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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on a combination of theoretical advances in the Internet of Things, cloud computing and its real-life applications to serve society. The book discusses technological innovations, authentication, mobility support and security, group rekeying schemes and a range of concrete applications.

The Internet has restructured not only global interrelations, but also an unbelievable number of personal characteristics. Machines are increasingly able to control innumerable autonomous gadgets via the Internet, creating the Internet of Things, which facilitates intelligent communication between humans and things, and among things. The Internet of Things is an active area of current research, and technological advances have been supported by real-life applications to establish their soundness. The material in this book includes concepts, figures, graphs, and tables to guide researchers through the Internet of Things and its applications for society.



Fundamentals and Architecture of Internet of Things


Relay Technology for 5G Networks and IoT Applications

Relaying technologies have been actively studied in mobile broadband communication systems, and were considered in the most recent standard releases of the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), including “Long Term Evolution Advanced” (LTE-A) networks. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the relay technology that is being considered for future 5G networks. The article first introduces and compares different relay types that use LTE-A standards, and presents the relay benefits in terms of performance and operational costs. It then highlights future relay deployment strategies that have been discussed by the 3GPP, which supports multi-hopping, mobility, and heterogeneity. In addition, it also proposes efficient deployment strategies, along with their impact on network performance. Finally, the chapter explains a few of the associated challenges that lie ahead for relay application, and provides a video streaming application.
Abderrahmane BenMimoune, Michel Kadoch

Two-Way Authentication for the Internet-of-Things

This chapter introduces the first fully implemented two-way authentication security scheme for Internet-of-Things (IoT) based on existing Internet standards, specifically the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol. By relying on an established standard, existing implementations, engineering techniques, and security infrastructure can be reused, which enables an easy security uptake. The proposed security scheme uses two public key cryptography algorithms, RSA (Rivest, Shamir und Adleman) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), tailored for the resource heterogeneous nature of IoT devices. The two-way authentication solution presented is designed to work over standard communication stacks that offer UDP/IPv6 networking for Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (LoWPANs). A prototype implementation of DTLS is presented here in the context of a system architecture, and the scheme’s feasibility (low overheads and high interoperability) is demonstrated through extensive evaluations on the DTLS-supporting platform OPAL as clusterhead with children of different IoT hardware platforms.
Corinna Schmitt, Thomas Kothmayr, Wen Hu, Burkhard Stiller

Mobility Support and Service Discovery for Industrial Process Monitoring

A service-oriented architecture designed for the use of wireless sensors networks (WSN) in industrial applications such as the operation and maintenance of industrial installations is presented in this chapter. This architecture comprises the OCARI wireless sensor network and the OPC-UA/ROSA middleware, as well as the KASEM predictive maintenance system. In contrast to well-known communication stacks for wireless sensor networks such as ZigBee and WirelessHart, OCARI has been designed to support mobility of sensor nodes. Furthermore, the OPC-UA/ROSA middleware provides service discovery to enable the interconnection of the WSN with the Internet of Things (IoT). This architecture targets various industrial applications such as process monitoring, pollutant detection, monitoring of fuel storage area, fire detection in temporary worksites, health monitoring of people working in hazardous conditions, etc.
Tuan Dang, Pascale Minet, Patrick Bellot, Christophe Mozzati, Erwan Livolant

MAC Protocols in Body Area Network-A Survey

Body area networks represent the natural union between connectivity and miniaturization. Formally, it is defined as a system of devices in close proximity to a persons body that cooperate for the benefit of the user. These networks are appealing to the researchers due to their wide range of application areas such as remote health monitoring, fitness monitoring, triage, biosensors etc. However, typical properties of body area network bring the necessity to achieve an efficient medium access protocol in terms of power consumption and delay. Various medium access protocols with different objectives were proposed for wireless sensor network by many researchers. This chapter throws light on some features that make body area networks different from wireless sensor networks. A comparative study of various medium access protocols for body area networks is also presented.
Manish Kumar, Mayank Dave

Internet of Nano Things and Industrial Internet of Things

In recent years, nanotechnology has become an important research topic which promises novel solutions for several applications in healthcare, industrial, biomedical, and military. The advanced nanotechnology led to appear new nanodevices which acquire, generate, compute, process and transfer data at nanoscale dimension. These nanodevices are interconnected with each other using the existing communication systems which produce a new domain that is called Internet of nano things. The current advanced development in telecommunication and network system let to new area known as Internet of things. One of the most important applications of Internet of things is in the industrial control systems. The Internet of things makes novel development in industrial field which define new paradigm that is further referred to as industrial Internet of things. Within this context, this chapter through light on fundamental concepts, architecture, communication classifications, communication issues, applications, security and future research directions in the Internet of nano things. Additionally, it also explore architecture, requirements, benefits, security and future research directions in the industrial Internet of things.
Hemdan Ezz El-Din, D. H. Manjaiah

Distributed Systems and Security in Internet of Things


Secure Distributed Group Rekeying Scheme for Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks Using Multilevel Encryption

Recently evolution in various devices, aid unrealistic dreams of connection between them and people on a large scale comes true and accelerates the idea of the Internet of Things (IoT). Sensors are playing an important role in this way. Conversely wireless sensor networks take the advantages to build a bridge and become an edge for IoT. By enhancing the usage of wireless sensor networks in many fields such as military, having a secure environment for communication within sensors is becoming more obligatory. Wireless sensor networks can be affected by active or passive attacks. One of the important concerns to reach to the aim of the IoT after deploying WSNs is its security. In this chapter, a model that is dealing with a variety of passive attacks, including node capturing and eavesdropping, which make data to be eliminated or changed is proposed. Due to the resource constrained of WSNs, secured schemes that use in ad hoc and wired networks are not appropriate. Additionally, to ensure environmental security and reduce usage of limited resources of sensors, a novel scheme using dynamic key management and encrypted data security is proposed. In order to prevent invader’s access to encrypted data, generating a new key during re-keying model is developed. For this purpose, a random number is sent as a pattern instead of regular sending a new key to a group of sensors for encryption. Index of an array, which is pre-distributed among sensors is determined through location of 1’s in the binary representation of the pattern, involve keys, which used in encryption or decryption. The results show that the complexity of time is \(O(K*N)\), where K is the size of the array, which its keys use in encryption or decryption, and N is the length of the text that should be encrypted or decrypted. Furthermore, by paying more time linearly the security of the network is increased exponentially for the larger scales of networks.
Mohsen Yazdinejad, Faezeh Nayyeri, Omid Mahdi Ebadati E., Nasim Afshari

Recognizing Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network in View of Internet of Things

Wireless sensor networks are wide spreading, dominating, and has a far-reaching range of utilizations such as battlefield scrutiny, traffic scrutiny, forest fire detection, flood detection etc. Both industry and academia are targeting their research works for the sake of advancing their functions. The safety of a wireless sensor network is negotiated due to the random distribution of sensor nodes in exposed environment, memory restraints, power restraints and unattended nature. Furthermore, providing confidence between every couple of communicating nodes is a demanding issue and is of prime importance in internet of things. Under these conditions this chapter spotlights variety of attacks and their symptoms thoroughly. The chapter analyzes them based on trusting based protection techniques including classical techniques such as fuzzy, Bayesian, game theory etc. Modern techniques such as clustering, bio-inspired computing, key establishment based techniques are stressed upon to provide maximum protection for each node in the wireless sensor network.
D. P. Acharjya, N. Syed Siraj Ahmed

Wireless Sensor Network in Automation and Internet of Things

Wireless sensor network in IOT automation and its endowment to enable green computing is of prime concern in recent years. Internet of things (IOT) is the buzz word in today’s computing world. It is a collection of devices, connected in the internet that can be controlled, monitored and utilized for a purposeful application. One of the most important elements in the IoT paradigm is wireless sensor networks. The emerging field of wireless sensor networks combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device. Most often, the connected devices will be obeying the internet protocols and the devices have the capability of sensing the environmental conditions. The devices connected to IOT may use wireless or Radio-frequency identification (RFID), machine to machine (M2M), near frequency communication (NFC), and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) as a connection medium for connecting the host network. The IOT devices sense the environmental conditions using sensor network comprised of sensor nodes. Due to miniature size, minimized data transmission and very low power factor, the sensor devices are attracting and holding a greater space in real-time data computation environments. This makes to concentrate on wireless sensor networks and its benefits towards IOT.
G. R. Sakthidharan, A. Punitha

Challenges of Distributed Storage Systems in Internet of Things

Internet of things presents a general concept of the strength of different network devices to sense and collect important information from the world around it, and then it share this information across the internet where it accessed, processed and utilized for various other interesting purposes. This concept of internet of things will be an integrated part of the future internet. But in order to gain more benefits, it is essential to store heterogeneous data captured by various devices for further analysis. But it requires vast amount of storage space which cannot be handled using traditional centralized storage system. So it is achieved using the concept of distributed storage systems and the growth of these storage devices impose many challenges related to topologies and interconnection protocols, data consistency, error handling, security and privacy, etc. Ensuring security and privacy to the users is a major challenge considering the sensitive, personal or confidential nature of the data stored in the system. This chapter, discusses various issues related to fusion, privacy, security and trust in distributed storage systems.
Madhvaraj M. Shetty, D. H. Manjaiah

Challenges, Issues and Healthtcare Applications of Internet of Things


Internet of Things Based Intelligent Elderly Care System

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that most common cause of injuries to elderly people increases every year due to fall events. Human fall events are one of the most important health problem among the elderly people whos aged 65 and above, which could probably result in a significant barrier to their independent living. This chapter presents a method for fall activity detection based on Motion Projection Profile (MPP) features extracted from temporal difference image to represent a various levels of a person’s posture. Falls are detected by analyzing the projection profile features consist of the measure of motion pixel of each row, column, left diagonal and right diagonal of the temporal difference image and gives adequate information to recognize the instantaneous posture of the person. The experiments are carried out using publicly available fall detection dataset and the extracted MPP feature set are modeled by the various machine learning methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) with polynomial kernel, SVM with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and the Decision tree (J48) algorithm are used to classify the fall activies. Experimental results show that SVM with RBF kernel is an efficient to recognize the fall activity with an overall recognition accuracy of 89.55% on the fall detection dataset, which outperforms other machine learning methods.
J. Arunnehru, M. Kalaiselvi Geetha

Challenges, Issues and Applications of Internet of Things

In world millions of things, objects sense, collect data, share, and communicate these data with each other. Further on analysis, the results obtained are used to initiate some action of decision making and planning in business. This is called Internet of Things (IoT). It has become more relevant to the existing practical world of today due to the evolution of chips, sensors, mobile devices, embedded and pervasive communication, data analytics, and cloud computing. By installing tiny short range of mobile transceivers into everyday items enables new forms of communication and adds new dimension to the world of information and communication. This results to come out new applications and address challenges to the society, such as remote health monitoring, tracking of assets and products, cost savings, optimizing resource usage, enabling quick responses to disasters, smart offices and homes, assisted living, enhanced learning, and e-health. All these will play a leading role in the future. There are numerous potential applications of the IoT, spreading practically into all areas. This chapter throughs light on some potential applications of Internet of Things with its advantages and disadvantages.
Madhvaraj M. Shetty, D. H. Manjaiah

Application of Technologies in Internet of Things

In this modern smart era, various things in the physical world are connected to the Internet to share information. It is possible to communicate with every things with sensors connected to it. The data from diverse sensors may be collected at regular intervals and collected data may be translated to track objects, control the objects by decision making algorithms, etc. These features of Internet of Things (IoT) revolutionized the medical applications to provide cost effective quality health care with improved efficiency of manpower. The IoT alleviated the obstacles in medical applications in maintaining the records of patients, regular and remote monitoring of data as well as providing automatic diagnosis information to care givers or to the doctors without human intervention. The knowledge of sensors, its connectivity, communication protocol is essential for the neophytes in the development of IoT solutions in health care. Most literature, demonstrates the application of IoT and not much literature describes the various components that are censorious for understanding IoT. Therefore, this chapter covers the various components such as sensors, data collection and communication, software technology that are essential to implement IoT.
P. Geethanjali

Industry and Societal Applications of Internet of Things


An Appraisal on Human-Centered Internet of Things

This chapter outlines the current state of the Internet of Things (IoT) from the people’s association point of view. IoT is an intelligent environment where objects become smart and autonomously communicate with one another and human beings, through networks supported by interfaces. The IoT technologies have not only been widely studied in simulation and investigational circumstances but also dealt with real world scenarios. The IoT systems are enhanced by surveying diverse interactions between humans and the IoT to mine the implanted intelligence about individual, environment, and society. The IoT is facilitated by the latest developments in RFID, smart sensors, communication technologies, and internet protocols. In the upcoming years, the IoT is expected to bridge various technologies to enable new applications by connecting physical objects together in support of intelligent decision making. The spotlight of this chapter is to present the support of intelligent human-computer interaction for the IoT and to deal with human-centered concerns in the IoT.
A. Geetha, M. Kalaiselvi Geetha

A Survey on Internet of Things: Case Studies, Applications, and Future Directions

Internet is recognized as the best innovative and influential establishment in the human history. The Internet of Things (IoT) represents the upcoming huge step in the Internet with its ability to gather, distribute, analyze and interpret data. The combination of Internet with RFID technologies, smart objects, sensor technologies, network components and electronics is IoT. IoT has been recognized as the promise of technology today and are well-defined as things belonging to the Internet aiding to the accessibility and supply of all of real-time data. Millions of devices are expected to be connected or networked into the IoT structure which requires massive dissemination of networks as well as the method of converting raw data into meaningful interpretations. The form of communication that is experienced now is either human-human or human-device, but Internet of Things (IoT) assures a promising type of communication, that is machine-machine (M2M). More influential smart phones, appliances, tablets and the applications that are similarly rich and powerful available for each, will enable buyers and business customers to interact seamlessly with companies altering the business processes. With businesses realizing that great digital experience to customers is no longer nice to have, but it is a make-or-break point for business has led to the integration and wider acceptance of Internet of Things. This chapter gives an idea of Internet of Things (IoT), the technologies that enable the implementation of IoT, the objectives and the future vision of IoT, the general layered architecture of IoT and the future growth challenges. This chapter also discusses the various applications of IoT and two case studies.
Kalavathy Perumal, Murali Manohar

Internet of Things in Cloud Computing

In the recent time, the advancement of network and communication systems developed new mechanisms for communicating and managing devices and it led to new area called Internet of Things (IoT). It means connecting devices through Internet for performing processes and services to provide prime services and needs of people in real life. So, it has become one of the most popular and important research directions for scientists and researchers to develop new approaches and procedures for performing communication process between devices in easy and efficient manner. To empower the connected devices with huge capabilities of computing and storage resources that can help to manage and handle billion of devices, there is a serious need in technology to support these capabilities. Cloud computing is one such essential technologies that can provide and enable IoT with the required capabilities and resources. This chapter reviews IoT in cloud computing systematically reviewed. Additionally, various research directions to enable cloud computing in IoT are presented.
Hemdan Ezz El-Din, D. H. Manjaiah
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