Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
As some of the most significant achievements of the creative human mind, one would expect scientific discoveries and technological innovation to be gender-neutral by nature, but in practice these processes have a gendered nature that is often not recognized or is given insufficient attention. Changes in the social perception of women’s status and social responsibilities, primarily related to family and child rearing, as well as improvements in their access to education and employment have been extremely slow processes that have been undermined by Darwinian theories of sex selection and influenced by deeply rooted prejudice. Consequently, women’s minority status in some scientific fields continues to be a major feature of the scientific community and only a small proportion break through the ‘glass ceiling’ and make successful careers in science. The gender bias in academic science is perpetuated in entrepreneurial science, determining a lower involvement of women scientists in science and technology commercialization, especially in regard to intellectual property rights and patenting, creation of spin-offs, access to venture capital, etc. These issues are critical for understanding academic entrepreneurship dynamics, improving the use of social capital and avoiding the perpetuation of current inequalities in academia. This chapter provides the background and overall contextual framework for the book. It offers a brief overview of relevant literature and scopes for future research, as well as short descriptions of the contributing chapters.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abrams, Rhonda. 2015. Strategies: Sex, Money and Entrepreneurs. USA Today, March 27. http://www.usatoday.com/wlna/money/business/small%20business/2015/03/27/strategies-sex-money-and-entrepreneurs/70472422/. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
Andersen, Kristi. 1996. After Suffrage: Women in Partisan and Electoral Politics Before the New Deal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Barnett, Rose Chait and L. Sabattini. 2009. A Short History of Women in Science: From Stone Walls to Invisible Walls. In The Science on Women and Science, ed. American Enterprise Institute. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Blickenstaff, J.C. 2005. Women and Science Careers: Leaky Pipeline or Gender Filter. Gender and Education 17 (4): 369–386. CrossRef
Carter, Ruth and Gill Kirkup. 1990. Women in Engineering—A Good Place to be? Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.
Cockburn, Cynthia. 1985. Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men and Technical Know-How. London: Pluto Press.
Ding, Waverley W., Fiona Murray, and Toby E. Stuart. 2006. Gender Differences in Patenting in the Academic Life Sciences. Science 4 313 (5787): 665–667.
Ding, Waverley W., Fiona Murray and Toby E. Stuart. 2010. From Bench to Board: Gender Differences in University Scientists Participation in Commercial Science, HBS Working Papers Selection.
Fara, P. 2004. Pandora’s Breeches: Women, Science and Power in the Enlightenment. London: Pimlico.
Fara, P. 2014. Women, Science and Suffrage in World War I . The Royal Society. November 19. doi: 10.1098/rsnr.2014.0057. http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/69/1/11.article-info. Accessed 10 Aug 2016.
GHK. 2008. ‘Promotion of Women Innovators and Entrepreneurship’— Final Report, E E C (GHK, Technopolis) within the framework of ENTR/04/093-FC-Lot 1. www.ghkint.com. Accessed 16 Aug 2016.
Greenfield, S. 1994. The Rising Tide: A Report on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology. London: HMSO.
Greenfield, S. 2002. A Report on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology from Baroness Greenfield CBE to the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. Department of Trade and Industry.
Hamilton, G. 2000. Innovators or Interpreters? The Historic Role of Women in Science. University of Southern Maine, Southworth Planetarium (1:12): 26–42.
Hilbert, Martin. 2011. Digital Gender Divide or Technologically Empowered Women in Developing Countries? A Typical Case of Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics. Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6): 479–489. CrossRef
Holmes, Richard. 2010. The Royal Society’s Lost Women Scientists. The Guardian, November Sunday 21. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/nov/21/royal-society-lost-women-scientists. Accessed 9 Aug 2016.
Hossell, Karen Price. 2003. The Nineteenth Amendment: Women Get the Vote. Chicago: Heinemann Library.
Iqbal, Jawad. 2015. The Women Whom Science Forgot, BBC Science & Environment, June 19. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33157396. Accessed 10 Aug 2016.
Jaffé, D. 2003. Ingenious Women. Sutton: Stroud.
Jaffé, D. 2010. Ingenious Women. In Innovating Women, ed. Wynarczyk and Marlow, 153–182. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Kraditor, Aileen Sema. 1965. The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890–1920. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kugele K. 2010. Analysis of Women’s Participation in High-technology Patenting. In Innovating Women, ed. Wynarczyk and Marlow, 1–14. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Massey, Doreen. 1995. Masculinity, Dualisms and High Technology. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20 (4): 487–499. CrossRef
Muffitt, Eleanor. 2014. The ‘Leaky Pipeline’ of Women in Science. The Telegraph, February 14. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationopinion/10637941/The-leaky-pipeline-of-women-in-science.html. Accessed 16 Aug 2016.
Murray, Fiona, and L. Graham. 2007. Buying Science and Selling Science: Gender Differences in the Market for Commercial Science. Industrial and Corporate Change 16 (4): 657–689. CrossRef
Ranga, Marina. 2014. The Y factor: Gender dynamics in entrepreneurial science. In Higher Education, Commercialization, and University-business Relationships in Comparative Context, ed. Joshua B. Powers and E. P. St. John, New York: AMS Press.
Ridgeway, Cecilia L. 2009. Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender & Society 23 (2): 145–160. CrossRef
Robb, Linda Desha. 1996. Lessons from the Woman Suffrage Movement. In A Voice of Our Own: Leading American Women Celebrate the Right to Vote ed. Nancy M. Neuman, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rosa, Peter, and Alison Dawson. 2006. Gender and the Commercialization of University Science: Academic Founders of Spinout Companies. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 18 (4): 341–366. CrossRef
Rosser, Sue V. 2009. The Gender Gap in Patenting: Is Technology Transfer a Feminist Issue?. NWSA Journal 21 (2): 65–84.
Schumpeter, J.A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. NewYork: Harvard University Press
The Guardian. 2014. Dorothy Hodgkin: The Only British Woman to Win a Nobel Science Prize Gets a Doodle. The Guardian, May 12. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/may/12/google-doodle-honours-biochemist-dorothy-hodgkin. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
Thursby, Jerry, and Marie Thursby. 2005. Gender Patterns of Research and Licensing Activity of Science and Engineering Faculty. The Journal of Technology Transfer 30 (4): 343–353. CrossRef
Tømte, Cathrine. 2008. Return to Gender: Gender, ICT and Education. Background Paper presented at OECD Expert meeting hosted by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, Oslo, Norway, 2–3 June. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/40834253.pdf. Accessed 10 Aug 2016.
Van Dijk, Jan, and Ken Hacker. 2003. The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon. The Information Society 19: 315–326. CrossRef
Wajcman, J. 2009. Feminist Theories of Technology. Cambridge Journal of Economics 8 (1): 35–52.
Whittington, Kjersten Bunker, and Laurel Smith-Doerr. 2005. Women and Commercial Science: Women’s Patenting in the Life Sciences. Journal of Technology Transfer 30: 355–370. CrossRef
Whittington, Kjersten Bunker, and L. Laurel Smith-Doerr. 2008. Women Inventors in Context Disparities in Patenting Across Academia and Industry. Gender & Society 22 (2): 194–218. CrossRef
Wynarczyk, P. 2006. An International Investigation into Gender Inequality in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). guest Editorial. Journal of Equal Opportunities International Special Issue 25 (8): 625–628.
Wynarczyk, P., and J. Graham. 2013. The Impact of Connectivity Technology on Home-based Business Venturing: The Case of Women in the North East of England. Local Economy 28 (5): 451–470. CrossRef
Wynarczyk, P., and S. Marlow. 2010. Innovating Women: Contributions to Technological Advancement, editors. Bingley: Emerald—ISBE Book Series, 1.
- Introduction Setting the Scene: An Insight into the “Gender Divide” in Science and Technological Advancement
- Chapter 1
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com