The strategy of development dictated by the fundamental principles of sharī‛a and fiqh calls for imitative-innovative assimilation into contemporary Muslim culture of the accumulated Islamic heritage of the post-Quranic Muslims (Chapter 2). Consequently, certain characteristics of the Islamic philosophy of knowledge and education are summarised from the writings of two medieval Islamic scholars. This philosophy is called ‘Islamic’ rather than merely ‘Muslim’ to distinguish its ideal and ideological character from its actual ‘Muslim’ character in the sociological-anthropological sense. Since ideal Islam and sharī‛a are not the product of a social convention or consensus of the community called ‘Muslims’, we need to continuously reaffirm the Islamic quality of ideas and institutions developed at higher moments of consciousness of Islam. This is what distinguishes dynamic adaption ordained by sharī‛a from blind imitation. We must also isolate the sociologically ephemeral from those ideas and institutions in the Islamic philosophy of knowledge and education which attain a measure of permanence and universality. The distinctions between sharī‛a and fiqh are applicable to all elements of Islamic ideological and material culture. Permanent, usually Islamic, sharī‛a-type epistemological categories are identified. These are used in the classification of disciplines comprising environmental engineering systems, and in preparing an outline of Islamic engineering education.
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- Islamic philosophy of knowledge and education: classification and outline of environmental engineering systems planning education
S. Waqar Ahmed Husaini
- Macmillan Education UK
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen