Aerosols are the solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere. They can be seen as the amorphous haze that decreases visibility on polluted days, or the well-defined plumes of particles that rise out of a burning fire. These particles can be either natural (lofted desert and soil dust, sea salt particles, volcanic emissions, wildfire smoke, biogenic emissions) or anthropogenic (industrial emissions, biomass burning for agriculture, or land use changes that accelerate erosion and evaporation of lakes). As most aerosols are produced at the Earth’s surface, they are generally concentrated in the lower layers of the troposphere, and near the production sources. However particles can reach higher levels (4–6km) and can be transported over long distances. Aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition, scavenging by precipitation, and evaporation. At the stratosphere level, they are abundant only after major volcanic eruptions, and they are mainly formed by gas-toparticle conversion. Although much less numerous than tropospheric aerosols, they may have an important impact, due to their long residence time and to their spread all around the globe.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Lorraine A. Remer
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg