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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2014, and the 7th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2014, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in August 2014. The total of 67 papers was carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book. The 15 papers selected from ruSMART are organized in topical sections named: smart spaces core technologies, smart spaces for geo-location and e-tourism apps, smart space supporting technologies, and video solutions for smart spaces. The 52 papers from NEW2AN deal with the following topics: advances in wireless networking, ad hoc networks and enhanced services, sensor- and machine-type communication, networking architectures and their modeling, traffic analysis and prediction, analytical methods for performance evaluation, materials for future communications, generation and analysis of signals, business aspects of networking, progress on upper layers and implementations, modeling methods and tools, techniques, algorithms, and control problems, photonics and optics, and signals and their processing.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

ruSMART

Frontmatter

Smart Spaces Core Technologies

Linked Data-Driven Smart Spaces

In this paper, we present an approach to exploit Linked Data in Smart Spaces, doing more than just using RDF to represent information. In particular, we rely on knowledge stored in DBpedia, a dataset in the Web of Data. We also provide a platform to implement such an approach and a eTourism use case, both developed in collaboration with a mobile operator. Finally, we provide also a performance evaluation of the main component of the platform.

Oscar Rodríguez Rocha, Cristhian Figueroa, Iacopo Vagliano, Boris Moltchanov

Resource Allocation Policies for Smart Energy Efficiency in Data Centers

A data center must serve arriving requests in such way that the energy usage, reliability and quality of service performance should be balanced. This work is devoted to on-line resource allocation policies in data centers. We study a Markovian queueing system with controllable number of servers in order to minimize energy consumption and thus maximize the average revenue earned per unit time. An analytical model approach based on continuous-time Markov chain is proposed. The model is tested by simulation. Combining on-line measurement, prediction and adaptation, our techniques can dynamically determine the number of servers to handle the predicted workload. The policies comply with energy efficiency and service level agreements even under extreme workload fluctuations.

Marina Khludova

Design of a Framework for Controlling Smart Environments

Controlling a smart environment consisting of fixtures that communicate using different protocols is challenging. In this paper, a design of a highly extensible framework for controlling smart environments is proposed. The design is based on low-coupled Web Services communicating over an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). The framework is independent from the fixture (adressable sensor, addressable actuator) communication protocols. It provides communication protocol abstractions that enable the framework to be extended with arbitrary fixture communication protocol implementation. The framework enables users to control fixtures using a uniform REST-based protocol. In addition, the proposed framework contains components that enable smart environment automation, collect user activity and context data and manage user rights.

Stefan Nosović, Sebastian Peters, Bernd Bruegge

Smart Spaces for Geo-location and e-Tourism Apps

Smart Space-Based Tourist Recommendation System

Application for Mobile Devices

The paper presents smart space-based tourist recommendation system that allows acquiring information about places of interests around the tourist from different internet sources (like wikipedia, wikivoyage, wikitravel, panoramio, flickr). The system implements ranking acquired attractions according to the tourist preferences and current situation in the tourist location. Tourists can rate attractions that they like or dislike. Based on these ratings a recommendation service clusters tourists into groups with similar interests and uses evaluations of tourists belonging to the same group for ranking attractions around the tourist. The paper presents a prototype service for these purposes that is based on smart space technology. The prototype has been developed for Android devices and is available for free downloaded from Google Play market.

Alexander Smirnov, Alexey Kashevnik, Andrew Ponomarev, Nikolay Teslya, Maksim Shchekotov, Sergey I. Balandin

Smart Space-Based in-Vehicle Application for e-Tourism

Technological Framework and Implementation for Ford SYNC

Recently, the development of in-vehicle services has become more and more popular. Many people spend a lot of time in vehicles and producers propose new in-vehicles systems to provide information for drivers and entertain them. Drivers travel from one location to another and usually would like to know information about places of interests around. Integration of e-tourism services with vehicle multimedia system opens new possibilities for delivering useful information about places of interests around to the driver. The paper presents a technological framework and implementation of mobile tourist guide and in-vehicle system integration (on the example of Ford SYNC system). The system consists of several services that find, extract and process potentially useful for the tourist information about places of interests around and provide it through user-friendly vehicle interface. The smart space technology is used for providing interaction possibilities and interoperability of these service.

Alexander Smirnov, Alexey Kashevnik, Nikolay Shilov, Andrew Ponomarev

Geo-Coding and Smart Space Platforms Integration Agent Performance Testing and Analysis

Internet of Things, Smart Spaces and Geo-coding technologies are fastest growing directions in modern mobile market and urban environments [1, 2]. This is due to the advent of various services that using common technologies, as well as to develop common requirements and architectures for using geo-contextual services in semantic data processing. Location is a mandatory requirement for the Internet of Things and Smart Spaces directions products, because geo-context is a one of the factor to determine the location of subjects in various environments. As a result, it was decided to integrate geo-coding and smart spaces platforms, for the possibility of using geo-context in the semantic space. As an implementation used two open source software platforms – Geo2Tag and Smart-M3. The article discusses an integration agent performance testing and its analysis, provided recommendations for integration mechanisms optimization.

Kirill Yudenok

Predicting Human Location Based on Human Personality

It is generally believed that human personality affects human mobility patterns. Human personality factors, especially the Big Five factors, allow for the future location of a person to be probabilistically predicted in combination with personal mobility model. For this purpose, we collected the Big Five factors and positioning data for five volunteer participants. Human positioning data can be modeled under an individual human mobility model. With these personality factors and the human mobility model, a person’s near future location can actually be predicted using a back propagation network.

Seung Yeon Kim, Ha Yoon Song

Smart Space Supporting Technologies

On Open Source Mobile Sensing

The paper discusses phone as a sensor model. For many applied tasks smart phones are an ideal platform for collecting and processing context-related data. The most popular example is, probably, computational social science. Phones can collect data for conducting various social researches about people’s social behavior. This paper presents an attempt to describe and categorize existing open source libraries for mobile sensing, describe architecture and design patterns as well as discover directions for the future development.

Dmitry Namiot, Manfred Sneps-Sneppe

Effective Waste Collection with Shortest Path Semi-Static and Dynamic Routing

Smart cities are the next step in human habitation. In this context the proliferation of sensors and actuators within the Internet of Things (IoT) concept creates a real opportunity for increasing information awareness and subsequent efficient resource utilization. IoT-enabled smart cities will generate new services. One such service is the waste collection from the streets of smart cities. In the past, waste collection was treated with static routing models. These models were not flexible in case of segment collapse. In this paper we introduce a semi-static and dynamic shortest path routing model enhanced with sensing capabilities through the Internet connected objects in order to achieve effective waste collection.

Theodoros Vasileios Anagnostopoulos, Arkady Zaslavsky

Trust and Reputation Mechanisms for Multi-agent Robotic Systems

In this paper we analyze the functioning of multi-agent robotic systems with decentralized control in conditions of destructive information influences from robots-saboteurs. We considered a type of hidden attacks using interception of messages, formation and transmission of misinformation to a group of robots, and also realizing other actions which have no visible signs of invasion into a group of robots. We analyze existing models of information security of the multi-agent information system based on a measure of trust, calculated in the course of interaction of agents. We suggest a mechanism of information security in which robots-agents produce levels of trust to each other on the basis of the situation analysis developing on a certain step of an iterative algorithm with the use of onboard sensor devices. For improving the metric of likeness of objects relating to one category (“saboteur” or “legitimate agent”) we suggest an algorithm to calculate reputation of agents as a measure of the public opinion created in time about qualities of robots of the category “saboteur” in a group of legitimate robots-agents. It is shown that inter-cluster distance can serve as a metric of quality of trust models in multi-agent systems. We give an example showing the use of the developed mechanism for detection of saboteurs in different situations in using the basic algorithm of distribution of targets in a group of robots.

Igor A. Zikratov, Ilya S. Lebedev, Andrei V. Gurtov

A Notification Model for Smart-M3 Applications

Smart-M3 platform supports development of applications consisting of autonomous knowledge processors that interact by sharing information in a smart space. In this paper, we introduce a notification model for ontology-based design and programming of interactions in such applications. Our model is based on the two Smart-M3 fundamentals: subscription operation and RDF representation. The applicability is demonstrated on the case study of SmartScribo system for multi-blogging and on simulation experiments for performance evaluation.

Ivan V. Galov, Dmitry G. Korzun

Video Solutions for Smart Spaces

Elimination of Distorted Images Using the Blur Estimation at the Automatic Registration of Meeting Participants

The methods for estimation of blur and other quality metrics of digital images are discussed. The classification of modern methods of blur estimation used for real-time systems is presented. Several methods of image patch segmentation were applied for enhancement of the processing speed and reliability of image quality assessment. The proposed method of preliminary extraction of face area on the image and estimation of its blur was successfully used for elimination of distorted images before the face recognition stage in a system of automatic registration of participants in a smart meeting room.

Irina V. Vatamaniuk, Alexander L. Ronzhin, Anton I. Saveliev, Andrey L. Ronzhin

Citywatcher: Annotating and Searching Video Data Streams for Smart Cities Applications

Digital pervasive video cameras can be abundantly found everywhere these days and their numbers grow continuously. Modern cities have large networks of surveillance cameras including CCTV, street crossings and the like. Sometimes authorities need a video-recording of some road accident (or of some other event) to understand what happened and identify a driver who may have been at fault. In this paper we discuss the challenges of annotating and retrieving video data streams from vehicle-mounted surveillance cameras. We also propose and evaluate the CityWatcher application – an Android application for recording video streams, annotating them with location, timestamp and additional context in order to make them discoverable and available to authorized Internet of Things applications

Alexey Medvedev, Arkady Zaslavsky, Vladimir Grudinin, Sergey Khoruzhnikov

Application of Face Recognition Methods for Process Automation in Intelligent Meeting Room

This paper describes the automatic registration technique based on face recognition of meeting participants, which has been implemented in the intelligent meeting room. This technique provides unobtrusive recognition and picture making of participant faces. Application of the developed technique makes it possible to reduce the work of secretaries and videographers; it also allows participants to concentrate on the discussed issues at the expense of automated control of sensory equipment. For the experimental evaluation of the developed methods and the technique about 52,000 photographs for 36 participants were accumulated from a high resolution camera. During the experiments three face recognition methods LBP, PCA and LDA were compared. The experimental results showed that method LBP has the highest recognition accuracy 79,3%, but the PCA method has the lowest percentage of the false positives 1,3%, which is important aspect in the participants identification.

Alexander Ronzhin

Architecture of Data Exchange with Minimal Client-Server Interaction at Multipoint Video Conferencing

The problems of serverless connections between clients and audiovisual data transmission in peer-to-peer videoconferencing web application are discussed. The serverless connections based on the WebRTC protocol allow applications to transfer any data between clients directly. The partial or complete loss of service data for the WebRTC protocol, which hampers the client connection, occurs during interaction of several clients through the server of the videoconferencing application. The proposed architecture of data transmission and storage on client and server provides buffering and following processing of the signal data with the exception of their loss and support of interaction between client groups.

Anton I. Saveliev, Irina V. Vatamaniuk, Andrey L. Ronzhin

NEW2AN

Frontmatter

Advances in Wireless Networking

Joint Spatial Relay Distribution and Resource Allocation & ICIC Strategies for Performance Enhancement for Inband Relay LTE–A Systems

Relaying is seen as a cost-effective solution to increase the coverage and improve the capacity for LTE-A networks. However, the resource allocation among different nodes and links and inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) are important challenges in order to make the most of the potential benefits of relay deployments. This paper focuses on Type 1 half-duplex inband relaying. Several strategies related to radio resource partition and frequency reuse between nodes and links are proposed for various relay deployments. Modified FFR-based resource sharing schemes for ICIC are proposed for both access and backhaul subframes, jointly considering the impact of the number and location of relays on the sector. The real impact of the capacity of the backhaul link on system performance is explicitly taken into account. In addition, relay cell range expansion with several bias offsets is analyzed.

Miguel Eguizábal-Alonso, Ángela Hernández-Solana

LTE Base Stations Localization

Direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithm for LTE base stations (BSs) is proposed in the paper. The algorithm is assumed using of mobile receiver station (MRS) with antenna array and is based on the analysis of peaks of cell-specific reference signal (CRS) autocorrelation functions (ACFs). Line of sight (LoS) identification is also provided by the algorithm. As a comparison, DoA estimation algorithms for raw signal and for primary synchronization signal (PSS) ACFs peaks are observed. It is shown, that proposed algorithm provides the best accuracy in DoA estimation.

Aleksandr Gelgor, Igor Pavlenko, Grigoriy Fokin, Anton Gorlov, Evgenii Popov, Vladimir Lavrukhin

Delay Based Handover Algorithm Design for Femtocell Networks

Mobile communications systems have limited frequency resources to operate with. In traditional macrocell architectures, this problem is addressed by utilizing smaller cells to employ frequency reuse among cells. A new promising solution is to use two-tier networks that employs smaller cells called femtocells which are plug-and-play devices that use the broadband internet connection to connect to the operator’s core network. However, successful deployment of femtocells requires modifications on the existing network structures. An important adjustment is required on the handoff protocols to provide quality of service requirements that the users need. The traditional network approaches that does not consider the broadband internet backhaul for quality of service is inadequate in two-tier networks. This is due to the fact that users connect to operators core network via broadband internet connection. In this paper we focus on the handover/handoff problem in two-tier networks and propose a novel handoff/handover algorithm that considers both wired and wireless medium requirements for service quality. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the handover rate and signal degradation rate as key indicators. The simulation studies demonstrate that better results are achieved with the proposed algorithms compared to existing ones in the literature.

Piri Kaymakçıoğlu, Kamil Şenel, Mehmet Akar

Network Resource Control System for HPC Based on SDN

This article describes network resource control system for HPC based on software defined network (SDN). For job scheduling this system uses BackFill algorithm modifications with job assignment algorithms Summed Distance Minimization and Maximum Distance Minimization we have developed. We also offer data flow control methods for SDN in high-performance systems such as reactive and proactive algorithms. Our experiment has shown that BackFill scheduling algorithm in combination with Summed Distance Minimization and the proactive routing algorithm demonstrates a significant decrease in execution time for the reference communication-intensive job flow on a cluster.

Petr Polezhaev, Alexander Shukhman, Yuri Ushakov

Ad Hoc Networks and Enhanced Services

Towards End-User Driven Power Saving Control in Android Devices

During the last decade mobile communications increasingly became part of people’s daily routine. Such usage raises new challenges regarding devices’ battery lifetime management when using most popular wireless access technologies, such as IEEE 802.11. This paper investigates the energy/delay trade-off of using an end-user driven power saving approach, when compared with the standard IEEE 802.11 power saving algorithms. The assessment was conducted in a real testbed using an Android mobile phone and high-precision energy measurement hardware. The results show clear energy benefits of employing user-driven power saving techniques, when compared with other standard approaches.

Vitor Bernardo, Bruno Correia, Marilia Curado, Torsten Ingo Braun

Simulation-Based Comparison of AODV, OLSR and HWMP Protocols for Flying Ad Hoc Networks

In this paper, we analyze Quality of Service (QoS) metrics for AODV, OLSR and HWMP routing protocols in Flying Ad Hoc Networks (FANETs) with the help of an NS-3 simulation tool. We compare proactive, reactive, and hybrid approaches to search and maintain paths in FANET based on hop count, PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio), and overheads metrics in source-destination transmission through the swarm of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). In the article, swarms of 10, 15 and 20 nodes were considered. The Gauss-Markov Mobility Model is used to simulate the UAV behavior in a swarm. The size of a simulated area is variable and changes from 250 to 750 meters. Average metrics were calculated in all cases. In addition, we calculate the Goodput metric and compare it with correspondent overheads. Results show that using HWMP in the considered mobile scenario grants higher PDR in trade-off, increased overheads.

Danil S. Vasiliev, Daniil S. Meitis, Albert Abilov

A Comparative Analysis of Beaconless Opportunistic Routing Protocols for Video Dissemination over Flying Ad-Hoc Networks

A reliable and robust routing service for Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) must be able to adapt to topology changes, and also to recover the quality level of the delivered multiple video flows under dynamic network topologies. The user experience on watching live videos must also be satisfactory even in scenarios with network congestion, buffer overflow, and packet loss ratio, as experienced in many FANET multimedia applications. In this paper, we perform a comparative simulation study to assess the robustness, reliability, and quality level of videos transmitted via well-known beaconless opportunistic routing protocols. Simulation results shows that our developed protocol XLinGO achieves multimedia dissemination with Quality of Experience (QoE) support and robustness in a multi-hop, multi-flow, and mobile networks, as required in many multimedia FANET scenarios.

Denis Rosário, Zhongliang Zhao, Torsten Braun, Eduardo Cerqueira, Aldri Santos

A Balanced Battery Usage Routing Protocol to Maximize Network Lifetime of MANET Based on AODV

Energy efficiency is a critical issue for battery-powered mobile devices in ad hoc networks. Failure of node or link allows re-routing and establishing a new path from source to destination which creates extra energy consumption of nodes, sparse network connectivity and a more likelihood occurrences of network partition. Routing based on energy related parameters is one of the important solutions to extend the lifetime of the network. In this paper, we are designing and evaluating a novel energy aware routing protocol called a balanced battery usage routing protocol (BBU) which uses residual energy, hop count and energy threshold as a cost metric to maximize network life time and distribute energy consumption of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) based on Ad hoc on-demand Distance Vector (AODV).The new protocol is simulated using Network Simulator-2.34 and comparisons are made to analyze its performance based on network lifetime, delivery ratio, normalized routing overhead, standard deviation of residual energy of all Nodes and average end to end delay for different network scenarios. The results show that the new energy aware algorithm makes the network active for longer interval of time once it is established and fairly distribute energy consumption across nodes on the network.

Esubalew Yitayal, Jean-Marc Pierson, Dejene Ejigu

Testbed Evaluation of Sensor Node Overlay Multicast

The Sensor Node Overlay Multicast (SNOMC) protocol supports reliable, time-efficient and energy-efficient dissemination of data from one sender node to multiple receivers as it is needed for configuration, code update, and management operations in wireless sensor networks. SNOMC supports end-to-end reliability using negative acknowledgements. The mechanism is simple and easy to implement and can significantly reduce the number of transmissions. SNOMC supports three different caching strategies namely caching on each intermediate node, caching on branching nodes, or caching on the sender node only. SNOMC was evaluated in our in-house real-world testbed and compared to a number of common data dissemination protocols. It outperforms the selected protocols in terms of transmission time, number of transmitted packets, and energy-consumption.

Gerald Wagenknecht, Torsten Ingo Braun

Sensor- and Machine-Type Communication

M2M Traffic Models and Flow Types in Case of Mass Event Detection

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the new ITU-T concept for the network development [1, 2]. The IoT is based today on the Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) [3, 4] and M2M decisions [5, 6]. So the USN and M2M traffic models should be studied well. The USN traffic models were considered for telemetry applications in [7], for medical applications in [8], for image applications in [9]. There are many M2M traffic model investigation papers too [10, 11, 12]. The M2M traffic models and flow types definition in the case of mass event detection are the investigation goal of this paper. The anti-persistent flow type for M2M traffic in the case of mass event detection is identified. The results can be used for Recommendation Q.3925 “Traffic flow types for testing quality of service parameters on model networks” modification.

Alexander Paramonov, Andrey Koucheryavy

Modelling a Random Access Channel with Collisions for M2M Traffic in LTE Networks

One of the main problems in LTE networks is distribution of a limited number of radio resources among Human-to-Human (H2H) users and increasing number of machine-type-communication (MTC) devices in machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. The radio resources allocation scheme of M2M traffic service in LTE networks discussed in the paper is adopted by 3GPP and implements Random Access Channel (RACH) mechanism for transmitting data units from a plurality of MTC devices. This mechanism determines the sequence of signaling messages transmitted between a MTC device and a ENodeB (eNB) without reserving radio resources. The mathematical model for calculation of the mean time from the instant of MTC device activation to the instant of data transition beginning via eNB is built. The Monte Carlo method for simulation the behavior of the system is used.

Vladimir Y. Borodakiy, Konstantin E. Samouylov, Yuliya V. Gaidamaka, Pavel O. Abaev, Ivan A. Buturlin, Shamil A. Etezov

The Quality of Experience Subjective Estimations and the Hurst Parameters Values Interdependence

The Hurst parameter estimation methods likely R/S, Higushi method, Wittle method, HEAF2 are considered in the paper for multiservice traffic (voice and video). The Hurst parameter values are obtained during simulation for differences network technical conditions. The Quality for Experience (QoE) subjective estimation method Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation (SSCQE) is considered. The interdependence between SSCQE values and Hurst parameter values are obtained during simulation. So, the Hurst parameter can be objective metrics for QoE estimation.

Maria Makolkina, Andrey Prokopiev, Alexandr Paramonov, Andrey Koucheryavy

Fuzzy Logic and Voronoi Diagram Using for Cluster Head Selection in Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called Cluster-Head selection using Fuzzy Logic with Voronoi diagram in USNs (CHS-FL-VD) that is a distributed algorithm which makes local decisions to select cluster head using a fuzzy inference system based on two parameters which are remaining energy and centrality by Voronoi diagram. Cluster formation using Voronoi diagram. Disseminating data from cluster heads to the base station using gateway and direct connection to properly distribute energy and ensure maximum network life time. A comparison with LEACH and Fuzzy C-Means algorithms has been done. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm consumes less energy and prolongs the network life time compared with these algorithms.

Yahya Al-Naggar, Andrey Koucheryavy

Networking Architectures and Their Modeling

Power-Aware Architecture to Combat Intelligent Adaptive Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

The paper presents a novel technique to combat smart adaptive attacks in ad-hoc wireless networks where battery power and bandwidth are scarce. Nodes in ad-hoc wireless networks can assume the roles of transmitters, receivers, and/or routers in case they fall geographically between two communicating nodes. Malicious nodes deviate from the standard communications protocols to illegally maximize their share of the bandwidth and save their battery power for their own communication. When the malicious node has data packets to transmit, it increases the power of the transmitted signal to increase the throughput and reduce the delay and retransmission attempts. This behavior adversely affects the rest of the nodes that follow the standard communication protocols. When the malicious node receives a packet that is not destined to it, the malicious node forwards the packet with very low transmission power level to save power and in this case, the packet reaches the next hop without enough signal strength to be decoded correctly. In this type of sophisticated attacks, malicious nodes deal with the control packets according to the standards so it keeps itself visible inside the network in case there are packets destined to it. Our end-to-end algorithm detects and isolates those types of attackers to maintain the resiliency of the network against the malicious behavior.

Joseph Soryal, Fuad A. Alnajjar, Tarek Saadawi

Cross-Layer Rate Control for Streaming Services over Wired-Wireless Networks

Many advanced technologies including ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request), HARQ (Hybrid ARQ), and AMC (Adaptive Modulation and Coding) have been introduced in modern mobile communication systems, which target to support high-speed streaming services. These services consume a considerable part of resources in core networks and wireless channels. Therefore, an efficient rate control mechanism is necessary. This paper presents a novel cross-layer rate control algorithm which makes use of the aforementioned advanced technologies. The receiver estimates the quality of wireless channels by ARQ information and improves the measurement accuracy of delay with cross-layer design. Packet losses are classified into wireless and congestion losses based on the quality of wireless channels. Following the idea of Delay-Based Congestion Control, the sender adjusts the sending rate according to the tendency of delay variation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing TFRC-like schemes in the terms of loss rate control and throughput.

Yu-ning Dong, Yu-jue Peng, Hai-xian Shi

A Relevant Equilibrium in Open Spectrum Sharing: Lorenz Equilibrium in Discrete Games

A new game theoretical solution concept for open spectrum sharing in cognitive radio (CR) environments is highlighted – the Lorenz equilibrium (LE). Both Nash and Pareto solution concepts have limitations when applied to real world problems. Nash equilibrium (NE) rarely ensures maximal payoff and it is frequently Pareto inefficient. The Pareto set is usually a large set of solutions, often too hard to process. The Lorenz equilibrium is a subset of Pareto efficient solutions that are equitable for all players and ensures a higher payoff than the Nash equilibrium. LE induces a selection criterion of NE, when several are present in a game (e.g. many-player discrete games) and when fairness is an issue. Besides being an effective NE selection criterion, the LE is an interesting game theoretical situation

per se

, useful for CR interaction analysis.

Ligia C. Cremene, Dumitru Dumitrescu

A Stochastic Game in Cognitive Radio Networks for Providing QoS Guarantees

Providing quality of service (QoS) guarantees is an important objective in the design of the cognitive radio (CR) networks. In this paper, we studied the stochastic game in CR networks with multiple classes of secondary users (SUs). Considering the spectrum environment as time-varying and that each group of SUs is able to use an adaptive strategy, the providing QoS guarantees is identified by finding the effective capacity radio channel. The performance of the proposed stochastic game for providing QoS guarantees has been studied through computer simulations and the results are quite satisfactory.

Jerzy Martyna

Traffic Analysis and Prediction

Short-Term Forecasting: Simple Methods to Predict Network Traffic Behavior

In the article we evaluate the accuracy of simple linear forecasting methods applied to short-term prediction of network traffic behavior, namely the traffic intensity. Such investigation is carried out in order to determine the possibility of such methods employment in network management systems and various TE-implementations. Also time series extracted from real network traffic are statistically analysed to obtain general properties of aggregated network traffic behavior.

Anton Dort-Golts

Traffic Analysis in Target Tracking Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

With an increase of number of Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN) relevance of the traffic analysis in these networks also grows. In this research we tried to describe the traffic produced by USN performing one of the specific tasks - target tracking. We used ON-OFF model for the source traffic simulating. The purpose of the research was to determine how parameters of source traffic model (such as ON and OFF periods average length, shape parameter of the Pareto distribution and packet rate during ON period) influence on the traffic at the sink. The research showed that ON periods length and packet rate during ON periods take strong effect on the aggregated traffic in the target tracking USN. On the other hand weight of the ON and OFF times distribution tail and average OFF periods length do not cause statistically significant influence on the traffic characteristics.

Anastasia Vybornova, Andrey Koucheryavy

LAN Traffic Forecasting Using a Multi Layer Perceptron Model

The main idea in the failures forecasting is to predict catastrophic faults in the network, doing that it is possible to guarantee reliability and quality (QoS) in real time to maintain the network availability and reliability and to initiate appropriate actions of restoration of “normality”. The following article describes the process performed for implementing failures prediction system in LAN using artificial neuronal networks multi-layer Perceptron. It describes the system, the tests made for the selection of the own parameters of the neuronal network like the training algorithm and the obtained results.

Octavio J. Salcedo Parra, Gustavo Garcia, Brayan S. Reyes Daza

Analytical Methods for Performance Evaluation

Session Setup Delay Estimation Methods for IMS-Based IPTV Services

This paper proposes an IMS architecture for delivering IPTV services like Content on Demand and analytical methods of signaling delay estimation. Three methods of session setup delay estimation are proposed - the multiclass BCMP queueing networks method, the method based on homogeneous queueing networks with given variation coefficients for the probability distribution of service time, and the method with regard for background traffic. A numerical example for initial data of Iskratel SI3000 Multi Service Control Plane is provided. In conclusion advantages and area of application for the methods are discussed.

Yuliya V. Gaidamaka, Elvira R. Zaripova

Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Home System over BLE with Energy Harvesting Capability

In this paper, we study a smart home system, which incorporates an intelligent gateway serving a number of battery-powered wireless sensors. These communicate their measured data to the gateway by employing the novel Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) radio technology. Additionally, sensors have capability to harvest wireless energy transmitted to them from the gateway over another dedicated radio interface and thus recharge their battery. We evaluate performance of the envisioned system in terms of overall delay and waiting time, as well as battery charge level and drain probability. To this end, we construct an optimistic estimate of energy harvesting capability, mindful of power distribution and consumption, which quantifies the potential limitations of wireless energy transfer. These results may be important to improve and optimize future smart home technology deployments.

Olga Galinina, Konstantin Mikhaylov, Sergey Andreev, Andrey Turlikov

Further Investigations of the Priority Queuing System with Preemptive Priority and Randomized Push-Out Mechanism

This article is written about a queuing theory models with limited buffer size and one service channel with two incoming flows. One of the flows is more important than another flow. In this article we prefer to call packets of these flows as priority and non-priority packets. This priority can be realized as a preemptive priority, which allows high-priority packets to take place in system queue closer to service channel and push-out low-priority packets out of service channel or as a randomized push-out, which allows to push out non-priority packets out of the system when it is full. Authors present in this article algorithm for computing statistical characteristics of the model for all values of push-out probability

α

. For getting solution is used generating functions method. This method reduces size of linear equations system from

k

(

k

+1)/2 to (

k

+1). Using this method allowed authors to study model behavior for all load values from 0 to 4 by first and second incoming flows. In this article provided zones of model “closing” for non-priority packets. Also authors considered a relative deviation of loss probability and it’s approximation by linear law depending on push-out probability

α

to get areas of possible using linear law for approximating results of changing this push-out probability.

Alexander Ilyashenko, Oleg Zayats, Vladimir Muliukha, Leonid Laboshin

Materials for Future Communications

Low Temperature Ferroelectric and Magnetic Properties of Doped Multiferroic Tb0.95Bi0.05MnO3

Multiferroics are very promising materials for application in RF/microwave electronic devices. Electrical tuning of magnetism due to strong magnetoelectric coupling in these materials gives an opportunity to use them in reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). Tb

0.95

Bi

0.05

MnO

3

(TMNO) multiferroic is a solid solution of TbMnO

3

and BiMnO

3

, the interest to investigation of this nanocomposite material is caused by the possibility to obtain the multiferroic with close temperatures of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering which are higher than in pure TbMnO

3

. Results of TMNO crystal investigations obtained using cryogenic magnetic force and piezopresponse force microscopy techniques are presented. An existence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic ordering in TMNO at low temperatures was observed.

Natalia Vl. Andreeva, Victoria A. Sanina, Sergej B. Vakhrushev, Alexey Vl. Filimonov, Alexander E. Fotiadi, Andrey I. Rudskoy

Reflectivity Properties of Graphene and Graphene-Coated Substrates

The reflectivity properties of graphene and graphene-coated substrates, as prospective materials for nanocommunications, are calculated using the formalism of the polarization tensor. Simple analytic expressions for the transverse magnetic and transverse electric reflection coefficients are obtained at zero temperature and for sufficiently high frequencies at any temperature. The previously known results for the transverse magnetic case are reproduced. The transverse electric coefficients of graphene and graphene-coated plates are shown to depend on the angle of incidence.

Galina L. Klimchitskaya, Vladimir M. Mostepanenko, Viktor M. Petrov

Nanoporous Glasses with Magnetic Properties as a Base of High-Frequency Multifunctional Device Making

Two types (microporous - Fe20-MIP and macroporous Fe20-MAP) porous magnetic matrices were prepared on base of Fe20 (60% SiO

2

-15% B

2

O

3

-5% Na2O-20% Fe

2

O

3

) alkali borosilicate glass. The average pore diameters were 5 nm for Fe20-MIP and 5 and 50 nm (bimodal distribution) for Fe20-MAP. The morphology, magnetic properties and coefficients of volume and linear magnetostriction have been studied for Fe20-MIP glass.

Alexander Naberezhnov, Andrey I. Rudskoy, Igor Golosovsky, Viktor Nizhankovskii, Alexey Vl. Filimonov, Bernard Nacke

Generation and Analysis of Signals

Wavelet Analysis of Non-stationary Signals in Medical Cyber-Physical Systems (MCPS)

The advantages of multichannel medical cyber-physical systems (

MCPS

), which are designed to receive and process signals of human biological rhythms (EEG, ECG, blood pressure) at the remote server and to issue diagnostic conclusions, are discussed. The paper presents new data processing algorithms for

MCPS

based on continuous wavelet transform (

CWT).

The proposed method provides an array of parameters characterizing frequency restructuring of medical signals in different frequency bands. Since frequency fluctuations in brain and heart rhythms are closely related to different processes in human organism, the obtained data can allow us: to identify the disease at its early stages; to test the adaptive capacity of the human organism; to give diagnostic reports on cardiovascular and nervous systems; to analyze changes in rhythm during biofeedback sessions. The techniques set forth in the paper can help in the creation of a unique “rhythmic portrait” of a person to diagnose his physiological state.

Sergey V. Bozhokin, Irina B. Suslova

Generation and Reception of Spectral Efficient Signals Based on Finite Splines

Spectral efficient signals based on finite splines, which are obtained by repeated usage of discrete convolution procedure, is considered. Energy spectra of random sequence of signals is presented. Practical realization of device for generation and reception is proposed. Generation of SEPSK signals is done by matched filter with feedback line. Proposed method for reception of SEPSK signals is similar to method for reception of classical OFDM signals. High reduction rate of out-of-band emissions for random sequence of SEPSK signals is provided by proposed atomic functions.

Mikhail A. Kryachko, Alexander F. Kryachko, Sergey B. Makarov, Victor I. Malyugin, Mikhail V. Silnikov, Li Yanling

Generation of SEFDM-Signals Using FFT/IFFT

A study of Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing (SEFDM) signals generation is done. Three new algorithms for generation and reception of SEFDM-signals based on FFT/IFFT are proposed. Their complexity and conditions of applicability are analyzed. It is shown that the proposed schemes outperform the proposed earlier by 1,2-6 times. The BER performance of the developed methods for AWGN channel is analyzed, it is shown that the number of the guard subcarriers significantly affects the BER performance of SEFDM (up to 4 dB energy loss when doubling the guard part of the signal).

Alexandr B. Kislitsyn, Andrey V. Rashich, Ngok Nuen Tan

Business Aspects of Networking

Projecting Resource Management of a Telecommunications Enterprise to Ensure Business Competitive Ability

Ensuring competitive ability of business under conditions of market stagnation aggravated with high competition is quite a complex managerial objective and cannot be solved by conventional means. Resource management implies simultaneous management of all available resources to achieve maximal efficiency. The goal of resource management is to project such management system that would ensure attainment of growth of quality of telecommunications services and reduction of their costs simultaneously. Due to this, organizational technologies that in-crease efficiency of management of a telecommunications company to ensure competitive ability of business acquire undisputable relevancy. Resource management is a modern methodology combining organizational technologies allowing the maximal efficient use and management of resource potential, detection and compensation of available production reserves.

Elena Balashova

Project Portfolio Structure in a Telecommunications Company

The paper discusses the peculiarities of the composition of the project portfolio telecommunications company. Systematized set of projects aimed at development of business and solve specific business tasks. Special attention is paid to projects of simulation, implementation and optimization of business processes. The structure of the portfolio of projects in telecommunications Company is suggested.

Vladimir V. Gluhov, Igor V. Ilin

Forecasting of Investments into Wireless Telecommunication Systems

The method of forecasting of investments into the wireless telecom systems is suggested. The factors influencing the investments are determined.

Tatyana Nekrasova, Valery Leventsov, Ekaterina Axionova

Assessment of Possible Uses of Optimization Methods and Models in Resource Management of Telecommunications Enterprises

An analysis of the Russian market for telecommunications evidences the relevancy of a search for new approaches to business development. Modern resource management presented by various academic schools (Lean production, Theory of constraints, Resource – based view) ensures possible multivariant solution of managerial objectives. The use of optimization methods and models in resource management allows telecommunications enterprises to considerably improve economic performance indicators. Under the conditions of diversity of possible approaches to searching for and implementing optimal solutions of resource management of telecommunications enterprises, the choice of the optimization method or model most suitable to this situation turns out to be a non-trivial problem the solution of which requires a clear understanding of advantages and drawbacks of their use when solving a specific managerial problem.

Elena Balashova, Evgeniy Artemenko

Progress on Upper Layers and Implementations

Distributed Packet Trace Processing Method for Information Security Analysis

Information security is an important topic today. Internet Service Providers use network traffic analysis for evaluating network performance, collecting statistics and detecting vulnerabilities. Analysing traffic traces collected from large network requires a computer system where both storage and computing resources can be scaled out to handle and process multi-Terabyte files. Cloud platforms and clustered file systems provide re-sizable compute and storage capacity. MapReduce programming model developed by Google, allows distributed processing of massive data amounts by defining map and reduce functions. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing framework based on MapReduce approach for fast internet traffic analytics.

Alexey Lukashin, Leonid Laboshin, Vladimir Zaborovsky, Vladimir Mulukha

NetMap - Creating a Map of Application Layer QoS Metrics of Mobile Networks Using Crowd Sourcing

Based on the continuous increase in network traffic on mobile networks, the large increase in smart devices, and the ever ongoing development of Internet enabled services, we argue for the need of a network performance map. In this paper NetMap is presented, which is a measurement system based on crowd sourcing, that utilizes end user smart devices in automatically measuring and gathering network performance metrics on mobile networks. Metrics measured include throughput, round trip times, connectivity, and signal strength, and are accompanied by a wide range of context information about the device state. The potential of the NetMap approach is demonstrated by three usage examples.

Lars M. Mikkelsen, Steffen R. Thomsen, Michael S. Pedersen, Tatiana K. Madsen

Resource Scheduler Based on Multi-agent Model and Intelligent Control System for OpenStack

Resource consumption in virtualized computing environment is an important problem in modern cloud infrastructures. This paper introduces methods of detecting and solving problems of unbalanced load nodes in cloud cluster. We propose multi-objective optimization problem analysis as the bin packaging problem, using criteria convolution method to make it a single objective problem and neural networks with back-propagation to reduce balancing time. The considered approach is modeled in AnyLogic and the integration software for the system is implemented on OpenStack cloud platform.

Alexey Lukashin, Anton Lukashin

Implementation of IPv4 Reflection Scheme for Linux-Based Storage Systems

Linux program stack is very popular as a system platform in low range and middle range storage systems. On the one hand, it allows rely on powerful, well tested solution with full range of system services such as TCP/IP and Input/Output stack. Such solutions have good vertical and horizontal scalability. On the other hand, Linux is a general purpose system and requires extra efforts in and custom modification for Input-Output and Networking components in order to implement special use cases and reach maximum performance for data path. We discuss our implementation for IPv4 gateway holding mechanism (IP reflection) which allows IP storage system by fixing nearest gateway for each client bypassing regular routing scheme. Architecture and preliminary performance testing results are discussed.

Kirill Krinkin, Mike Krinkin

Modeling Methods and Tools

The Algorithm for Cars License Plates Segmentation

We have conducted the needs assessment that highlights the current issues requiring novel solutions in the design of the modern system of automotive license plates recognition. We propose an algorithm of segmentation the license plates on a complex background, invariant to their size, contrast and angle positioning on the image.

Alexandr A. Kryachko, Boris S. Timofeev, Alexandr A. Motyko

Improvement of Finite Difference Method Convergence for Increasing the Efficiency of Modeling in Communications

The finite difference method for differential equation solution is considered. To increase the efficiency of the finite difference method, a new method of intermediate solution computation was developed and tested. The principles, software implementation of the method, and the results are considered. Our method can be used to significantly increase the efficiency of the finite difference method in solving applied problems of modeling for communication lines. It can also prove useful for the efficient design of key electronic components, such as antennas for wireless communication devices, high-speed digital and microwave circuits, and integrated optics.

Elena N. Velichko, Aleksey Grishentsev, Konstantin Korikov, Anatoliy Korobeynikov

Hardware and Software Equipment for Modeling of Telematics Components in Intelligent Transportation Systems

The paper deals with hardware and software solutions for development of the testbed of simulation of wireless network data transfer of vehicles by intelligent transportation system (ITS) on basis of multiprotocol unit. The testbed’s hardware meets requirements of scaling, openness and compatibility of all components. Software structure consists of five modules. It allows to prepare and carry out the research data traffic dynamics of ITS, time of message delivery, reliability of message transfer, probability of message delivery via a dedicated channel and some others. The testbed allows working out technologies of dynamic multi-protocol routing in heterogeneous mobile networks of ITS vehicles.

Serge Popov, Mikhail Kurochkin, Leonid M. Kurochkin, Vadim Glazunov

Techniques, Algorithms, and Control Problems

Comparison of Stepwise and Piecewise Linear Models of Congestion Avoidance Algorithm

This paper describes probabilistic analysis of New Reno version of TCP protocol AIMD algorithm. The model is formulated as a stepwise semimarkovian stochastic process. Theorems on ergodic properties of the process and two embedded Markov chains are proved and functional equation for generating function of sliding window size distribution is obtained. On its base the estimation of the average window size is constructed. The estimation obtained is compared with those provided by piecewise linear AIMD models.

Olga Bogoiavlenskaia

Cyber-Physical Approach to the Network-Centric Robot Control Problems

The paper analyzes features of the cybernetic methods’ application to the distributed physical objects control task. Some parts of such cyber-physical object interact with each other by transmitting information via computer networks. In the framework of this cyber-physical approach proposed a structure for interactive control system for on-surface robot from International Space Station. This system implements the circuit-torque sensitization algorithms for network delays while transferring data over the computer telecommunication network.

Vladimir Zaborovsky, Mikhail Guk, Vladimir Muliukha, Alexander Ilyashenko

On the Comparison between the Bit-by-Bit Technique and the Viterbi Technique for Demodulation of Single-Carrier Signals Affected by Clipping

To decrease out-of-band radiation of signals, based on single-carrier modulation, root-raised cosine (RRC) filters are usually used. To decrease a peak-to average-power ratio (PAPR) we have clipped signals, passed RRC filters. To retain the constant peak power of a power amplifier for different clipping levels we have increased the values of clipped signals before the power amplifier. In this paper, we have studied the bit-by-bit coherent reception technique and the Viterbi technique and also calculated bit-error-rate (BER) for BPSK, QMSK, 8-PSK and 16-QAM. We have found the optimal clipping probability and the maximum gain in the peak signal-noise ratio (PSNR) of the Viterbi technique in comparison with the bit-by-bit technique.

Alexey M. Markov

Photonics and Optics

Informational Properties of a DWDM Electrically-Controllable Integrated Optical Filters with an Additional Polarizer

The paper discusses the design and implementation of the integrated electrically controllable filter based on Bragg gratings with high wavelength and polarization selectivity. The filter we suggest combine a high spectral selectivity (to 0.1 nm) of the Bragg gratings, a high polarization extinction ratio (up to 40 dB) of plasmon polariton polarizer, and wide possibilities to electrically control of the spectral transfer function. It has a bandwidth of about 0.25 nm and time of switching from one spectral channel to the other below 1

μ

s. The proposed filters might be used both in the optical communication lines (including those relying on the DWDM principles) and in the optical coders/decoders and narrow-band rapidly tunable optical sources.

Alexey N. Petrov, Alexander V. Shamray, Viktor M. Petrov

Investigation of Analog Photonics Based Broadband Beamforming System for Receiving Antenna Array

An approach to broadband beamforming for receiving microwave antenna arrays based on photonic true time delays (TTD) is considered. Many architectures have been proposed earlier for the implementation of TTD with fiber optic components usage to provide control of one- or multibeam antenna array pattern. Some beamforming arrangements can currently provide the required TTD capabilities by using the units and elements available at the market of modern components of fiber-optical telecommunication systems. The essential parameters of accessible analog fiber optic link main components are considered. The technique is developed and calculations of the main performance data of the chosen beamforming scheme – the signal/noise ratio and dynamic range are carried out. Influence of the scheme components’ parameters and their operation modes on the estimates of the beamforming scheme main performance characteristics is analysed.

Alexander P. Lavrov, Sergey I. Ivanov, Igor I. Saenko

Ultimate Information Capacity of a Volume Photosensitive Media

The ultimate information capacity of a volume photosensitive media for the case of an optimal use of the dynamic range of, number of pages, the readout conditions is considered. The volume hologram is regarded as an object of the information theory. For the first time the formalism of the reciprocal lattice has been introduced in order to estimate the informational properties of the hologram. The diffraction-limited holographic recording is analyzed in the framework of the reciprocal lattice formalism. Calculations of the information capacity of a three-dimensional hologram involve analysis of a set of multiplexed holograms, each of which has a finite signal-to-noise ratio determined by the dynamic range of the holographic medium and the geometry of recording and readout. An optimal number of pages that provides a maximum information capacity at angular multiplexing is estimated.

Yuriy I. Kuzmin, Viktor M. Petrov

Transmitting of a Full-TV Image by a Pulsed One-Dimensional Serial Optical Frames: A Non-linear Approach

A non-linear case of the transmitting of the TV-image by a pulsed laser light has been considered. An analytical solution for the diffracted light field for the practically important geometry of scattering corresponding to the wideband anisotropic light diffraction from a slow shear elastic wave propagating in the [110] direction in the TeO

2

crystal near its optical axis has been obtained. The third-order of nonlinear interaction of the first order diffracted light has been demonstrated. The possibility to control the amplitude distortions produced by nonlinearities were discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The optimal geometry for the image transmission has been presented and experimentally investigated.

Constantine Korikov, Yuri Mokrushin, Roman Kiyan

Signals and Their Processing

Application of Optimal Spectrally Efficient Signals in Systems with Frequency Division Multiplexing

A study of optimal form of envelope for Spectrally Efficient Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (SEOFDM) signals and corresponding energy spectra of signals has been conducted. Increasing of additional energy losses of BER performance of SEOFDM signals in the case of application optimal coherent bit-by-bit processing algorithm for signals with OFDM forces to explore more effective processing technique. An algorithm based on decision diagram can significantly improve BER performance of SEOFDM signals with smoothed optimal form of envelope signals on subcarriers.

Sergey V. Zavjalov, Sergey B. Makarov, Sergey V. Volvenko

Signal Processing for Mobile Mass-Spectrometry Data Transfer via Wireless Networks

Non-Fourier transformation algorithm and computer program for efficient analysis of short broadband signals for the mass-spectrometry data transmission via wireless networks to remote data users have been developed and tested. It has been shown that even in the case no preliminary data on the signal phase parameters are available, short broad-band multicomponent transients can be transformed into high-resolution signals with high signal-to-noise ratios. Such signals are suitable for high-speed transmission via wireless networks.

Alexey N. Petrov, Elena N. Velichko, Oleg Yu. Tsybin

Fiber-Optic Super-High-Frequency Signal Transmission System for Sea-Based Radar Station

A fiber-optic system for transmission of super-high-frequency signals in the 8-12 GHz range from a multi-component active phased antenna array of a sea-based radar station to an information processing system located in a ship compartment is suggested and investigated. Power loss and total attenuation of optical signals are calculated. The power loss margin and signal transmission time of the system are analyzed. Dependences of the characteristics of the fiberoptic data transmission system on the input signal frequency and temperature are experimentally measured. The fiber-optic data transmission system we have developed can prove an efficient tool for improving interaction between the wireless radar and wired signal transmission systems.

Vadim V. Davydov, Sergey V. Ermak, Anton U. Karseev, Elina K. Nepomnyashchaya, Alexander A. Petrov, Elena N. Velichko

Nonlinear Coherent Detection Algorithms of Nonorthogonal Multifrequency Signals

A study of detection algorithms of random sequences of nonorthogonal Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing (SEFDM) signals has been conducted. Realization complexity of optimal coherent algorithms forces to explore more simple processing techniques. A nonlinear bit-by-bit coherent algorithm with interchannel interference compensation and an algorithm based on decision diagram have been developed and studied. Application of the proposed nonlinear algorithms can significantly improve BER performance of multifrequency signals with nonorthogonal frequency spacing between subcarriers.

Sergey V. Zavjalov, Sergey B. Makarov, Sergey V. Volvenko

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