After a review of basic equations of fluid dynamics, the
of Lighthill is derived. This analogy describes the sound field generated by a complex flow from the point of view of a listener immerged in a uniform stagnant fluid. The concept of monopole, dipole and quadrupole are introduced. The scaling of the sound power generated by a subsonic free jet is explained, providing an example of the use of the integral formulation of the analogy. The influence of the Doppler Effect on the radiation of sound by a moving source is explained. By considering the noise generated by a free jet in a bubbly liquid, we illustrate the importance of the choice of the aeroacoustic variable in an aeroacoustic analogy. This provides some insight into the usefulness of alternative formulations, such as the
Vortex Sound Theory
. The energy corrolary of Howe based on the Vortex Sound Theory appears to be the most suitable theory to understand various aspects of self-sustained oscillation due to the coupling of vortex shedding with acoustic standing waves in a resonator. This approach is used to analyse the convective energy losses at an open pipe termination, human whistling, flow instabilities in diffusers, pulsations in pipe systems with deep closed side branches and the whistling of corrugated pipes.
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