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Throughout history, laws of prohibition have existed to protect people alongside a legitimate, free market; yet illicit markets have developed and flourished. This chapter examines historical attempts at prohibition throughout human history and, relatively more recently, prohibition of alcohol at the beginning of the twentieth century.
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Shalendra D. Sharma, Achieving Economic Development in the Age of Globalization (Routledge: New York, NY), p. 14.
David Held, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt and Jonathan Perraton, Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA, 1999), p. 15; Jeffrey Sommers, “Global Transformations: Politics, Economics, and Culture,” Journal of World History 14, no. 1 (2003): pp. 111–116; Bertrand Badie, “Feature Review Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture,” New Political Economy 5, no. 2 (2000): pp. 317–319.
Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of our Time (Beacon Paperback: Boston, 2001), 76.
Alex Forsyth, “Meeting an organ trafficker who preys on Syrian refugees,” BBC NEWS, April 25, 2017.
“N.J. corruption probe includes first organ trafficking case,” The Associated Press, July 24, 2009.
Alex Forsyth, “Meeting an organ trafficker who preys on Syrian refugees.”
Scott H. Decker and Margaret Townsend Chapman, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling: Lessons from the Inside (Temple University Press: Philadelphia, PA, 2008), p. 52.
United States Department of Labor “Minimum Wage,” https://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/chart.htm, accessed, May 2, 2017.
“United States GDP per Capita,” https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/united-states/gdp-per-capita, accessed May 2, 2017.
Quoted in Scott H. Decker and Margaret Townsend Chapman, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling: Lessons from the Inside, p. 37.
Mark Thornton, The Economics of Prohibition (University of Utah Press: Salt Lake City, UT, 1991), p. 91.
Quoted in Scott H. Decker and Margaret Townsend Chapman, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling: Lessons from the Inside, p. 138.
Beverly Merrill Kelley, Reelpolitik Ideologies in American Political Film (Lexington Books: Lanham, MD, 2012), p. 83.
N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Macroeconomics (South-Western Cengage Learning: Mason, 2009), p. 90.
For more, see: Jonathan P. Caulkins and Peter Reuter, “Setting goals for drug policy: harm or use reduction? Reduction,” Addiction 92, no. 9 (1997): pp. 1143–1150; Jonathan P. Caulkins and Peter Reuter, “What price data tell us about drug markets,” Journal of Drug Issues 28, no. 3 (1998): pp. 593–612; Peter Reuter and Mark AR Kleiman, “Risks and prices: An economic analysis of drug enforcement,” Crime and Justice 7 (1986): pp. 289–340.
Paul B. Stares, Global Habit: The Drug Problem in a Borderless World (Brookings Institution: Washington, DC, 1996), p. 4; Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, “Global habit: The drug problem in a borderless world,” Orbis 41, no. 4 (1997): pp. 653–661; Paul Gootenberg, “Talking about the flow: drugs, borders, and the discourse of drug control,” Cultural Critique 71, no. 1 (2009): pp. 13–46; Joseph Spillane and William B. McAllister, “Keeping the lid on: a century of drug regulation and control,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 70, no. 3 (2003): pp. S5–S12.
James Q. Wilson, “Against the Legalization of Drugs,” Commentary 89, no. 2 (1990), p. 150.
Milton Friedman, “An Open Letter to Bill Bennett,” Wall Street Journal, September 7, 1989.
Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty (Crown Publishers: New York, 2012), p. 50.
Paul B. Stares Global Habit: The Drug Problem in a Borderless World (Brookings Institution: Washington, DC, 1996), 6.
I. Skeet, OPEC: Twenty-Five Years of Prices and Politics, (University of Cambridge Press: Cambridge, 1991), 22.
Julia Emily Johnsen, Selected Articles on The Problem of Liquor Control (H. W. Wilson Company: New York, 1934), p. 11.
For an in-depth look at weak states in the international system, please see Hanna Samir Kassab, Weak States in International Relations Theory: The Cases of Armenia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Lebanon and Cambodia (Palgrave: New York, NY, 2015).
Jonathan Rosen, The Losing War: Plan Colombia and Beyond (State University of New York Press: Albany, NY, 2014).
Manuel Castells, “Global governance and global politics,” PS: Political Science & Politics 38, no. 1 (2005): p. 16.
Karst J. Besteman, “Alternative Perspectives on the Drug Policy Debate,” in The Drug Legalization Debate, ed. James Inciardi (Sage: London, 1999), p. 151; Ethan A. Nadelmann, “Drug prohibition in the United States: Costs, consequences, and alternatives,” Science 245, no. 4921 (1989): pp. 939–947; Jeffrey A. Miron and Jeffrey Zwiebel, “The economic case against drug prohibition,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 4 (1995): pp. 175–192; Ethan A. Nadelmann, “Thinking seriously about alternatives to drug prohibition,” Daedalus (1992): pp. 85–132; G. Alan. Marlatt, “Harm reduction: Come as you are,” Addictive Behaviors 21, no. 6 (1996): pp. 779–788; Thomas Kerr, Will Small, and Evan Wood, “The public health and social impacts of drug market enforcement: A review of the evidence,” International Journal of Drug Policy 16, no. 4 (2005): pp. 210–220.
James A. Inciardi, The War on Drugs IV: The Continuing Saga of the Mysteries and Miseries of Intoxication, Addiction, Crime and Public Policy (Pearson: Boston, MA, 2008), p. 200; Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes and Alex Stevens, “What can we learn from the Portuguese decriminalization of illicit drugs?” The British Journal of Criminology 50, no. 6 (2010): pp. 999–1022; James A. Inciardi, Hilary L. Surratt, Theodore J. Cicero, Steven P. Kurtz, Steven S. Martin, and Mark W. Parrino, “The ‘black box’ of prescription drug diversion,” Journal of Addictive Diseases 28, no. 4 (2009): pp. 332–347.
Quoted in Scott H. Decker and Margaret Townsend Chapman, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling: Lessons from the Inside, p. 142; Francesco Calderoni, “The structure of drug trafficking mafias: the ‘Ndrangheta and cocaine,” Crime, Law and Social Change 58, no. 3 (2012): pp. 321–349; Scott Jacques and Richard Wright, “Informal control and illicit drug trade,” Criminology 49, no. 3 (2011): pp. 729–765; Jonathan P. Caulkins, Honora Burnett, and Edward Leslie, “How illegal drugs enter an island country: insights from interviews with incarcerated smugglers,” Global Crime 10, no. 1–2 (2009): pp. 66–93; Heidi Grundetjern and Sveinung Sandberg, “Dealing with a gendered economy: Female drug dealers and street capital,” European Journal of Criminology 9, no. 6 (2012): pp. 621–635.
Kevin Casas-Zamora, “Drugs and Democracy: Toward a Paradigm Shift,” The Brookings Institution, April 22, 2009, https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/drugs-and-democracy-toward-a-paradigm-shift/, accessed May 2018.
Hanna Samir Kassab
Jonathan D. Rosen
- Chapter 1