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This book focuses on irrigation sources together with water management for agricultural development in Uttar Pradesh state of India. Being the most populous state of the country, it bears a burden of feeding about 199 million people of which major section relies on agriculture for their subsistence. This study makes comparison in the growth trends in the irrigated area, crop land use patterns and crop productivity at the district level in different periods of time. The book emphasizes on irrigation water management to optimize crop yields in order to increase Water Productivity of crops in low productivity regions of the state applying suitable technology.

This book appeals to researchers and students in geography and planning working on the topics of agriculture as well as irrigation and water management aspects.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Irrigation is a key driver of agricultural production. It is the practice of applying water to the soil to supplement the natural rainfall and provide moisture for plant growth. In most of the tropical and subtropical countries agriculture depends upon monsoon and irrigation is regarded as an inevitable resource. However, irrigated agriculture faces a number of challenges. Water availability for irrigation is also threatened by non-agricultural water uses (domestic, industrial, environmental etc.). Further, water pollution and groundwater mining have increased the risk for meeting irrigation water needs. It is quite relevant to study this research problem to the study area of Uttar Pradesh. This chapter deals with the introduction of the research problem and also focuses on the data sources collected from various departments, and the methodology adopted to find conclusions to the research problem.
Suman Lata

Chapter 2. Profile of the Study Area: Uttar Pradesh

Abstract
In this chapter physical and socio-economic profiles of the state were discussed. The physical profile gives an insight of the location of the study area, its administrative set up during different periods of time, structure and relief, drainage, climate, soils, natural vegetation, fauna etc. The main aim of describing physical aspects is to make the reader familiar with the study area before proceeding towards the next chapters discussing the land use patterns, water resources, irrigation water management, crop productivity and agriculture development in the state. The characteristics such as population growth, literacy rate, sex-ratio and occupational structure were included in the socio-economic profile of the state. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state of the country and lies in the most fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain. It contributes a major share to agriculture production in the country. In 2011, the population of the state has been recorded as 199.8 million. The state enjoys a tropical monsoon climate and about 60% of the workforce is engaged in agricultural activities.
Suman Lata

Chapter 3. Sources of Irrigation: A Theoretical Framework

Abstract
This chapter is a conceptual framework which focuses on the development of irrigation in India during different periods of time-pre-historic, medieval and during plan periods in which construction and development of various sources of irrigation were made to make agriculture productive and sustainable. The second section of this chapter deals with the review of the literature on the previous works made on aspects of irrigation development and water management in agriculture.
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Chapter 4. Patterns of Water Supply, Growth Trends in Irrigation Area and Irrigation Development

Abstract
This chapter deals with patterns of water supply, growth trends in irrigated area and its development in different regions of the state by taking account the data of 20 years period that ranged from 1995–1996 to 2014–2015. Growth rates per annum in irrigated area through different sources of irrigation and for irrigated crops were also computed for each district by applying ‘Least Square Method’. Further, a comparative picture of intensity of irrigation was presented afterwards the levels of irrigation development were assessed applying the Composite Z-Score method for the study.
Suman Lata

Chapter 5. Agricultural Land Use Patterns

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the land use statistics of the state of Uttar Pradesh in context of general land use characteristics which include different categories of land occupied to the total reporting area of the state, viz., area devoted to forests, barren land, land not available for utilization, culturable waste, pastures, miscellaneous trees, current fallow, other than current fallow and net sown area. This chapter portrays district-wise percentage distribution of the total or gross cropped area, net sown area and area sown more than once. It also depicts the changes in the cropping patterns in the state during four periods of time, i.e. 1995–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015. The trends of growth in area, production and yields of all major crops including the individual crops were computed for the period of 1995–1996 to 2014–2015 by applying the Least Square Growth formula. The ranking of crops as first, second and third illustrates the proportion of area under these crops in the districts of the state. Crop-combination regions were delineated for the state applying Doi’s method. At the end of the chapter, intensity of cropping in different districts presents the intensive use of land in the state during different periods of time.
Suman Lata

Chapter 6. Measurement of Agricultural Productivity and Water Productivity of Crops

Abstract
This chapter deals with the measurement of agricultural productivity and water productivity of major crops which plays a significant role in the agricultural development of the state. Agricultural productivity and demarcation of productivity regions have been considered by taking into account four major groups of crops-cereal crops, pulse crops, oilseed crops and cash crops by applying Yang’s ‘crop yield index’ method (1965). Further, crop water requirements, i.e., the evapotranspiration, during the crop growing seasons were calculated applying a statistical formula devised for this purpose and water productivity for four major crops, viz., wheat, rice, maize and sugarcane, were measured for each district of the state. As there are substantial variations in water productivity, some measures have also been put forward for increasing water productivity in the crops considered.
Suman Lata

Chapter 7. Impact of Irrigation on Agricultural Development: A Correlative Analysis

Abstract
This chapter is an attempt to find out the impact of irrigation development on overall agricultural development in the state of Uttar Pradesh. For the agricultural development analysis, data pertaining to 21 variables for the period 2010–2015 were collected and grouped into six major development categories-irrigation, agricultural land use, technology, agricultural production, human resource and rural infrastructure. The composite z-score technique was used to examine and determine the levels of agricultural development in all of the 71 districts of the state. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient technique was applied to examine the relationship between variables of irrigation and agricultural development. If imbalances and variations exist in provisions of irrigation and agricultural development, some measures have also been suggested for the development of agriculturally backward districts of the state.
Suman Lata

Backmatter

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