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2019 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

26. Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

verfasst von : Jorge Cortés

Erschienen in: Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), at ocean depths between 40 and 150 m, have been found throughout the tropics but are different in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). This observation is based on submersible dives that have explored several ETP mesophotic areas. The ETP is characterized by a shallow thermocline (approximately 50 m depth), reduction in light availability at deeper depths due to the accumulation of particulate matter at the thermocline, cold temperatures, low oxygen concentrations, and low aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) that may explain the absence of zoothanthellate corals below 40 m. Isla del Coco is located 500 km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The MCEs of this island have been explored using the DeepSee submersible. There is a sharp change in benthic fauna, in both soft and hard bottoms, at approximately 50 m depth. The combination of the shallow thermocline bringing cold and low pH waters to near the surface plus the turbidity (low light) at the thermocline leads to a situation where zooxanthellate corals do not generally thrive below about 15–25 m depth (maximum around 40 m) and do not build reefs in deeper waters. The substrate between 50 and 150 m is densely covered with red algae (down to 90 m), octocorals, black corals, azooxanthellate corals, and calcareous hydroids. This chapter is the first synthesis of mesophotic environments of any ETP site and characterizes the MCEs of Isla del Coco National Park.
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Zurück zum Zitat Schmidtko S, Stramma L, Visbeck M (2017) Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades. Nature 542:335–339 CrossRef Schmidtko S, Stramma L, Visbeck M (2017) Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades. Nature 542:335–339 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Semmler RF, Hoot WC, Reaka ML (2017) Are mesophotic coral ecosystems distinct communities and can they serve as refugia for shallow reefs? Coral Reefs 36:433–444 CrossRef Semmler RF, Hoot WC, Reaka ML (2017) Are mesophotic coral ecosystems distinct communities and can they serve as refugia for shallow reefs? Coral Reefs 36:433–444 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sibaja-Cordero JA, Cortés J, Dean HK (2012) Depth diversity profile of polychaetes worms in Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacific of Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl 3):293–301 Sibaja-Cordero JA, Cortés J, Dean HK (2012) Depth diversity profile of polychaetes worms in Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacific of Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl 3):293–301
Zurück zum Zitat Sibaja-Cordero JA, Troncoso JS, Gómez-Ramírez E (2014) Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica. Int J Sed Res 29:59–72 CrossRef Sibaja-Cordero JA, Troncoso JS, Gómez-Ramírez E (2014) Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica. Int J Sed Res 29:59–72 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Starr RM, Cortés J, Barnes CL, Green K, Breedy O (2012a) Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Cocos Island National Park and Las Gemelas Seamounts, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl. 3):303–319 Starr RM, Cortés J, Barnes CL, Green K, Breedy O (2012a) Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Cocos Island National Park and Las Gemelas Seamounts, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl. 3):303–319
Zurück zum Zitat Starr RM, Green K, Sala E (2012b) Deep-water fish assemblages at Coco Island National Park and Las Gemelas Seamounts, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl. 3):347–362 Starr RM, Green K, Sala E (2012b) Deep-water fish assemblages at Coco Island National Park and Las Gemelas Seamounts, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 60(Suppl. 3):347–362
Zurück zum Zitat Stuhldreier I, Sánchez-Noguera C, Rixen T, Cortés J, Morales A, Wild C (2015) Effects of seasonal upwelling on inorganic and organic matter dynamics in the water column of eastern Pacific coral reefs. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0142681 CrossRef Stuhldreier I, Sánchez-Noguera C, Rixen T, Cortés J, Morales A, Wild C (2015) Effects of seasonal upwelling on inorganic and organic matter dynamics in the water column of eastern Pacific coral reefs. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0142681 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wells JW (1982) Notes on indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Part 9. New corals from the Galapagos Islands. Pac Sci 36:211–219 Wells JW (1982) Notes on indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Part 9. New corals from the Galapagos Islands. Pac Sci 36:211–219
Zurück zum Zitat Wells JW (1983) Annotated list of the scleractinian corals of the Galapagos. In: Glynn PW, Wellington GM (eds) Corals and coral reefs of the Galapagos Islands. University of California, Berkeley, pp 212–291 Wells JW (1983) Annotated list of the scleractinian corals of the Galapagos. In: Glynn PW, Wellington GM (eds) Corals and coral reefs of the Galapagos Islands. University of California, Berkeley, pp 212–291
Metadaten
Titel
Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific
verfasst von
Jorge Cortés
Copyright-Jahr
2019
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92735-0_26