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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on international research in flood-related areas and sustainable management. It consists of a compilation of innovative works, demonstrating best practices in flood management and recommend flood solutions. The selected papers cover the fundamentals and latest advances in the area, complete with illustrations, diagrams and tables. These proceedings serve as a source of information and state-of-the-art technology in managing floods to improve quality of life.



Flood Forecasting and Management


Recent Application of Weather Radar Observation into Hydrologic Forecasting in Japan

This paper introduces recent research efforts on hydrologic flood forecasting in Japan using multiple weather radar observation networks. After illustrating the details of weather radar observation systems in Japan, several noticeable researches of the authors are introduced.
Eiichi Nakakita, Sunmin Kim

An Overview: Flood Catastrophe of Kelantan Watershed in 2014

One of the challenging topics in Malaysia is flood occurrence, which have important impacts in human life and socioeconomic subjects. Malaysia, periodically, have faced with huge floods since previous years. Kelantan river basin, which located in the northeast of Peninsular Malaysia, is prone to flood events in Malaysia. Kelantan River has been badly affected with flood during recent monsoon season on December 2014 due to heavy monsoons rainfall and climate change issues. In this study, available rainfall and water-level data are analyzed and presented based on the flood event on December 2014. Generally, the flood area affected includes the districts of Kota Bharu, Kuala Krai, Machang, Pasir Mas, Pasir Puteh, Tanah Merah, Gua Musang, and Tumpat at Kelantan State. In the northeast monsoon season, the Kelantan State suffers from two phase of flood. The first phase began on December 14–17, 2014, and the second phase occurred on December 20–24, 2014. A comparison between accumulated rainfall on December and whole year of 2014 at Gagau station shows that contribution of rainfall on December is roughly 50 % of all of 2014. Overview of water-level results at Kelantan watershed shows that all areas are involved with highest record in 2014 in comparison with previous decades except Golok area. Results of water-level ranges show that most of the parts of Kelantan watershed are involved with over danger values for flood in 2014, which Lebir and Kelantan rivers have high increasing. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a need to have study on flood mitigation and recognition of critical hydrological phenomena for sustainable strategies in Kelantan watershed. Consequently, this research provides primary information as baseline study for upcoming research for water resource management projects.
Aminah Shakirah Jaafar, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Hidayah Basri, Nazirul Mubin Zahari, Milad Jajarmizadeh, Hanapi Mohamad Noor, Sazali Osman, Abdul Hafiz Mohammad, Wan Hazdy Azad

Flood Disaster Management in Malaysia: Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Review

Flood is a natural weather-related disaster frequently occurring in Malaysia. One of the greatest challenges that Malaysia faces today is recognizing the magnitude of risks posed by flooding. The public, private and NGOs should deliberate the amount of investments required to reduce the flood risk, including making appropriate emergency preparations, strengthening the existing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and finding new solution for minimizing risk related to flood disaster. The current existing SOPs indicate that there is still lack of holistic flood risk management system to minimize this problem. The country should be committed to establish a national policy on flood risk management that requires effective, economical, sustainable, and consistent management of flood risk to people, properties, and communities. Risk management has been established as a well-defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental, and man-made hazards. A risk management can be applied at every level of the action: planning, design, and operation level. A holistic flood risk management system will evaluate the potential risk before, during, and after the flood disaster. The paper reviews the current SOPs implemented by the agencies dealing with flood disaster in Malaysia.
Wardah Tahir, Janmaizatulriah Jani, Intan Rohani Endut, Mazidah Mukri, Nurul Elma Kordi, Nur Eizati Mohd Ali

Development of MSMA SME Design Aid Tools and Database System: Analysis and Design Stage

Rapid urbanization has many negative effects on environment such as deterioration of water quality contributed by pollution. In terms of stormwater management, even with the introduction of Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (MSMA) in 2000 (Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia), numerous new technologies have yet to be examined in detail, especially the relationship between water quantity and quality. Implementation is based on the restoration and optimization of the ecosystem. In this study, it has been reviewed and introduced the MSMA software in regard to water quality and discharge analysis for the future study. MSMA SME Design Aid and Database System knowledge base consists of a compilation of information and data relevant to stormwater treatment including algorithm for components, available design standard, technical guidelines, components design, supplier contact information, and images of each components and drawings. MSMA SME Design Aid and Database System framework consists of four main modules: user requirement input, analysis and design phase, prototype phase and user testing. There are 28 main components which have important role for visualization of any given catchment such as rainfall data, green roof, bioretention, constructed wetland, porous pavement, rainwater harvesting system, grey water reuse system and checking tools items. Currently, the 4 key components, such as bioretention system, water quality volume, lined drain design and bridge afflux estimator, have been developed in this study. MSMA SME Design Aid and Database System is able to assist engineers and developers in terms of management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert-level judgment is needed repetitively for a large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment.
L. M. Sidek, H. Haris, H. A. Mohiyaden, H. Basri, Z. A. Roseli, M. D. Norlida

A Model to Determine the Degree of Housing Damage for Flood-Affected Area: A Preliminary Study

Recent years, global warming and ozone depletion had impacted people’s lives in many ways. In Malaysia, floods have become a common phenomenon caused by a combination of natural factors such as heavy monsoon rainfall and human factors like poor drainage system and deforestation. Heavy year-round rainfall has led to “spillover” effect bringing heavy rains and subsequent flooding. Floods can cause damage to housing and its possession as well as disruption to communication. At times, relocation is deemed necessary. In reality, flood victims are relocated or evacuated to a safe area provided by the authorities but some run to their own shelter. Therefore, the focus of the government is to accelerate the construction of permanent houses for the affected people. The question arises whether the estimated replacement needs took into account the degree of damage to the affected homes? Do they really deserve to receive the permanent house based on the condition of their house post-flood? Is the condition of the house deemed acceptable by end users? Thus, this preliminary study emphasizes on the understanding of the degree of housing damage after a flood, and the findings provide a conceptual model for the degree of housing damages in the Malaysian context.
Thuraiya Mohd, Mohamad Haizam Mohamed Saraf, Siti Fairuz Che Pin, Dzulkarnaen Ismail, Tajul Edrus Nordin, Mohd Nasurudin Hasbullah

Identification of Vulnerable Regions for TNB’s Electric Substations during Flood in Peninsular Malaysia

Flood is usually an environmental hazard which has been increased in recent years by forcing the pushing factors such as climate change and urbanization. This study presents flood-prone area related to the electric substations for Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) in Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this research was to identify the related regions that the electric substations are in vulnerable condition by flood risk. For this research, two types of maps are generated, namely flood inundation map (FIM), which indicates the area and capacity of the flood, and flood hazard map (FHM), which provides the area, depth, velocity, and extension of the flood for the TNB’s location of substation. For this issue, different classes of substations are involved in analysis, namely transmission main intake (PMU), main distribution (PPU), main switching station (SSU), and distribution substation (PE). An integration of TNB’s substation maps performed with FIM and FHM due to identify substations which are in flood-prone regions. Generally, result shows that Kelantan is classified as the highest flood-prone region for TNB’s infrastructures especially for PMU which they are affected by flood. Kelantan, Terengganu, and Perlis are involved with the highest flooded, respectively, based on PPU and SSU infrastructure. Finally, for PE substations, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu have the highest contribution for flooded substations for TNB’s structures.
Nurul Elyeena Rostam, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Hidayah Basri, Milad Jajarmizadeh, Ming Fai Chow, Radin Diana R. Ahmad, Shyong Wai Foon

Water and Flood Modelling


Mathematical Modeling in Irrigation and Flood Management

The economy of Bangladesh predominantly depends upon agriculture. About 70 % of the population is dependent on agriculture. In the next 25 years, the population of the country is expected to increase by 40 %. This increase of population will increase the food demand of about 29 %. The changes in the agricultural area have important implications for food production as the reduced area implies an increase in cropping intensity on the remaining land. Planned utilization and efficient management of water resources for irrigation is one of the most crucial elements for achieving desired changes in agricultural production which calls for application of an integrated hydrological modeling tool. Most of the irrigation projects in Bangladesh are implemented 30–40 years ago. Nowadays, lots of infrastructural changes have been occurred. The irrigation canal command area conceived earlier has been changed, and many drainage routes have been blocked. As the hydraulic events are dynamic and changes occur every year, it is very difficult to provide solution of these complex situations for the normal prevailing method without modeling technique. Modeling technique can provide sustainable solution considering impacts of different scenarios for irrigation, flood, and drainage improvements. This paper highlights the case study of Teesta Barrage Project (TBP) Phase-I. This case study shows how the state-of-the-art technologies could be used for irrigation and flood management in irrigation project. The application of modeling tool in TBP phase-I opens up a new dimension of models as a very useful tool in Command Area Development Project. After the completion of TBP Phase-I, the project experienced water-logging problems at several locations coupled with the fact that the potential irrigable areas did not get irrigation. Under CAD project of TBP phase-I, IWM carried out detailed hydraulic model study for the irrigation and drainage systems in an integrated way to find remedial measures. A comprehensive data collection program including topographic survey has been carried out in connection with this study. Updated topographic map has been developed, and command area has been redelineated based on this map. A number of problems were identified, and corresponding solutions have been established based on the study. Most of the suggestions related to irrigation and drainage have already been implemented, and the results are found very much satisfactory. These are definitely positive indications of the successful utilization of modeling tool for better management of water resources projects. Computer-based interactive information system (IIS) for the whole project area and decision support system (DSS) for a pilot area have been developed for better management of the project.
A. F. M. Afzal Hossain, S. M. Shah-Newaz, Muhammad Hassan Bin Afzal

Modeling Optimal Water Allocation by Managing the Demands in Selangor

Water in Selangor is getting scarce, yet it is the key to its economic development. A fast-growing population and expanding industrialization in the state creates demands for new water sources and innovative management of water resources and services. The goal of this study was to calculate the impact on the supply—demand gap for the city and industry sectors in Selangor by the year 2050. To achieve this, two main simulations involving groundwater application using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model, this, integrate an economic optimization model and a hydrology water management model. First simulation involves business as usual scenarios while the second incorporates the water saving measures into the simulation via the demand side management (DSM) analysis. Both simulations were carried out in the Selangor and Langat catchment as both catchments represent the main catchments for the state of Selangor. Such detailed simulation and inclusion of previously unaccounted for factors can help to create awareness of potential future problems, inform water practices, and suggest management alternatives. Results show that with the groundwater as an alternative resource and proper water saving measures, water deficit within Selangor can be significantly reduced.
Nurul Nadiah Mohd Firdaus Hum, Suhaimi Abdul-Talib

Sediment Load Distribution Analysis of Langat River Basin, Selangor

Rapid development in urban areas and uncontrolled deforestation are among the factors that contribute to the pollution of rivers through the process of erosion and sedimentation resulting from such activities. Stormwater runoff will flash out all the eroded soil and sediments to the downstream area, and sedimentation will occur in rivers and lead to other environmental problem. This research aims to evaluate the formation of suspended sediment and bedload sediment at the upper part of Langat River Basin, one of the most important river water catchments in Peninsular Malaysia. Sediment samples were collected using sediment grabber and analyzed in the laboratory. Three parameters were quantified throughout this study, namely concentration of suspended sediment (mg/L), river discharge values (m3/s), and grain size distribution (g). The result showed that the estimated mean sediment load flow into Langat River is 5267.73 ton/km2/year. Distributions of sediment grain size in upstream of Langat River consist of very rough sediment grains, showing a possibility of logging and deforestation activities within the catchment area. Hence, a long-term preventive measure such as environmental policies regulating land use development and management practices should be formulated and implemented to fix the sedimentation problems in Langat River Basin.
Mohd Fozi Ali, Siti Maisarah Ahmad, Khairi Khalid, Nor Faiza Abd Rahman

Comparison of a Hybrid Neural Network and Semi-distributed Simulator for Stream Flow Prediction

Hydrological models are widely used for the simulation of stream flow in order to aid water resources planning and management in catchment or river basin. Numerous hydrological models have been developed based on different theories. Performance of such models depends on hydro-climatic setting of a catchment. In the present study, performance of a widely used physically based distributed model known as Soil and Water Assessment (SWAT) and a data-driven model, namely hybrid artificial neural network (HANN), has been evaluated to simulate stream flow in an arid catchment located in the south of Iran. Data related to topography, hydrometeorology, land cover, and soil were collected and processed for this purpose. The models were calibrated and validated with same time period to evaluate the advantage and disadvantages of different models. The results showed SWAT outperformed HANN in terms of relative errors such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent of bias during model validation. Other error indicates, namely root mean square error (RMSE), mean square error, and mean relative error (MRE), were found close to zero for SWAT during both model calibration and validation. The study suggests that both models have their own promising flow prediction due to their own features and capabilities for daily flow.
Milad Jajarmizadeh, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Sobri Harun, Shamsuddin Shahid, Hidayah Basri

Estimation of Peak Discharges Using Flood Frequency Analysis and Hydrological Modeling System

This study presents the methodology to estimate peak discharges using flood frequency analysis (FFA) and hydrological modeling system (HMS). FFA method was performed using two distribution functions, i.e., Gumbel’s extreme value distribution (Gumbel’s) and lognormal (LN) distribution, while HMS was carried out using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) software. Long and reliable daily streamflow and rainfall data (i.e., 50 years) recorded at Sungai Rinching, Selangor, were used. Goodness-of-fit test indicates that the chi-square (χ2) values for Gumbel’s and lognormal distributions are 1.952 and 7.976, respectively, which are significantly less than the \({\upchi}_{\alpha ,v}^{2}\) value of 9.488. However, Gumbel’s is chosen to represent the distribution of annual maximum daily streamflow because the χ2 test value was much lesser as compared to lognormal distribution. The calibration and validation processes were carried out to test the suitability of HEC-HMS software to simulate the streamflow of Sungai Rinching. The relative percentage difference (RPD) estimated for peak discharges from these processes was between 3 and 6 %, and maximum lag times were only 1 h. These results indicate that the model performance is very good. The peak discharges for several average recurrence intervals (ARIs), i.e., 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years estimated using FFA and HMS, were also compared. Results show that the peak discharges estimated using HMS for all ARIs (except 2 years) are comparable to the values given by FFA, and the given percentage differences are between 2.7 and 12.2 %. This finding indicates that HEC-HMS may be used as a tool in simulating the daily streamflow and estimate the annual daily maximum streamflow of several ARIs at Sungai Rinching.
Jazuri Abdullah, Nur S. Muhammad, Nur A. Mohamad Sharif

Simulation of Estuary Transverse Flow Salinity Intrusion During Flood Event: Case Study of Selangor River Estuary

The objective of this paper was to describe the effect of estuarine flooding leading to estuary transverse flow salinity intrusion specifically in the Selangor River estuary. The simulation of Selangor River estuary has been carried out using a multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model. The Selangor River estuary model has been calibrated and validated using data on November 2005 for water-level calibration and from May to June 2014 for salinity validation. The results of the simulation show that the salinity level decreases when the water-level increases due to high fresh water discharge from the river upstream for different return periods of 10, 50, and 100 years.
Nuryazmeen Farhan Haron, Wardah Tahir

Flood Frequency Analysis Based on Gaussian Copula

Flood duration, volume, and peak flow are important considerations in flood risk analysis and management of hydraulic structures. The conventional flood frequency analysis assumed that the marginal distribution functions of flood parameters follow a certain pattern. However, such assumption is impractical because a flood event is multivariate and the flood parameter distributions can be different. These discrepancies were addressed using bivariate joint distributions and Copula function which allow flood parameters having different marginal distributions to be analyzed simultaneously. The analysis used hourly stream flow data for 45 years recorded at the Rantau Panjang gauging station on the Johor River in Malaysia. It was found that flood duration and volume are best fitted by the generalized extreme value distribution while peak flow by the Generalized Pareto. Inference function for margin (IFM) method was applied to model the joint distributions of correlated flood variables for each pair and the results showed that all the calculated θ values were in acceptable range of Gaussian Copula. By horizontally cutting the joint cumulative distribution function (CDF), a set of contour lines were obtained for Gaussian Copula which represented the occurrence probabilities for the joint variables. Also the joint return period for pair of flood variables was calculated.
Mohsen Salarpour, Zulkifli Yusop, Fadhilah Yusof, Shamsudin Shahid, Milad Jajarmizadeh

Rainfall-Runoff Modelling


Identification of Seasonal Rainfall Peaks at Kelantan Using Fourier Series

This study aimed to identify the wet period, peaks of mean rainfall amount per rainy day at Kelantan River basin. Daily rainfall data from 12 selected rainfall stations for the period of 1975–2014 which comprises of three main areas such as inland, river, and coastal are analyzed. The estimated wet period, date, and value at peak of mean rainfall amount per rainy day will be identified using Fourier series and compared with the actual flood events in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. The findings indicate that duration of wet periods obtained from the results of best fitting justifies the flood event occurred most recently. Moreover, the coastal area of Kelantan also shows the highest probability of rainfall amounts exceeding 60 mm.
Noridayu Mah Hashim, Sayang Mohd Deni, S. Sarifah Radiah Shariff, Wardah Tahir, Janmaizatul Jani

Application of HEC-GeoHMS and HEC-HMS as Rainfall–Runoff Model for Flood Simulation

Flood modeling and simulation assist in the prediction of the hazard for better flood preparedness and thus reduce flood damages. The study had simulated flood occurrence at the upper Klang–Ampang River Basin which is a flood-prone area near the capital city of Malaysia. Digital elevation model (DEM) for this area was processed in the ArcGIS 10.2 environment using terrain preprocessing tools to delineate the basin, sub-basin, and stream network. Results from the terrain preprocessing were used in the HEC-GeoHMS to extract the hydrologic parameters of the river basin. These hydrologic parameters were used in the estimation of streamflow runoff in HEC-HMS. The study had produced an illustrative and comprehensive representation of the sub-basin with reasonable accuracy indicated by the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.86.
Salwa Ramly, Wardah Tahir

Evaluation of Total Load Equation for Malaysian Mountain Rivers

Development of total sediment load (TL) equations for Malaysian rivers was first cited in Sinnakaudan et al. [1]. Sinnakaudan et al. [4] proposed an equation which may best predict TL for mountain rivers (MR). In 2011, Sinnakaudan and Sulaiman [3] listed another 22 possible combinations of multiple linear regression TL equations which may be used for MR in Malaysia. However, their performance is not fully verified due to field data constraints. The present paper gives the performance test carried out for the equations with latest 130 sets of data collected from 25 numbers of Malaysian MR. The accuracy of the existing equations was obtained using the discrepancy ratio analysis, which is the ratio of calculated values to the measured values. Overall prediction indicates that Eq. (11) obtained from Sinnakaudan and Sulaiman [3] performs better compared to other equations; however, the percentage prediction is still below 30 %. Thus, a site-specific equation is proposed to be developed based on to correctly predict the sediment transport in MR in Malaysia
S. K. Sinnakaudan, M. R. Shukor, M. S. Sulaiman, S. I. H. Ismail, M. Mohammed, R. Che Soh

Evaluation of Stochastic Daily Rainfall Data Generation Models

In developing countries, data is usually a scarce resource as data collection is an expensive exercise. Therefore, analytical method is required to simulate the actual situations and provide synthetic data for forecasting purposes. This paper will compare several methods of synthetically generating rainfall data based on available data. Several models will be used, including lag-one Markov chain model, two-step model, and transition probability model to generate stochastic daily rainfall data of long-term duration, using data from a catchment in Australia. Three variations of lag-one Markov chain models were used: untransformed, logarithmic transformation, and square root transformation. Two-step model uses Markov chain to model rainfall occurrences and gamma distribution to model rainfall depths. Six variations of the Transition Probability Matrices were used, 3 using Shifted Exponential Distribution and 3 using Box–Cox Power Transformation was adopted to predict the high rainfall depths, and the parameters are determined using maximum-likelihood method on the available rainfall data. The models’ results were tested by comparing the statistics of the generated data against those of the available data. Direct comparisons of the means, standard deviations, and skews show satisfactory results. Further comparisons of monthly means, standard deviations, skews, maxima and minima, as well as the lengths of wet and dry spells had also shown satisfactory results. In conclusion, all the models have produced synthetic rainfall data, which are statistically similar to those of the available data. In comparison, the TPM model gave the most accurate results. Therefore, this model may be utilised for synthetic rainfall data generations, which can then be used for forecasting.
J. Jaafar, A. Baki, I. A. Abu Bakar, W. Tahir, H. Awang, F. Ismail

Land Use Change Effects on Extreme Flood in the Kelantan Basin Using Hydrological Model

Land use and land cover (LULC) change results in increased of flood frequency and severity. The increase of annual runoff which is caused by urban development, heavy deforestation, or other anthropogenic activities occurs within the catchment areas. Therefore, accurate and continuous LULC change information is vital in quantifying flood hydrograph for any given time. Many studies showed the effect of land use change on flood based on hydrological response (i.e., peak discharge and runoff volume). In this study, a distributed hydrological modeling and GIS approach were applied for the assessment of land use impact in the Kelantan Basin. The assessment focuses on the runoff contributions from different land use classes and the potential impact of land use changes on runoff generation. The results showed that the direct runoff from developmental area, agricultural area, and grassland region is dominant for a flood event compared with runoff from other land-covered areas in the study area. The urban areas or lower planting density areas tend to increase for runoff and for the monsoon season floods, whereas the inter-flow from forested and secondary jungle areas contributes to the normal flow.
Arnis Asmat, Shattri Mansor, Nader Saadatkhah, Nor Aizam Adnan, Zailani Khuzaimah

Rainfall Trend Analysis and Geospatial Mapping of the Kelantan River Basin

Trend analysis was widely used as a tool to detect changes in climatic and hydrologic time series data such as rainfall. Fourteen rainfall stations in the Kelantan River Basin were used to detect trends for each of the sub-basin areas. Two objectives of the study are (i) to quantify the changing trends of rainfall of Kelantan River using statistical tests (i.e., Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope test) based on monthly, seasonal, and annual time series, and secondly, (ii) to map rainfall trend according to Mann-Kendall test result. Analysis for these two tests revealed that several stations indicated significant increasing and decreasing trends for monthly, seasonal, and annual rainfall time series. The study found that rainfall varies in different months, seasons, and annually as evidenced by the graph and trend maps. Therefore, this information will benefit especially for flood preparation and responses in Kelantan River Basin which annually experiences monsoon flooding.
Nor Aizam Adnan, Sharifah Diyana Syed Ariffin, Arnis Asmat, Shattri Mansor

Water Quality


Application of 1D Shallow Flow Model for Simulation of Pollution Fate and Streamflow

Numerical models especially two-dimensional (2D) models have long been used in simulating hydrodynamics and its associated processes such as sediment transport, pollutant dispersion, and flooding are caused by overtopping or breaching of river banks. However, due to the complexity of the river geometries, it is still difficult to resolve the problematic river in a 2D manner. Thus, a one-dimensional (1D) component model is needed to analyze complex flow hydrodynamics under flood conditions. As solute transport also greatly impacts the local environment and is closely related to the water quality in shallow water bodies, the prediction of pollutant fate is also included in this paper. Thus, this paper focuses on developing a numerical model to simulate shallow flow hydrodynamics in the context of irregular profiled open channels to predict depth-averaged water level and pollutant transport. The scope of work is limited to the development of a 1D model and verification of the model against benchmark tests and laboratory measurements. Presented in this paper is the development of an integrated model with fully dynamic shallow water equations (SWE’s) and the advection–diffusion equation. Results demonstrated are the comparisons between the numerical results and data obtained through experimental procedures or from published analytical solutions in terms of flow depth and solute concentration. Closed agreement is achieved for all tests, and the model was therefore applied in Sungai Penchala, Malaysia.
Nor A. Alias, Lariyah Mohd Sidek

Detection and Transportation of Nutrients and Pathogenic Bacteria in Kerayong River Water

Water is one of the most important sources of human life. Rainfall is abundant source that can provide water for human consumption. However, the clean water source cannot be relished, as a result of pollution caused by humans. Development and modernization cause water to become filthy and not suitable to be used directly and require rigorous treatment. Kerayong River that passes through residential and industrial area in Kuala Lumpur also became a victim of water pollution. 6 sampling points along the Kerayong River in this study showed the high rate of ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphorus in the river water, which is 6.92–10.83 mg/L and 2.22–3.53 mg/L, respectively. The presence of nitrate and nitrite concentration can also be detected from 0.09–0.22 mg/L to 0.05–0.17 mg/L, respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected in concentrations up to 173 cfu/ml in the river water, overcoming the limits. Although only in sampling points 1–4 could detect Vibrio spp. with low concentration, but it still needs to be concerned. Overall, the river water is not suitable for use directly without going through the proper water treatment process.
Zummy Dahria Mohamed Basri, Zulhafizal Othman, Marfiah Ab. Wahid, Jazuri Abdullah

Trend of Total Phosphorus on Total Suspended Solid Reduction in Constructed Wetland Under Tropical Climate

Constructed wetland has the potential to provide significant treatment for quality of stormwater runoff, especially in total suspended solid and total phosphorus concentration. The aim of this research is to investigate the trend of total phosphorus on total suspended solid reduction in constructed wetland in order to enhance the urban stormwater quality. This study was conducted in actual constructed wetland located in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia. The water samples were taken using grab sampling method from 14 sampling stations for seven months based on 14 stormwater events. The results showed a positive value of Pearson’s r as the total suspended solid had a positive correlation with the total phosphorus approximately, r = 0.78, which can be considered a large effect on the reduction trend. The coefficient of determination, R 2 = 0.93, was obtained from the relationship between total suspended solid and total phosphorus. Thus, the decreasing trend of total suspended solid concentration also showed the decreasing concentration of total phosphorus. The appropriate selection of macrophyte, water depth, and hydraulic residence time are vital to enhance the stormwater quality before discharge to the receiving water body.
Nur Emylia Johari, Suhaimi Abdul-Talib, Marfiah Ab. Wahid, Aminuddin Ab. Ghani

Study of Heavy Metals Concentration from Different Steel-Based Industries Effluents

A study was conducted to identify and analyze heavy metals concentration in the steel industries effluents. The industrial effluents were collected from three different steel based factories in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.  For each factory, the effluent samples were collected at two different points for determination of heavy metals concentration. Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The results showed heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in the untreated effluent at Factory C have the highest concentrations compared with other steel-based factories. Also, the concentration of Fe, Mn and Ni in the treated effluent from Factory C were found above the permissible limits.
Ain Nihla Kamarudzaman, Tay Chia Chay, Amnorzahira Amir, Suhaimi Abdul Talib

Adaptation of NoV LAMP Primers by PCR for Highly Sensitive Detection of Noroviruses in Water

A fast and highly sensitive detection of noroviruses was established by Reverse Transcriptase PCR amplification using primers adapted from loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of noroviruses (RT-L-NoV PCR amplification). The amplification was carried out in 30-min early incubation in 50 °C for reverse transcription activity and further 35 PCR short cycles for total finishing time within 60 min with no cross-reactivity with other common environmental species and strains. The LOD of this method was 10−15 × 100 ng/ulor 1zg/ul of pIDTSMART-NoV gene per reaction which is reported to be the highest sensitivity conventional PCR-based detection method for noroviruses. These early findings give hope for a potentially useful RT-L-NoV PCR amplification assay for a highly sensitive detection of NoV genomes especially in diluted concentration sample like water.
Dzulaikha Khairuddin, Marfiah Ab. Wahid, Nurul Yuziana Mohd Yusof, Jan Maizatulriah Jani

Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant at Klang Valley

Two different types of wastewater treatments are explained in this chapter. All the six parameters were under the standards A and B compared to EQA 1974. However, it does not confirm that PAHs were treated and not exist in the effluent. The possibilities of a low-ring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in both municipal wastewater were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main PAHs exist are naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. 9,9′-Biphenanthrene, octacosahydro, phenanthrene, 4,5-dimethyl, anthracene, anthracene, 9-cyclohexyltetradecaydro, 2-ethyl, phenanthrene, 9-ethyl, phenanthrene, 9,10-bis (chloromethyl)  were detected. Municipal wastewater sample B  contained  9,9′-Biphenanthrene, octacosahydro, anthracene and phenanthrene, 4,5-dimethyl, 2(3H)-Naphthalenone and 1,8,9-trihydroxyanthracene. The sources of these compounds  may come from tobacco smoke and ingestion of food contaminated with combustion products, dandruff shampoo, detergents, and mothballs. This toxic compound  may cause  skin irritation and lower body’s system for fighting disease after both short- and long-term exposure. ​Wastewater that contains PAHs required an effective technology in order to completely remove in the system. This study also provides baseline assessment on the existence PAHs in the municipal wastewater treatment plan and possible activities that released PAHs into wastewater.
Rosadibah Mohd-Towel, Amnorzahira Amir, Suhaimi Abdul-Talib

Assessment of Chlorine Contact Tank Based on Tank Configuration and Baffle Factor

Disinfection is the most important process in water treatment in the concern of water quality and quantity. Hydraulic efficiency is a vital component in evaluating the disinfection capability of a contact system. The objective of this study is to determine free residual chlorine, fluoride, and chloride in chlorine contact tank (CCT) and to evaluate disinfection efficiency. Disinfection efficiency of a WTP could be determined when CTachieved ≥ CTrequired which demonstrates that sufficient disinfection has been met and vice versa. Based on detection test result obtained from the in situ test, all five WTPs have complied with the maximum allowable standards for free residual chlorine as outlined by National Standard for Drinking Water Quality. As the CT rules (CTachieved ≥ CTrequired) have been complied, the disinfection process for four WTPs was found efficient whereby the disinfection process in the CCTs was sufficient. The information obtained on disinfection ability of the existing water treatment plant would be useful for design improvement and cost-effectiveness in water treatment.
A. Yahya, M. Ab Wahid, W. K. Lee

Weather and Climate


Effect of Climate Change to Flood Inundation Areas in Bertam Catchment, Pahang

Bertam catchment is increasingly becoming a main concern area on flood disaster caused by the dam release. Further research is required to be conducted at this area. The objective of this study is to determine future flood inundation area at the downstream of Bertam catchment for several scenarios as a result of dam release and climate change. The scenarios are current land use with and without climate change scenarios and future land use with and without climate change scenarios. InfoWorks RS, Geographical Information System (GIS) application and Auto CAD was utilized in this study to develop river modeling. The current land use used in this study is referring to 2010, and future land use refers to 2025. The climate change parameters used in this study are rainfall using climate change factor (CCF) derived by NAHRIM as input data. The design storm used in this study is 24 h storm duration and 100-years Annual Recurrence Interval (ARI). The results obtained using four scenarios show the differences of inundation areas. The model is validated based on actual maximum flood depth on site which is 1.2 m. The highest percentage of inundation area is when the water depth is greater than 1.2 m. For current land use, the difference in inundation area between with and without climate change scenarios is 12.6 %, while for future land use the difference is about 12.80 %. The finding of this study shows that impact of climate change has exaggerated the effect of water release from the dam to the downstream catchment.
N. A. A. Aziz, M. A. Malek, A. S. M. Jaffar, R. May

The Use of Radar Rainfall Inputs for Runoff Estimation in Upper Klang River Basin, Malaysia

Flooding is a natural disaster that often occurs in Malaysia due to its heavy rainfall distribution. Many incidents of floods attributed to the extreme downpour caused massive problems. The capability of gauge to receive data of the torrential precipitation is affected and need to be addressed. Thus, the deployment of radar helps to retrieve better rainfall data due to spatial and temporal factors. Radar has the advantages of detecting rainfall amount with higher resolution and covers larger areas. In addition, radar can also access hilly and ungauged areas with the ability to detect cloud movement and lead to estimation of precipitation. The improved radar rainfall as quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) has been applied in the rainfall–runoff modeling with grid-based soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) method and GIS utilization. The outcomes demonstrate good agreement between simulated data and observed data for selected events.
R. Suzana, S. H. Abu Bakar

Estimation of Design Rainstorm for Rural and Urban Area Using Gumbel’s and Log-Pearson Type III Method

Growing population and migration in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur led to changes in the usage and management of lands which affect the hydrologic cycle within the area. Every year, flood has been reported in those areas and occurred in a random and unpredictable manner. One of the alternatives to prevent future occurrence of flood is by predicting the design rainstorm, and it is the responsibility of the department of irrigation and drainage to estimate the future hydrological events. Intensity–duration–frequency curve is one of the methods to estimate the rainstorm event of a particular location. Rainfall data are needed to be obtained via installation of rain gauge at a rainfall station before the data are analyzed. In this study, four separate rainfall data of urban and rural areas at intervals of 15, 30, 45, 60, 180, 360, 720, 1440, and 4320 min were recorded to be analyzed. The data were analyzed using two commonly used methods, namely the Extreme Value Type I (Gumbel’s) and Log-Pearson Type III method. Intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves for every station were plotted using results obtained from both methods, and an empirical formula for the design of rainstorm was developed. Accuracy of both methods was compared by using goodness-of-fit test, which aims to identify the most suitable method to be carried out. Applications of empirical formula will be useful for engineers to design rainstorm in water resource planning in order to prevent flood in future.
M. R. Nur Liyana, A. M. Intan Shafeenar

Analysis of Rainfall Trend and Temporal Patterns: A Case Study for Penchala River Basin, Kuala Lumpur

Changing of rainfall pattern and trend has increased the flooding risk in urban areas in the recent decades. This study aimed to examine the rainfall trends and its temporal rainfall pattern in Penchala River basin. Rainfall data of 5-min interval from 2005 to 2014 were obtained from Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test was used to detect the trends of rainfall while average variability method (AVM) was used to derive the rainfall temporal pattern in the studied river basin. The historical rainfall data in Penchala River basin show a downward trend in the past 10 years, especially in February. Meanwhile, positive trends were detected in October, November, and December. Most of the rainfall events in Penchala River basin are categorized as advanced and intermediate type pattern. Higher fraction of rainfall occurs at the early part of storm event in the Penchala River basin, compared to that of Kuala Lumpur region.
M. F. Chow, H. Haris, L. M. Sidek
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