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Modern societies cannot function without information and communications technology (ICT) systems. When ICT systems such as electronic government (e-government) systems, e-payment infrastructures, and mobile phone networks fail, users can still access alternative systems based on older technologies, but these alternatives are rapidly disappearing. It is therefore necessary to develop ICT systems that remain highly robust to undesirable incidents over time and that are available to citizens around the clock.
Kjell Jørgen Hole
- Chapter 1
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