Dropbox. This introduction to IS architecture also introduces the most common architectural patterns (i.e. the client-server architecture, tier architectures, peer-to-peer architecture, model view controller, and service-oriented architecture) in the realm of Internet computing and briefly discusses their strengths and weaknesses.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 3. Design of Good Information Systems Architectures
Abstract
Each information system (IS) has an underlying architecture, although its complexity and scope can vary quite substantially for differ kinds of systems. Since design decisions about the architecture define the very foundation of an IS, the design decisions cannot be easily undone or altered after they were made. If not taken seriously enough, improper IS architecture designs can result in the development of systems that are incapable of adequately meeting user requirements. Understanding the concept of good IS architecture design and taking design decisions diligently is, therefore, highly important for an IS development project’s success. In order to answer the question of what constitutes a good IS architecture, this chapter examines the importance of design decisions across a system’s lifecycle. In particular, two different perspectives on the concept of good IS architecture design are explicated: (1) design as the process and (2) design as the outcome of a design process. The two perspectives are closely related to each other and generally help explain the more abstract concept of IS architecture design and particularly the characteristics of a good IS architecture.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 4. Internet Architectures
Abstract
In order to explain how the Internet works, this chapter takes a closer look at the architecture that underlies the Internet, as well as at its architectural principles and mechanisms. After providing a brief overview of the Internet’s history, this chapter examines today’s core infrastructure and explains the role of Internet service providers. In addition, the essential mechanisms enabling Internet communication are explained, namely the Internet Protocol (IP) suite, IP addresses, the domain name system (DNS), as well as IP packet routing and forwarding. This chapter also explains how large content providers, like Google, Amazon, and Netflix, provide Internet users all over the world with efficient and reliable services by utilizing specialized content delivery networks. The description of four emerging architectural concepts that extend the established Internet architecture with more efficient and/or effective ways of providing innovative Internet services (i.e., software-defined networking, network function virtualization, overlay networks, and information-centric networking) conclude this chapter.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 5. Middleware
Abstract
In the context of IT applications and especially in large organizations, integration of existing information systems into new IT environments poses many challenges. One of the biggest issue in this regard is dealing with the systems’ heterogenity in terms of used programming languages, operating systems, or even data formats. In order to ensure communication between different information systems, developers must establish common interfaces. This chapter introduces middleware as a type of software which manages and facilitates interactions between applications across computing platforms. Besides a brief definition and overview of middleware, several of its characteristics are described. Furthermore, the differences between the three middleware categories (message-oriented, transaction-oriented and object-oriented middleware) are defined. In addition to these theoretical foundations, some practical implementations are presented.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 6. Web Services
Abstract
Based on the client-server principle, Web services are software systems that interact with client applications and other services through open Web standards. Consequently, heterogenous computer systems from all over the world can exchange information, regardless of their hardware configurations, operating systems, and software applications. Web services are, therefore, a very popular approach for facilitating automated intra-organizational and inter-organizational communication. This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the Web service concept and the different associated standards and technologies, such as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), RESTful interfaces, and Web Services Description Language (WSDL). This chapter particularly provides a comprehensive introduction for two important Web technologies on which most Web services are based: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). Then, the fundamental Web service architectural principles are explained and two common Web service variants are explored in more detail, namely RESTful and SOAP-based Web services. Using these example implementations, this chapter concludes by comparing the two Web service variants in terms of their different application areas.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 7. Cloud Computing
Abstract
Cloud computing is an evolution of information technology and a dominant business model for delivering IT resources. With cloud computing, individuals and organizations can gain on-demand network access to a shared pool of managed and scalable IT resources, such as servers, storage, and applications. Recently, academics as well as practitioners have paid a great deal of attention to cloud computing. We rely heavily on cloud services in our daily lives, e.g., for storing data, writing documents, managing businesses, and playing games online. Cloud computing also provides the infrastructure that has powered key digital trends such as mobile computing, the Internet of Things, big data, and artificial intelligence, thereby accelerating industry dynamics, disrupting existing business models, and fueling the digital transformation. Still, cloud computing not only provides a vast number of benefits and opportunities; it also comes with several challenges and concerns, e.g., regarding protecting customers’ data.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 8. Fog and Edge Computing
Abstract
Thanks to innovations like the Internet of Things and autonomous driving, millions of new devices, sensors, and applications will be going online in the near future. They will generate huge amounts of data, which connected technologies will have to be able to handle. Measuring, monitoring, analyzing, processing, and reacting are just a few examples of tasks involving the vast quantities of data that these devices, sensors, and applications will generate. Existing models like cloud computing are reaching their limits and will struggle to cope with this deluge of data. This chapter introduces fog and edge computing as a model in which computing power moves toward the sources where the data are generated. Following a brief definition and overview of fog and edge computing, eight of their unique characteristics are described, including contextual location awareness and low latency. Differences between this model and the better-known cloud computing model, as well as other related models, are also explained, and the challenges and opportunities of fog and edge computing are discussed. In addition to the definition and characteristics of fog and edge computing, examples of practical implementation are presented.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 9. Distributed Ledger Technology
Abstract
Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is one of the most promising innovations in the field of information technologies with the potential to change organization and collaboration in the economy, society, and industry. This chapter introduces the technical background and use cases of distributed ledger technology. It presents the major innovations originating from distributed ledger technology since the introduction of the blockchain concept. Furthermore, cryptocurrencies’ historical background as a driver of fully decentralized distributed ledgers is outlined from their origins in the 1990s until the blockchain concept’s introduction in 2009. DLT’s technical principles are introduced to provide a sound understanding. Subsequently, the functioning of distributed ledger technology is illustrated by means of the Bitcoin blockchain example, which was the first fully decentralized cryptocurrency to not require a trusted authority (i.e., banks). Thereafter, smart contracts and the idea of decentralized applications are explained. Selected use cases for distributed ledger technology’s application are subsequently discussed. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the prevailing challenges in the field of distributed ledger technology.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 10. The Internet of Things
Abstract
Building on the Internet's success story over the past decades, the Internet of Things will profoundly change how people consume information and interact with their immediate environments. This chapter introduces the Internet of Things as a paradigm in which not only human-to-human and human-to-machine communication, but also machine-to-machine communication between smart everyday objects occur over the Internet. Besides a brief definition and overview of the Internet of Things' historical background in the early 1990s, several of its enabling technologies and basic concepts are also covered. Furthermore, this chapter also presents an overview of important architectural models of the Internet of Things put forward by researchers and practitioners. To conclude this introduction, this chapter deals with several common use cases of the Internet of Things, such as smart homes, smart cities, and the Industrial Internet of Things (with a specific focus on the implications for the energy and health care sectors), as well as important challenges to and potential future developments of the Internet of Things.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 11. Critical Information Infrastructures
Abstract
Information systems have evolved rapidly in the past decades and increasingly take a central role in society. Today, some information systems have become such integral parts of society that their disruption or unintended consequences can have detrimental effects on vital societal functions; that is, they have become critical information infrastructures. This chapter clarifies the concept of ‘critical information infrastructures’ and distinguishes them from conventional critical infrastructures. After introducing foundational concepts and the evolution of information infrastructures, the chapter discusses salient characteristics, important challenges, main functions, and core tasks for operating critical information infrastructures. Critical information infrastructures, in spite of their vital role in society, often go unnoticed. In this chapter, the reader learns the basics of recognizing, understanding, and operating critical information infrastructures.
Ali Sunyaev
Chapter 12. Emerging Technologies
Abstract
Technological innovations have always played a key role in the human civilization’s progression. Occasionally, these innovations develop to such an extent that they open up completely new pathways in individual fields and even reshape our society as a whole. However, to exert this prominent impact, a technology must first emerge, i.e. it must mature and become visible. This chapter introduces this process’s underlying concepts and, thereby, provides a deep understanding of the emerging technologies’ nature and their important implications, for example, affecting specific domains by changing the actors’ and institutions’ composition in this domain. To this end, this chapter gives an overview of the five most important attributes that characterize emerging technologies. The chapter also presents selected examples of currently emerging technologies, namely immersive technologies, virtual assistants, and artificial intelligence. Each technology is briefly described in accordance with its attributes, followed by a discussion of the technology’s exemplary applications to highlight its emerging character, and, thus, provide an understanding of their potential future impact on specific application areas and our society as a whole.
Ali Sunyaev
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Internet Computing
verfasst von
Prof. Dr. Ali Sunyaev
Copyright-Jahr
2020
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-34957-8
Print ISBN
978-3-030-34956-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-34957-8

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