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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces readers to selected issues in distributed systems, and primarily focuses on principles, not on technical details. Though the systems discussed are based on existing (von Neumann) computer architectures, the book also touches on emerging processing paradigms. Uniquely, it approaches system components not only as static constructs, but also “in action,” exploring the different states they pass through. The author’s teaching experience shows that newcomers to the field, students and even IT professionals can far more readily grasp the essence of distributed algorithmic structures in action, than on the basis of static descriptions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Instruction Execution Cycle and Cooperation of Processes

Abstract
This chapter contains an outline of structure and functioning of stand-alone internally controlled computer with sequential processor, as well as its functioning in a collection of such machines. The internal control means that program instructions (commands) and data, encoded (commonly nowadays) as sequences of bits, are located in the internal memory (RAM) and are fetched by the processor to its specific register.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 2. Distributed Systems—Objectives, Features, Applications

Abstract
No generally admitted definition of distributed computer system exists. Before some understandings of this notion encountered in the professional literature will be outlined in this chapter, let us turn attention to its sources. As the first distributed network-based system, the SAGE (S emi A utomatic G round E nvironment, USA, 50. of XX century) is recognized.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 3. Concurrency

Abstract
Concurrency is the capability of running a number of processes simultaneously, that is existence of more than one process in the overlapping time periods.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 4. Time, Coordination, Mutual Exclusion Without Supervisory Manager

Abstract
In the sequential processor, time is measured by its clock and progresses linearly, i.e.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 5. Interprocess Communication

Abstract
So far, some problems specific for distributed systems have been presented, such as correctness of transactions, of banking in particular, resource sharing and protection, pathological phenomena (deadlock, starvation), synchronization of clocks and processes and, in general, the issues of time and coordination. In such problems an essential role plays interprocess communication, performed by computers connected in a network, which ensures hardware infrastructure for distributed system.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 6. Remote Procedure Call

Abstract
An outline of problems the interprocess communication in distributed systems creates, has been presented in Chap. 5. Dependently on services and means of expression provided by operating system and programming language, communication operations require preparing various parameters carrying information necessary for message transmission.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 7. Failures and Damages in Distributed Systems

Abstract
A crash or faulty activity of computer system happens in a single stand-alone or centralized installation as well as in a distributed system characterized in Chap. 2, or in arbitrary network.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 8. Distributed Shared Memory

Abstract
In accordance with general objectives of distributed systems, Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) aims at making possible usage of local memory of all computers by the programmer, as if constituted jointly a single private local memory in his/her computer.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 9. The Control Flow During Execution of the Alternating Bit Protocol Specified by the Cause-Effect Structure

Abstract
Flow of control during activity of the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP) (Barlett et al. 1969), will be illustrated as a flow of tokens in a cause/effect (c/e) structure that specifies this control flow.
Ludwik Czaja

Chapter 10. Some Mathematical Notions Used in the Previous Chapters

Abstract
A binary relation, which connects elements of a set \( {\mathbb{X}} \) with elements of a set \( {\mathbb{Y}} \), is any subset of the Cartesian product \( {\mathbb{X}} \times {\mathbb{Y}} \).
Ludwik Czaja

Backmatter

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