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Über dieses Buch

This book describes essential concepts of, and the status quo in, the field of ionospheric space weather. It explains why our society on planet Earth and moving outwards into space cannot work safely, function efficiently, or progress steadily without committed and comprehensive research initiatives addressing space weather. These initiatives must provide space environment specifications, warnings, and forecasts, all of which need to be timely, accurate and reliable.

Cause and effect models of the Earth’s ionosphere are discussed in terms of the spatial and temporal dimensions of background variability, storms, gradients, irregularities, and waves in both current and long-term research activities. Starting from dynamic processes on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and in the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere, the text focuses on the dominant features of the plasma medium under normal and extreme conditions over the European zone during the last few Solar Cycles.

One of the book’s most unique features is a series of fundamental examples that offer profound insights into ionospheric climate and weather. Various approaches for acquiring and disseminating the necessary data and forecasting analyses are discussed, and interesting analogies are observed between terrestrial and space weather – both of which could produce lasting social consequences, with not only academic but also concrete economic implications. The book’s primary goal is to foster the development of ionospheric space weather products and services that are capable of satisfying the ever-growing demand for space-based technology, and are ready for the society of the not-so-distant future.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

A general introduction to the concepts, state of development, and personal contributions in the field of ionospheric space weather. Past, present, and ongoing space weather programmes are described, covering the effects of space weather events on the Earth’s ionosphere, particularly in the European region, along with the implications for new technologies.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 2. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

The science underpinning the study of space weather is discussed, starting from dynamic processes on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and in the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. The focus is on the dominant features of the plasma medium under normal and extreme solar-terrestrial conditions during the last few Solar Cycles.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 3. Space Weather Causes and Effects

An overview of the interaction between the causes and effects of all kinds of space weather, outlining some clear ideas about ionospheric space weather as a specific subject area within the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (M-I-A) system. There is detailed discussion of the well known and frequently used solar-terrestrial ‘indices of activity’, as the parameters characterizing solar and geomagnetic activity. The overall aim is to explain why human society on planet Earth and outwards into space cannot work safely, function efficiently, and progress steadily without committed and comprehensive research initiatives in space weather.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 4. Ionospheric Variability

The focus is on how ionospheric variability with height produces the different regions, which are the dominant features of the plasma medium under normal and extreme conditions over the European zone, during the last few Solar Cycles. Examples are given for months representing ionospheric summer, equinox, and winter conditions during low and high solar activity epochs, revealing significant solar and seasonal dependence, as well as local time dependence from one day to another during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Sudden TEC decreases during the most recent solar eclipses are reviewed.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 5. Ionospheric Storm Morphology

Covers the characteristics of the most significant ionospheric storms generated by space weather events and/or variable solar conditions during the last three Solar Cycles (SC 22-24). The origins of storm morphology are discussed using ionosonde measurements and GNSS observations.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 6. Ionospheric Space Weather Forecasting and Modelling

Ionospheric weather prediction, specification, forecasting and modelling techniques that enable the realization of effective space weather products are described. In the future these may eventually be adopted and implemented by decision-making authorities for space environment specifications, warnings, and forecasts, all of which need to be timely, accurate, and reliable.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 7. Ionospheric Irregularities and Waves

Some of the fundamental scientific questions are raised, mainly focusing on the causes of mid-latitude ionospheric irregularities and waves, the upward coupling of energy in the M-I-A system, and the thermal structure. A definition is provided for irregular behaviour with appropriate examples of LSTIDs and MSTIDs in the European mid-latitude ionosphere.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 8. Ionosphere Space Weather and Radio Propagation

The effects of ionospheric weather on RF and GNSS systems are summarized in terms of the resulting consequences for radio communications, systems supporting space-based navigation and positioning, and surveillance, together with a description of the monitoring facilities and mapping techniques available for prediction, nowcasting, forecasting, post-event analysis, along with final operational tools, products, and services.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 9. Ionospheric Space Weather Targets

The applications of the scientific findings, methods, models, and techniques are reviewed in an effort to achieve greatly improved specification/nowcasting and forecasting of the effects of ionospheric space weather. A useful analogy is drawn between ionospheric space weather and terrestrial weather. It is observed that, once ionospheric weather has been fully accepted as an extremely important environmental issue, the solar-terrestrial events can be essentially predictable (from the Sun to the Earth, to other planets, and beyond into the interstellar medium).
Ljiljana R. Cander

Chapter 10. Ionospheric Weather in Action

An introduction to the ionospheric space weather currently underway, as solar activity is steadily declining towards the approaching solar minimum. The examples cited include the September 2017, March 2018, and June 2018 events, underlining how the solar-terrestrial environment will be largely dominated by internal dynamics as we near the end of Solar Cycle 24.
Ljiljana R. Cander

Backmatter

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