In the disciplines of earth sciences where the objective is not essentially an historical or applied one, it is possible to make two main divisions, with disciplines describing geological structure and others that are concerned with the composition of natural substances. Thus, crystallography, geophysics, tectonophysics, structural geology, tectonics, geomorphology, and in large measure, sedimentology, are concerned with natural structures and their evolution, whereas mineralogy, geochemistry and petrology are concerned with the composition and chemical evolution of natural substances. In geological studies it is necessary to combine these two aspects.
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