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This book is a comprehensive reference on ISO management system standards and their implementation. The impacts that ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 have had on business performance are analyzed in depth, and up-to-date perspectives are offered on the integration of these and other management standards (e.g. SA8000, ISO/TS 16949). Detailed information is provided on the signaling value of different management standards and on the new ISO standards for management systems, such as ISO 50001 and ISO 45001, relating to energy management and occupational health and safety. The role of audits in ensuring compliance with the standards and achievement of objectives is also carefully considered. The volume examines avenues for further research and emerging challenges. In offering an integrated, holistic perspective on ISO management system standards, this book will have wide appeal for academics, public decision-makers, and practitioners in the field of quality and environmental management.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Three Decades of Dissemination of ISO 9001 and Two of ISO 14001: Looking Back and Ahead

Abstract
This introductory chapter contains a general overview and a descriptive analysis of the dissemination of the two main global management system standards or metastandards—the ISO 14001 and the ISO 9001—on an international level. The first two global certifiable management system standards are presented, together with a descriptive analysis of the global dissemination of both. Similarly, insights related to some of the conclusions of the scholarly literature on the subject and a short reference to avenues for further research are also summarized in this chapter.
Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria, Olivier Boiral, Erlantz Allur

What Drives the Quality of Certifiable Management System Standards Implementation? Insights from the ISO 9001 Standard

Abstract
Despite the important role certifiable management system standards (CMSS) play in our globalised economies, there still exists a gap in the literature regarding firms’ motives to implement these standards. This is mainly due to the fact that existing literature perceives certification as synonymous with implementation and does not take into account that quality of implementation, of CMSS among companies, varies. This chapter makes two important contributions. The first one is that it provides quantitative evidence to the relatively few studies that analyse quality of CMSS implementation. In doing so, this work advances our understanding of the factors that motivate firms to implement these standards. Most importantly, in contrast to previous studies that analyse drivers of average implementation of CMSS, this chapter also examines the motives related to low, medium and above average implementation of such standards. Using a novel dataset of 201, ISO 9001 certified firms, located in Greece, our analysis shows that sixty per cent of firms in the sample fail to conform to the requirements of the standard. In contrast to the dominant neo-institutional view in the analysis of CMSS, our econometric findings suggest that competitive motivations are the influential drivers in making companies fully commit to ISO 9001 (i.e. above average implementation).
Konstantinos Iatridis, Effie Kesidou

ISO 14001 Adoption and Environmental Performance: The Case of Manufacturing in Sweden

Abstract
Environmental management systems based on the international standard ISO 14001 have become widespread in companies globally during the last two decades. This chapter aims to contribute knowledge as to which companies are most likely to adopt ISO 14001, environmental frontrunners or poor performers in need of effective approaches. In addition, the chapter aims to assess the impact of ISO 14001 on concrete environmental performance. The context in focus in this study is manufacturing companies in Sweden. The study focuses on changes in performance over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified companies and non-certified companies. The analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for five different environmental areas: air emissions, water emissions, resource use, energy use and waste. In none of these environmental areas have we been able to find any significant differences between certified and non-certified companies regarding performance improvement prior to ISO 14001-certification or the corresponding period in non-certified companies. Certain positive concrete effects as a result of the ISO 14001 adoption have been found but, in general, the standard seems to have limited effect on the improvement of corporate environmental performance. There are many examples in the literature that ISO 14001 has been successful under certain circumstances but at the same time it seems that ISO 14001-certification does not appear to be a guarantee of neither superior environmental performance nor concrete environmental improvements.
Thomas Zobel

Adopting ISO Management Standards in Africa: Barriers and Cultural Challenges

Abstract
The adoption of ISO management standards has significantly increased over the last decade in developing countries, especially in Africa. Between 2014 and 2015, the number of certifications in the African continent increased by 20% for ISO 9001 and 19% for ISO 14001. Despite this rapid increase in absolute terms, ISO certifications in Africa remain relatively underdeveloped with about 1% of the total number of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certifications worldwide. The objective of this study is to highlight the barriers to the adoption of ISO management standards in the African context and to analyse their appropriateness with the specificities of African cultures and organizational practices. Several barriers are highlighted: the weak institutional framework, the ineffectiveness of donor-funded programs, the lack of human and financial resources, the low participation in the development of ISO management standards, and corruption. In addition, certain specificities of the local cultures in African countries, particularly oral tradition, paternalism, hierarchical distance, collectivism, strong tolerance to uncertainty, and attachment to traditions, may be in opposition to the values embodied in ISO management standards. These specificities require an effort to adapt ISO management systems to African realities in order to promote their substantial rather than symbolic integration within organizations. This work contributes to the existing literature by analyzing the institutional, economic and cultural barriers to the adoption of ISO management standards in Africa. Implications for both professionals and public authorities are also discussed.
Christian Valery Tayo Tene, Alexander Yuriev, Olivier Boiral

Implementing Service Management Standards: Motivations and Key Factors

Abstract
This chapter analyses the motivations and key factors reported by organizations after successfully implementing a service management system according to the ISO 20000 standard. ISO 20000 (approved in 2005 and revised in 2011) defines the requirements for implementing a standardized service management system, and has a form similar to the pre-existing general quality management standards while adapting its contents to standardize Information Technologies Service Management practices, although there is nothing to prevent it being used in other service management fields. The research is based on a survey that was answered by 105 ISO 20000 certified, Spanish organizations. It enables the profile of these organizations, as well as their main reasons for, and key factors when, implementing the standard, to be characterized. Motives are divided into external and internal factors and, as such, reveal the predominance of external reasons when deciding to implement certification. Furthermore, some key factors in successfully implementing the standard are highlighted, especially in terms of management and staff involvement. Other specific factors have also been analysed: such as the norms with which it is integrated, and the reasons why some organizations abandon the certificate. This research is the first reported in the literature to deal with two fundamental issues related to the implementation of the ISO 20000 standard: the reason behind implementing the standard and what the key factors in its adoption are.
Cots Santi, Casadesús Martí

The Internalization of a Sectorial Standard for Quality Management: A Qualitative Analysis in Tourism

Abstract
The aim of this work is to analyze the motives for adopting a quality standard and the internalization process in tourism organizations with a sectorial quality certificate using a qualitative study. The results show, first, that the motives for adopting quality standards can be internal and external (for example, quality culture, management commitment, employee management, and the pressure from customers and society). Second, the following enablers are essential for the internalization process: management commitment, initial and ongoing training for employees, application of documentation to daily routines and follow-up.
Juan-José Tarí, José F. Molina-Azorín, Jorge Pereira-Moliner, María D. López-Gamero

Drivers, Obstacles and Benefits of the Adoption of SA8000: A Survey in Italian Companies

Abstract
Several CSR certifiable meta-standards have been launched in recent decades but one of the most popular and widespread has been the SA8000 standard, as the ISO 26000 launched by ISO is not suitable for certification purposes (Hahn in Bus Strategy Environ 22:442–455, 2013). Indeed, in the scholarly literature, SA8000 has been considered to be one of the best CSR initiatives, as it is intended to institutionalize business ethics through standardization (Gilbert and Rasche in Bus Ethics Q 187–216, 2007). Nevertheless, the adoption of this CSR standard has not been widely studied compared to the cases of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 or EMAS. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the aim of the present chapter is to shed light on the adoption of the SA8000 meta-standards by Italian companies. The empirical study focused on the Italian case because it seems paradoxical; Italy is the country in the world with the highest intensity of SA8000 certification in relative terms, even though this CSR standard was targeted at developing countries with labour intensive industries. The work analyzes the motivations, obstacles and benefits of the adoption of the SA8000 standard using primary data obtained from a survey of 130 Italian organizations. The article contributes to the empirical literature on the adoption of CSR standards. Implications for managers, policy makers and other stakeholders are discussed, together with avenues for further research.
Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria, Giovanna Talamazzi, Francesco Testa, Olivier Boiral

Adopting ISO/TS 16949 and IATF 16949 Standards: An Exploratory and Preliminary Study

Abstract
ISO/TS 16949 was launched in 1999 by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) with the aim of harmonizing the diverse assessment and certification systems worldwide in the supply chain for the automotive sector. ISO/TS 16949 aimed to eliminate the need of the automotive suppliers for multiple sectoral certifications such as QS9000, VDA6 and EAQF. The fourth version of the standard—published in October 2016—has been renamed IATF 16949. Despite the relative success of this standard for a very relevant industry such as the automotive sector, in the scholarly literature the adoption of the ISO/TS 16949 standard has been under-researched. In order to fill this gap, the aim of this Chapter is to analyze the critical points of working with a management system based on the ISO/TS 16964 or the IATF 16949 from a scholarly perspective, considering the strengths and flaws of the adoption of the standard. For that purpose, a qualitative exploratory study was designed—which is still in progress because of the transitionary nature of the standards. The research focuses on four case studies, one Original Equipment Manufacturer of the automotive sector and one manufacturer from each of Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 of the automotive sector. The perspectives of other main stakeholders, such as auditors and consultants directly involved in the implementation and certification of ISO/TS 16949 and IATF 16949 were also considered.
Iker Laskurain, German Arana, Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria

Implementing the ISO 50001 System: A Critical Review

Abstract
Published in 2011, the ISO 50001 system on energy management has since become one of the fastest-growing ISO management standards. However, its efficacy, implementation and integration within enterprises have been overlooked in the literature. The aim of this chapter is to analyze the relevance of the ISO 50001 standard to reducing energy consumption, and identify its limitations, advantages, and possible weaknesses. Based on a review of the existing literature on ISO management standards and energy management, it appears that ISO 50001 has inherited advantages and limitations similar to other ISO management systems. This chapter can help researchers and managers to analyze the expected outcomes and success factors of ISO 50001. It also sheds more light on its impact on existing energy-related policies.
Alexander Yuriev, Olivier Boiral

Conflicts Arising in the Generation Process of the ISO 45001 Standard

Abstract
The process involved in the design, acceptance and launching of the ISO 45001 standard is turning out to be long and tortuous. It has been confirmed that, like its predecessors in the environmental (ISO 14001) and corporate social responsibility (ISO 26000) spheres of activity, this may prove to be conflictive as it deals with substantive social aspects such as those referring to labour issues. Disagreements can easily arise between stakeholders, and although some approaches may not show evidence of this, occupational health and safety is a complex area that is replete with multidisciplinary components that influence the daily tasks performed by employees—multidisciplinary components that are so deep-seated and controversial as cultural, political and ethical matters. The design and launching process for standards such as ISO 45001 has been under-researched in scholarly literature that focuses on the study of meta-standards. Priority is given to those of a technical nature or those that simply appear to rehash previous literature with regard to the phenomenon itself subject to study. In order to fill this gap, this contribution based on a work in progress aims at shedding light on the process involved in generating the ISO 45001. Extensive field work has been designed for such purpose that was currently underway at the time this contribution was completed, given that the ISO 45001 design and launching process has not yet concluded. Preliminary results obtained from the work evidence two types of main discrepancy—on the one hand, discrepancies in terms of form and specific content and, on the other, underlying discrepancies such as those that raise doubts about the raison d’être of the standard itself.
Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria, Ander Ibarloza, Alberto Díaz de Junguitu

A Supply Chain View on Certification Standards: Does Supply Chain Certification Improve Performance Outcomes?

Abstract
This paper aims to report the results of an empirical study, examining the perceived performance implications of quality, environmental and occupational health and safety certifications (i.e., ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001) at the supply chain level considering certifications of both the buyer and supplier. To assess the perceived performance implication of certifications at the supply chain level we collected survey data in Ireland from manufacturing plants. Our results indicate that certifications at the supply chain level lead to higher perceived performance outcomes for environmental certifications (i.e., ISO 14001) and occupational health and safety certifications (i.e., OHSAS 18001). However, our results could not confirm our hypothesis that quality certification (i.e., 9001) at the supply chain level leads to higher perceived quality performance. This study represents one of the first attempts to assess the impact of certifications on its intended performance dimensions at the supply chain level. The research takes into consideration different certifications at both the buyer’s and supplier’s plant.
Frank Wiengarten, George Onofrei, Paul Humphreys, Brian Fynes
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