We develop a workshop technique for process co-creation with domain experts called tangible business process modeling. After assessing the idea in a laboratory experiment, we started workshops with professionals in the field. This paper illustrates how we used action research in two subsequent studies in which groups modeled BPMN and EPCs using tangible tiles on a table.
The practical result is best practice guidance for moderators applying tangible process modeling. Our research interest is to investigate the differences between tangible modeling and other techniques. In the lab experiment we found that tangible modeling supports user engagement and validated results. In the field, we compare the workshop performance and outcome to software-supported workshops. We found tangible modeling to be competitive in speed and result.