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Über dieses Buch

This textbook fosters information exchange and discussion on all aspects of introductory matters of modern mechanical engineering from a number of perspectives including: mechanical engineering as a profession, materials and manufacturing processes, machining and machine tools, tribology and surface engineering, solid mechanics, applied and computational mechanics, mechanical design, mechatronics and robotics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, renewable energies, biomechanics, nanoengineering and nanomechanics. At the end of each chapter, a list of 10 questions (and answers) is provided.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Materials, Design and Manufacturing

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials: Relevance in Design and Manufacturing

The chapter provides an introduction to mechanical engineering, covering fundamental concepts of mechanical properties of materials and their use in the designDesign and manufacturing. It first explains the notion of mechanical properties of materials and then elaborates on the proper definition of most relevant properties as well as materials testing to obtain these properties. The role of mechanical propertiesMechanical properties at the design stage in form of the design criterion is explained. The use of material properties to assess equivalent stress and strainStrain in complex loading conditions is revealed. At the manufacturingManufacturing stage, the notion of additive (material is added to the workpiece), neutral (the volume of the workpiece is preserved), and substantive (the volume of the workpiece is reduced) processes is introduced. The relevant properties of materials in the neutral (forming) and substantive (cutting) processesCutting processes are considered.

Viktor P. Astakhov

Chapter 2. Analysis and Material Selection of a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) for a Bicycle Drivetrain

There has been much research and deliberation on what the optimum cadence for a cyclist is to achieve maximum efficiency and hence maximum performance. Research to date has shown that the ideal pedal rate varies based on the particular cycling task, such as course geography and duration. Several components of a CVT bicycle were analysed using SolidWorks finiteFinite Element Analysis (FEA) element analysis to determine the von Mises stress. These results were used to determine and examine candidate materials for the components of the drivetrain by using Granta DesignDesign software. Technical feasibility study was carried out on the drivetrain where a v-belt was subjected to a pretension load which is uniform around the belt before pedalling. As the cyclist pedals, one side of the belt tightens whilst the other side of the belt slackens. However, the sum of the tension in the belt never changes and hence the load on the pulley. For a professional cyclist starting their sprint, 300 Nm applied torque at the highest gear ratio, the required pretension to prevent slippage is roughly 1500 N. The simulation yielded an initial maximum von Mises stress of 1250 MPa in the corner of the spindleSpindle. This stress was reduced to 1059 MPa by adding 0.7 mm radius to the corners of the cut-outs. Cadence is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Higher cadence in the order of (100–120) rpm would improve sprint cycling over shorter distances where the muscle fatigue is reduced and the cycling power output is increased. A well-maintained chain drive system with a derailleur setup can achieve an efficiency of 98.6%, whereas a well-maintained v-belt drive 97%. The reduced efficiency of a v-belt CVT drivetrain plus design constraints will be a hindrance to its adoption into professional cycling racing; however, a market for the recreation cyclist exists. The design will require further iterations to reduce the number of parts, improve integration with a standard bicycle, increase efficiency and will also require an extensive testing/commissioning phase. Results from the FEA indicated that materials with yield strengths exceeding 500 MPa would be required. Due to the nature of loading, materials with properties such as high specific stiffness and strength would be necessary.

Ewan M. Berge, A. Pramanik

Chapter 3. Coin Minting

This chapter addresses ongoing developments in the engineering design of coin mintingCoin Minting processes by application of the finite element method. The presentation draws from a brief overview on the fundamentals of the quasi-static and dynamic finite element formulations based on implicit and explicit solution procedures to the application of the quasi-static finite element flow formulation to the numerical simulation of coin minting. Validation of the results from numerical simulations involved independent determination of the stress–strain curve of the disk material by means of stack compression tests, verification of the force values provided by the industrial coin minting press, confirmation of the estimates of the progressive filling of the relief coin features, and comparison of the numerical and experimental force versus die strokeDie Stroke evolutions for coins with different diameters and relief profiles produced by the Portuguese Mint. Results show that finite element analysis can be successfully applied to predict material flow and filling of the intricate relief coin features, to estimate the required coin minting forcesForces, and to improve the design of the dies before fabrication.

Paulo Alexandrino, Paulo J. Leitão, Luis M. Alves, Chris V. Nielsen, Paulo A. F. Martins

Chapter 4. Gradation, Dispersion, and Tribological Behaviors of Nanometric Diamond Particles in Lubricating Oils

To improve the dispersionDispersion characteristics of nanometric diamond in lubricating oilLubricating Oil and optimize its tribological properties, the gradationGradation, dispersion, and tribological behaviorsTribological Behavior of nanometric diamond particlesNanometric Diamond Particles in lubricating oils were studied in this chapter. The dispersion characteristics of modified nanometric diamond in lubricating oils were observed by centrifugal and static methods. The four-ball tribometerTribometer was performed to study the tribological properties of the modified nanometric diamond as additive in hydraulic fluid. The morphology, particle sizeParticle Size, surface functional groups, and structure composition of diamond powders before and after modification were analyzed and compared by means of FE-SEM, Zeta, FTIR, and XRD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy were selected to characterize the worn scar surface after rubbing process. The results showed that the modified nanometric diamond particle was fined, the surface functional group number was increased, and the steric effect in lubricating oil was produced, so that it exhibited excellent dispersion stability. Modified nanometric diamond as lubricating additives has good anti-wear and frictionFriction-reducing performance in hydraulic oil is mainly attributed to a large amount of small nanometric diamond particles, some fined particles fill and repair the rough surfaces of the friction pairs, and part of them enters the interface between the friction pairs to form rolling effect, which improves the anti-wear and friction-reducing properties.

Kai Wu, Bo Wu, Chuan Li, Xianguo Hu

Thermal Engineering

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Basics and Applications of Thermal Engineering

This chapter presents the basics of three major topics of thermal engineeringThermal engineering, viz. fluid mechanicsFluid mechanics, heat transferHeat transfer, and thermodynamicsThermodynamics. The three main parts of fluid mechanics, viz. fluid statics, kinematics, and dynamics, are summarized. The three modes of heat transfer, conductionConduction, convectionConvection, and radiationRadiation, are briefly explained with examples. Finally, the basics of thermodynamics are presented in detail. The important thermodynamic properties and laws of thermodynamics are introduced. EnergyEnergy and exergyExergy balances for thermodynamic systems are discussed. Some application areas of thermal engineering are highlighted.

T. K. Gogoi, U. S. Dixit

Chapter 6. Alternate Fuels for IC Engine

This chapter describes the production and use of biofuels/alternate fuelsAlternate fuels to run the internal combustion engine (IC Engine). Two methods, using biodieselBiodiesel blends with diesel and using syngasSyngas obtained from gasification system, for running the IC engineIC engine in dual fuel mode have been analyzed. Describing the first method, the objectives enumerate to select the vegetable oil plants for biodiesel production. To accomplish this, the energyEnergy input and output analysis of biodiesel plantsBiodiesel plants for 20-year plantation have been done. The biodiesel plants, namely jatropha, mahua, neem, palm, coconut, karanja, jojoba, and tung, have been identified for this purpose. This analysis includes energy input during oil extraction, cultivation, and biodiesel production. The energy inputs are based on manpower, fossil fuel, electricity, fertilizers, plants protection, and water for irrigation, expeller used for oil extraction, agricultural machinery, methanol, catalyst (H2SO4 and NaOH/KOH) and a transesterification unit for biodiesel production. Net energy gain (NEG) and net energy ratio (NER) are calculated for different biodiesel plants for 20-year plantation. Palm and coconut consumed highest energy (117,122.32 and 122,832.84 MJ/ha) during cultivation. Maximum energy output is obtained for palm (123,206.4 MJ/ha) and minimum for tung after its maturity. Maximum net energy ratio is found for mahua (1.7164) and minimum for coconut (1.3034) oil plants. The highest net energy gain for palm (41,689.14 MJ/a) and lowest for jojoba (8494.92 MJ/ha) were found after maturity of plants. There are significant increments in energy output, net energy ratio, and net energy gain with the addition of coproduct (glycerin). This analysis with methanol (used for biodiesel production) recovery has also been done and found reduction in energy input during biodiesel production and also the improvement in net energy gain and net energy ratio. In the second method, the virgin biomass obtained from wood and cow dung is used to generate producer gas as the feedstock for gasifier and in turn the syngasSyngas. The producer gas combination and gasifier-engine system are operated in dual fuel mode operation and diesel, respectively. The emissionEmission characteristics and performance of the CI engine are analyzed by running the engine in dual fuel mode operation and liquid fuel mode operation with respect to maximum diesel savings at different load conditions in the dual fuel mode operation. It is found that in the dual fuel mode of operation, the specific energyEnergy consumption is found to be the higher side at various load conditions. As comparison to dual fuel mode operation, the brake thermal efficiency using diesel is higher. In the dual fuel, the NOxemissionEmission was found to be very low which is highly advantageous over diesel fuel alone, but HC and CO emissions are found to be higher than the diesel.

Shailendra Kumar Shukla

Robotics and Automation

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Robotics: History, Trends, and Future Directions

In this chapter, the historyHistory of robotics is traced. The emphasis is on highlighting significant moments in roboticsRobotics history that had far-reaching consequences on the field. A brief presentation of the technical intricacies is followed by highlight of the recent trends. The chapter finally dwells on the direction robotics is surging and poised to change the world in more things than one could possibly imagine.

Shyamanta M. Hazarika, Uday Shanker Dixit

Chapter 8. Computer Vision in Industrial Automation and Mobile Robots

Computer visionComputer vision is presently a very relevant and important tool in both industrial manufacturing and mobile robotsMobile robots. As human vision is the most relevant sense to feed the brain with environmental information for decision making, computer vision is nowadays becoming the main artificial sensor in the domains of industrial quality assurance and trajectory control of mobile robots.

Frederico Grilo, Joao Figueiredo

Advanced Machining

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Advanced Machining Processes

Advanced machining processesAdvanced Machining Processes are the material-removing processes different from conventional machiningMachining processes, in which a well-guided wedge-shaped tool removes the material in the form of chips by producing contact stresses. There are a variety of ways in which material is removed using these processes. One method is producing stresses in the workpiece by different means but not with a well-guided wedge-shaped tool. There are several processes in this category, e.g., ultrasonic machiningUltrasonic Machining (USM), water jet machiningWater Jet Machining (WJM), and abrasive jet machiningAbrasive Jet Machining (AJM). Another method is utilizing the thermal effect to melt or vaporize the material. This is accomplished by laser beam machiningLaser Beam Machining (LBM), electron beam machiningElectron Beam Machining (EBM), and electrical discharge machiningElectrical Discharge Machining (EDM). Ion beam machining bombards ions instead of electrons as in electron beam machining. It is principally different from electron beam machining in the sense that in the former, the material removal mainly takes place by sputtering and not by melting or vaporization. Chemical and electrochemical machiningElectrochemical Machining (ECM) processes provide very good surface finish by making use of principles of chemistry. Combination of two or more processes is also in vogue. One such process is chemical–mechanical polishing, which removes the material by the combined action of chemical process and stresses caused by polishing. Advanced machining processes have become popular and economical and are finding their use in industries.

Manas Das, Uday S. Dixit

Chapter 10. Comparative Assessment and Merit Appraisal of Thermally Assisted Machining Techniques for Improving Machinability of Titanium Alloys

Titanium-based alloys are highly recognised for the outstanding strength, lightweight, stable properties and exceptional resistance to corrosion which make them greatly suitable material for industry applications involving harsh environmental conditions such as elevated temperature. However, in product manufacture, machiningMachining of these alloys tends to produce poor surface quality with accelerated tool wear and low material removal rate, resulting from large cutting forces, excessive workpiece temperatures and chemical reactivity owing to high yield stress and low thermal conductivity. In overcoming these manufacturing challenges, industry practice supported by current research identifies the significantly useful potential for thermally assisted machining (TAMThermally Assisted Machining (TAM)) techniques for improving machinabilityMachinability of titanium-based alloys whereby localised workpiece heating is applied to temporarily reduce metal hardness at the cutting point for lessening cutting forces. Reviewing current literature, this paper appraises various manufacturing issues related to the machining of these alloys and the potential improvement to machinability characteristics of these alloys from the application of TAM techniques. A detailed evaluation is presented on the alloy machinability influenced by workpiece heating prior to or during machining process using external heat source. This investigation recognises that the laser-assisted machining (LAM) reduces cutting forces by 30–60% and tool wear by 90%. It observes that the plasma-assisted machining (PAM) reduces cutting force by 20–40%, increases material removal rate by 200% and enhances the tool life by 150 times. Additionally, the induction-assisted machining (IAM) is noted to reduce cutting force by 36–54% while increasing the tool life and material removal rate by 206 and 214%, respectively.

O. A. Shams, A. Pramanik, T. T. Chandratilleke, N. Nadim

Chapter 11. Smart Machining System Using Preprocessor, Postprocessor, and Interpolation Techniques

The authors have developed earlier an industrial machining roboticMachining Robot system for foamed polystyrene materials. The developed robotic CAM systemRobotic CAM System provides a simple and effective interface without the need to use any robot language between operators and the machiningMachining robot. In this chapter, a preprocessor for generating cutter location source data (CLS dataCLS Data) from Stereolithography (STL dataSTL Data) is first proposed for smart robotic machining. The preprocessor enables to control the machining robot directly using STL data without using any commercially provided CAM system. The STL deals with triangular patches representation for a curved surface geometry. The preprocessor allows the machining robot to be controlled along a zigzag or spiral path directly calculated from STL data. Then, a smart spline interpolationSmart Spline Interpolation method is proposed and implemented for smoothing coarse CLS data. The effectiveness and potential of the developed approaches are demonstrated through experiments on actual machining and interpolation.

Fusaomi Nagata, Koga Toshihiro, Akimasa Otsuka, Yudai Okada, Tatsuhiko Sakamoto, Takamasa Kusano, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib

Chapter 12. Comparison of Non-conventional Intelligent Algorithms for Optimizing Sculptured Surface CNC Tool Paths

The optimization of process parameters referring to sculptured surface tool path planning increases efficiency and enhances product quality; thus, it is for the major research subject for many noticeable studies. Optimization for process parameters is usually conducted by working with a two-phase scheme; regression modeling based on the results obtained by a design of experimentsDesign of Experiments, and optimization by employing an intelligent algorithm. Currently, new artificial algorithms have been developed and deployed to address different kinds of problems in engineering. In the present work, six new intelligent algorithmsIntelligent Algorithms have been tested to sculptured surfaceSculptured Surface tool path optimization problems, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), invasive weed optimization (IWO), shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA), shuffled complex evolution (SCE), teaching–learning-based optimization (TLBO), and virus-evolutionary genetic algorithm (VGA). Except from the VGA which has been developed from scratch, the rest of the algorithms have been adopted from the literature whilst the case studies the algorithms are applied to have been established using design of machining simulationMachining Simulation experiments on benchmark sculptured surfacesBenchmark Sculptured Surfaces. The results obtained from case studies are compared with each other to investigate the capabilities of the aforementioned algorithms in terms of their application to the sculptured surface machining problem.

Nikolaos A. Fountas, Nikolaos M. Vaxevanidis, Constantinos I. Stergiou, Redha Benhadj-Djilali

Backmatter

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