Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter provides an introduction to driving cycles. Driving cycles are defined and classified with respect to each application and each application’s special attributes. A detailed discussion on the characteristics of each category (chassis dynamometer and engine dynamometer, modal and transient) is performed, with emphasis placed on cycle representativeness issues. Furthermore, the various metrics used to assess the technical properties and shortcomings of test cycles are detailed. The last part of the chapter describes the procedure followed when developing a test cycle; both the collection of driving data as well as the cycle construction techniques are discussed.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
European Environment Agency website. http://www.eea.europa.eu. Accessed 12 July 2016.
Economic cost of the health impact of air pollution in Europe: Clean air, health and wealth. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2015.
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2011 Report on environmental protection efforts—Promoting sustainability of road transport in Japan, 2011.
Reitze AW Jr. Air pollution control law: compliance and enforcement. Washington DC: Environmental Law Institute; 2001.
California Air Resources Board website. http://www.arb.ca.gov. Accessed 8 July 2016.
Berg W. Legislation for the reduction of exhaust gas emissions. In: Gruden D, editor. The handbook of environmental chemistry, Vol. 3, Traffic and environment. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2003. p. 175–253.
Clarkson D, Middleton JT. The California control program for motor vehicle created air pollution. J Air Pollution Control Assoc. 1962;12:22–8. CrossRef
Watson N, Janota MS. Turbocharging the internal combustion engine. London: MacMillan; 1982. CrossRef
Health Effects Institute. Special Report No 17 - Traffic-related air pollution: a critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects, 2010. http://pubs.healtheffects.org/getfile.php?u=553. Accessed 14 July 2016.
Gorham R. Air pollution from ground transportation—an assessment of causes, strategies and tactics, and proposed actions for the international community. United Nations, 2002.
Morriss AP, Yandle B, Dorchak A. Regulating by litigation: the EPA’s regulation of heavy-duty diesel engines. Admin L Rev. 2004;56:403–518.
ACEA official website. http://www.acea.be/statistics/tag/category/share-of-diesel-in-new-passenger-cars 1 27 Apr, 2016.
Eggleston HS, Gaudioso D, Gorissen N, Joumard R, Rijkeboer RC, Samaras Z et al. CORINAIR working group on emission factors for calculating 1990 emissions from road traffic - Vol. 1: methodology and emission factors. CEC Report, Contract B4-3045 (91)10 PH. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 1991.
Heywood JB. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1988.
Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG. Diesel engine transient operation. London: Springer; 2009.
Hagena JR, Filipi ZS, Assanis DN. Transient diesel emissions: analysis of engine operation during a tip-in. SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1151, 2006.
Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos DC. Investigating the emissions during acceleration of a turbocharged diesel engine operating with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends. Energy. 2010;35:5173–84. CrossRef
Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Rakopoulos DC. Exhaust emissions of diesel engines operating under transient conditions with biodiesel fuel blends. Progr Energy Combust Sci. 2012;38:691–715. CrossRef
Mathis U, Mohr M, Forss AM. Comprehensive particle characterization of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars at low ambient temperatures. Atmos Environ. 2005;39:107–17. CrossRef
Bielaczyc P, Merkisz L, Pielecha J. Investigation of exhaust emissions from DI diesel engine during cold and warm start. SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1260, 2001.
Pidgeon WM, Dobie N. The IM240 transient I/M dynamometer driving schedule and the composite I/M test procedure. Report EPA-AA-TSS-91-1, January 1991.
United Nations website. http://www.unece.org/wp29.html. Accessed 9 Sept. 2016.
Gillespie TD. Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics. Warrendale PA: SAE International; 1992. CrossRef
Kimura T. General resources energy investigation committee, Energy savings standards section, Automobile standards judging subcommittee, LPG car fuel efficiency standards evaluation group, Final Report, January 2006. https://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_lpg_passenger.pdf. Accessed 14 July 2016.
Clark N, Thompson G, Delgado O. Modeling heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy based on cycle properties. Final Report: West Virginia University; 2009.
Tu J, Wayne WS, Perchinschi MG. Correlation analysis of duty cycle effects on exhaust emissions and fuel economy. J Transp Res Forum. 2013;52:97–115.
Bata R, Yacoub Y, Wang W, Lyons D, Gambino M, Rideout G. Heavy duty testing cycles: survey and comparison. SAE Paper No. 942263, 1994.
Van de Weijer C. Heavy duty emission factors. Development of representative driving cycles and prediction of emissions in real life. PhD Thesis, Graz University of Technology, 1997.
Watson H, Milkins E, Preston M, Chittleborough C, Alimoradian B. Predicting fuel consumption and emissions-transferring chassis dynamometer results to real driving conditions. SAE Paper No. 830435, 1983.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions. Draft Technical Report, EPA 420-P-02-001, Washington DC, 2002.
Giakoumis EG. A statistical investigation of biodiesel effects on regulated exhaust emissions during transient cycles. Appl Energy. 2012;98:273–91. CrossRef
U.S. EPA MOVES website. https://www3.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/. Accessed 13 August 2016.
Ntziachristos L, Samaras Z. COPERT III computer program to calculate emissions from road transport—methodology and emission factors. Technical report No. 49, November 2000.
Reducing NO x emissions on the road. European conference of ministers of transport. Report prepared by the ECMT group on transport and the environment in co-operation with the OECD environment policy committee’s working group on transport, 2006. http://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/06nox.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
Franco V, Sánchez FP, German J, Mock P. Real-world exhaust emissions from modern diesel cars—Part 1: aggregated results. ICCT White Paper, October 2014.
Kadijk G, Ligterink N, Spreen J. On-road NO x and CO 2 investigations of Euro 5 light commercial vehicles. TNO Report. 2015;2015 R10192.
Tietge U, Zacharof N, Mock P, Franco V, German J, Bandivadekar A, et al. From laboratory to road—A 2015 update of official and ‘real-world’ fuel consumption and CO 2 values for passenger cars in Europe. ICCT White Paper, September 2015.
Ntziachristos L, Mellios G, Tsokolis D, Keller M, Hausberger S, Ligterink NE, et al. In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe. Energy Policy. 2014;67:403–11. CrossRef
BBC.com website. http://www.bbc.com/news/business-34324772. Accessed 27 July 2016.
Sharpe B. Testing methods for heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency: Trends from regulatory programs around the world and implications for India. ICCT Working Paper 2015-3, 2015.
Brown JE, Harris DB, King FG Jr. Heavy-duty truck test cycles: combining driveability with realistic engine exercise. Heavy Vehicle Syst. 2000;7:299–316. CrossRef
Aarnink TJ, Flöysand SÅ, Gadd P, Le Breton D, Mann N, Marotta A et al. Motor vehicle emission regulations and fuel specifications—Part 2: Detailed information and historic review (1970-1996). Prepared for the CONCAWE automotive emissions management group, 1997.
André M. The ARTEMIS European driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions. Sci Total Environ. 2004;334–335:73–84.
Ericsson E. Variability in urban driving patterns. Transp Res Pt. D. 2000;5:337–54.
Lin J, Niemeier DA. An exploratory analysis comparing a stochastic driving cycle to California’s regulatory cycle. Atmos Environ. 2002;36:5759–70. CrossRef
Watson HC. Vehicle driving patterns and measurement methods for energy and emissions assessment. Canberra: Australian government publishing service; 1978.
Stonex KA. Survey of Los Angeles traffic characteristics. 36th Annual Meeting, US Highway Research Board, pp. 509–538, 1957.
Austin TC, diGenova FJ, Carlson TR, Joy RW, Gianolini KA, Lee JM. Characterization of driving patterns and emissions from light-duty vehicles in California. California Air Resources Board, Final report, Contract No A392-185, November 1993.
FTP Review Project—Preliminary technical report. U.S. EPA 420-R-93-007, May 1993.
Carlson TR, Austin TC, McClement D, Yoon S-H. Development of generic link-level driving cycles. Report SR2009-05-02, prepared for U.S. EPA, May 2009.
Yu L, Wang Z, Shi Q. PEMS-based approach to developing and evaluating driving cycles for air quality assessment. Southwest Region University Transportation Center report SWUTC/10/169300-1, April 2010.
Morey JE, Limanond T, Niemeier DA. Validity of chase car data used in developing emissions cycles. J Transp Statist. 2000;3:15–28.
Austin T, Hellman K, Paulsell CD. Passenger car fuel economy during non-urban driving. SAE Paper No. 740592, 1974.
Ciuffo B, Marotta A, Tutuianu M, Anagnostopoulos K, Fontaras G. Pavlovic J et al. The development of the world-wide harmonized test procedure for light duty vehicles (WLTP) and the pathway for its implementation into the EU legislation. Transportation Research Board, 94th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, United States, 2015.
Kruse R, Huls T. Development of the federal urban driving schedule. SAE Paper No. 730553, 1973.
Dai Z, Niemeier D, Eisenger D. Driving cycles: a new cycle-building method that better represents real-world emissions. U.C. Davis-Caltrans air quality project, Task order No. 66, September 2008.
Brzezinski D, Hart C, Enns P. Final facility specific speed correction factors. U.S. EPA Final report, EPA420-R-01-060, November 2001.
André M. Driving cycles development: Characterization of the methods. SAE Paper No. 961112, 1996.
André M, Hickman J, Hassel D, Joumard R. Driving cycles for emission measurements under European conditions. SAE Paper No. 950926, 1995.
Joumard R, André M, Vidon R, Tassel P, Pruvost C. Influence of driving cycles on unit emissions from passenger cars. Atmos Environ. 2000;34:4621–8.
Lin J, Niemeier DA. Regional driving characteristics, regional driving cycles. Transp Res Pt. D. 2003;8:361–81. CrossRef
Smith M. Heavy-duty vehicle cycle development. EPA-460/3-78-008, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1978.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis
- Chapter 1
in-adhesives, MKVS, Hellmich GmbH/© Hellmich GmbH, Zühlke/© Zühlke, Neuer Inhalt/© momius | stock.adobe.com