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2022 | Buch

ISUW 2020

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Smart Grids and Smart Cities

herausgegeben von: Reji Kumar Pillai, Prof. Girish Ghatikar, Vijay L. Sonavane, B. P. Singh

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

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Über dieses Buch

This book presents selected articles from INDIA SMART UTILTY WEEK (ISUW 2020), which is the sixth edition of the Conference cum Exhibition on Smart Grids and Smart Cities, organized by India Smart Grid Forum from March 03-07, 2020, in New Delhi, India. ISGF is a public private partnership initiative of the Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, with the mandate of accelerating smart grid deployments across the country. This book gives current scenario updates of Indian power sector business. It also highlights various disruptive technologies for power sector business.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Cyber Risk Analysis of Critical Information Infrastructure
(A Quantitative Approach)

Cyber-Physical Security (CPS) of critical infrastructure comprises of securing interacting digital, analog, physical, and human components engineering for functioning in an integrated manner (E.g. ADMS/ SCADA, Smart Meters, Field Force Automation devices, etc.). These solutions are required to be exposed to networks or environments which have normally functioned in an isolated environment with minimal cybersecurity controls in place. This new security challenge demands for an appropriate risk assessment of Cyber-Physical Systems and development of a unified framework addressing taxonomy of threats, vulnerabilities, attacks and controls on device controllers (RTU’s, FRTU’s, PLC’s), plant-level distributed control, and system-wide SCADA components spanning wide geographic areas. Cyber-Physical Systems must often meet strict timing requirements during normal operation as well as during recovery. Cyber-Physical security is crucial to maintain stable and reliable operation during the contingency situation in-case of failure of any critical system component. Due to the cyber-attacks, Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) may face operational failures and loss of synchronization, damaging critical physical system components that may interrupt the services and make the system unstable resulting in a debilitating impact on the national economy, public health, and safety. To ensure CII operates in a safe, secure and reliable manner, cybersecurity is required to be implemented at each layer of cyber-physical systems and hence it demands in-depth analysis of data transmission and storage procedures.

Dharmendra Kumar, Darshana Pandey, Aamir Hussain Khan, Himanshu Nayyar
Smart Green Transport Grid

As India plans to have 100% electric mobility by 2030, the grim reality today by early 2020 is that we have just around 100,000 shared and private EVs running on Indian Roads crippled with almost complete absence of public EV charging infra & very high cost of Electric Cars which is around 10 Lakh + INR well beyond middle class price ceiling range of 4–5 Lakh INR which will push Indians to buy another 50–100 million new fossil fuel vehicles in the next 10 years and cause irreversible damage to Indias Electric Mobility and clean energy dreams. If India ends up adding 50–100 million new fossil fuel vehicles in the next 10 years on its roads it will at the same time put at high risk the worldwide climate change mitigation efforts too & we will be staring at a devastating beyond 2 + degrees rise on global climate scale. This paper attempts to put together a sustainable, cost effective & fast deployment solution in the form of creating a new “Dedicated Smart Green Transport Grid open platform for E-Mobility” combining together the strength of distributed private renewable energy generation which will combine to enable faster transition of India to the Electric Mobility Era. The paper puts forth a very detailed plan of implementation of such a solution providing new age alternatives like shared public private ownership of the Smart Green Transport Grid, enabling both battery less & battery based shared & private electric mobility for both people and freight and also discusses ways to extend this Smart Green Transport Grid from land over to water (for E-Ships), over Air (for E-drones/Air Taxis) and over Farms (for Irrigation applications like E-Tractors, E-Pumps).

Abhijit Malankar
Standards and Interoperability of Equipment and Systems for Smart Grid in India

The smart grid is the complex system which leverages the convergence of communication, various hardware and software technologies adding intelligence to the electric power industry. To achieve this objective, standards and interoperability of the various system is a pre-requisite. Standardization of the product/services would be required for scaling up of the prototype. A standard is an established norm for accomplishing defined task. Standardization is a formal document to establish engineering design, technical parameters, guidelines, processes, and practices. These standards are formulated to bring together all stakeholders towards achieving common objective. Interoperability is the capability of two or more devices, systems, appliances, networks, applications, or components to share and readily use information securely and effectively without any inconvenience to the stakeholders. It promotes open architecture of technologies considering both physical and logical interaction with other systems. An interoperable SG fosters competition among suppliers, innovation, choice, reduced costs and reduced capital risk caused by technology or vendor obsolescence, and enables automation to improve system value and reliability. Unfortunately, interoperability cannot realistically be achieved by a single entity and requires collaboration from numerous organizations including utilities, regulatory bodies, standards bodies, market players, stakeholders and more. Due to the system complexity, scalability and devices involved in creating an effective SG solution, interoperability between the various systems is the key to success. Utilizing a standardized approach methodology to develop use cases and functional requirements to support integration of emerging technologies as well as identify gaps in existing standards providing focus for research and development.

Amit Jindal, Manoj Bansal, Amit Kumar
Integrated Network Management System Paper

Utilities are trying to minimize AT&C losses with improved reliability indices. A Smart grid roadmap was adopted by TPDDL and technologies were implemented like Grid Substation & Distribution Automation, SCADA/ ADMS, GIS, AMI, DSM, Smart Meters, Communication Infrastructure and RF Canopy. Moving ahead, there is an increasing interests of Utilities on IT-OT convergence and adoption of IIOT based solutions to fulfill interfacing of different digital platforms like. Advanced Mobility Solutions, FFA. Distributed Energy Resources integration (Solar, Wind and Captive plants) Focus is now being shifted from “Energy Value” to “Information Value”. Large numbers of IEDs are getting integrated, making the Distribution Grid a complex ecosystem having two way flow of Electricity & Information with multi-dimensional deployment of “Intelligent Electronic Devices”. These IEDs are the building blocks of digital revolution in Utility. While, IEDs have certainly improved the performance of the Distribution Electrical system but very less focus was given to the health & performance monitoring of these IEDs. IEDs are being passively managed in Silos in different verticals of Utility operations. Teams act on “Post fault scenario” and sometimes resulting in cascaded IEDs failures. Effective maintenance and management of whole IED’s network is a challenge due to absence of a “Centralized IEDs health and performance” monitoring system. A centralized INMS system has been developed for “Health & Performance” monitoring of Grid IEDs. All Grid equipment’s/IEDs which uses TCP/IP frames communicate with a central computer/server based system. Each IED’s system diagnostic data is monitored and analyzed on real time basis. IEDs network topologies layouts were formalized with alarms & alerts generation and auto tickets assignment which trigger “condition based or predictive maintenance” over conventional maintenance approaches. IED failure analysis is done & it also provide inputs for inventory management. Efficient IEDs “Health and Performance” monitoring facilitates optimum utilization of these large number of IED’s network which has improved the Operational Efficiencies in Distribution Grid with better SAIDI and SAIFI reliability indices and reduction in AT&C losses. This paper explicitly describe about the needs/ purposes, methodologies adopted and hindrances faced in the implementation of INMS.

Anil Kumar Ojha, Abhinav Mogha
Rise of Algorithmic Trading in Today’s Changing Electricity Market

Electricity markets are getting more dynamic and complex today. On the one hand, there are outside-in factors like new entrants and increasing competition, regulatory mandates, and volatility of the electricity prices. In contrast, on the other hand, there are inside-out factors like the adoption of renewable energies, storages, and EV, emphasis on the generation and retail portfolio optimization together with creating affinity services around the empowered consumers. The paper will start with the introduction of this dynamic environment across the globe with a specific focus on Australia, the UK, and US electricity markets. Introduction of 5 min settlement in Australian Electricity Market, the rise of ancillary service products in the UK, or new roles like Community Choice Aggregators (CCA) in the US are some of the examples of these. The paper will then individually focus on wholesale, retail, and balancing electricity markets and illustrate the role of algorithmic trading in each of them. The paper will then discuss the design, implementation and performance of an electricity broker agent which uses algorithmic approach to perform various activities in a competitive smart-grid-based electricity market.

Anindya Pradhan, Easwar Subramanian, Sanjay Bhat, Praveen Paruchuri, Sujit Gujar
Electric Vehicle and Charging Stations in Distribution System: Practical Experience

Electric cars are predicted to be the next disruptive market force for transportation and technology. One of the primary reasons for the introduction of electric cars into the market is the concern over greenhouse gas emissions and their contribution to global warming. The greatest impact of reduced carbon emissions is in densely populated urban areas like Mumbai. The Indian government has set ambitious targets to accelerate the adoption of EVs. By 2023, it wants all three-wheelers to run on batteries. By 2025, the rule will be applicable to most two-wheelers. Incentives are being offered to make OEMs develop new EV models and manufacturing components such as lithium-ion batteries and electric motors. Moreover, it has been looked upon as a prospective option for Demand Side Management. AEML, as a responsible Corporate, has proactively taken steps by procuring Electric Vehicles, viz. 4-wheelers and 2-wheelers, necessitating in-house movement for their O&M activities spanning 400 km2 catering to the electricity needs of almost 3 million customers today. Moreover, it has installed Charging Stations at strategic locations spread out in their divisional offices across their licenced area. Fuel saving resulting from these EV's is estimated to be around a couple of lakhs per month, leaving alone the significant carbon foot-prints reduction. This paper explains facts and experiences of electric vehicles and charging stations in Adani Mumbai Distribution Business. Challenges, however, remain.

Ashutosh V. Pailwan, Indranil Chatterjee, Bhushan Choudhari
Design and Operational Strategies of Urban Micro-grid that Benefits Utilities, Consumers as Well as the Environment

Renewable energy provides clean power and is gaining more and more share in the India’s electricity. With rising electricity demand, grid tariff and declining costs of renewables, micro-grids based on renewable sources and connected to the utility grid are becoming relevant particularly in the urban landscape. However, currently the functionality of these micro-grids is limited to providing power to the connected captive loads and pumping excess power into the grid. A true ecosystem will be created only when the utility grid is able to interact with the distributed micro-grids. Such micro-grids can support the utility grid during periods of peak demand and conversely absorb power if there is a drop in energy demand, provide reliable power to consumers, and reduce emissions that result from consumption of fossil fuel based power. Thus such micro-grids can benefit the utilities, the consumers as well as the environment. This paper discusses design and operational strategies to be considered to create an ecosystem where the micro-grids and the utility grid co-exist and serve a larger purpose of enabling the smart grid environment through interaction between the micro-grids and the utility grid.

Ashwini G. Mudgal, Kapil Muddineni, Shirish Garud
Minimized Operational Cost and Enhanced Battery Life in Solar, Battery and Building Integrated EV Charging Station

A reduction in operating cost of electric vehicle (EV) charging station will accelerate the development of EV charging infrastructure. In this paper, an intelligent optimal energy management algorithm is developed to minimize the operating cost of EV charging station. An EV charging station integrated with solar generation, battery energy storage system (BESS) and a building is considered. A diesel generator (DG) is used during unavailability of renewable generation and grid supply. The DG is operated at maximum efficiency by controlling the operating point with help of BESS. For implementing the energy management strategy, the state of charge (SoC) of battery needs to be known accurately. The life of battery depends on variation of its SoC. Battery management system (BMS) must accurately estimate battery SoC to get maximum battery life. As the capacity of battery degrades over time, the updated battery state of health (SoH) is essential for accurate SoC estimation. Simultaneous and real time estimation of battery SoC and SoH algorithm is also developed for the battery management system used in BESS. This algorithm can also be easily used in EVs for improving their battery life. The BMS with accurate SoC estimation is implemented in a building integrated with solar, BESS and DG in India. The results of the implementation are discussed and used for validating the performance of the optimal energy management strategy developed. Further simulation studies are performed with EV charging station integrated in the building and effectiveness of the algorithm is discussed.

Bharat Gupta, Uday Mumbaikar, Rashi Gupta
Assessment of Charging Technologies Currently Used for Electric Two and Three Wheelers in India

The commercial application of electric two-wheelers (e-2Ws) and electric three-wheelers (e-3Ws) with lithium ion batteries is growing in India. Hence, charging infrastructure for these electric vehicles (EVs) would be essential. Currently, there is no standardization of charging practices worldwide for these EVs. In view of this, an investigation is done to understand how the e-2Ws and e-3Ws in India are currently being charged. The paper presents an overview of the charging technologies associated with e-2Ws and e-3Ws with advanced batteries in the Indian market. Manufacturers, fleet operators and swapping service providers are consulted to study charging of the e-2W and e-3Ws. The study concludes that for e-2Ws and e-3Ws with battery size less than 5 kWh, the charging requirement can be met through 230 V, 16 A (3.3 kW) outlets. The paper also finds that portable chargers serve the purpose of on-board chargers in this segment. While planning the charging of these vehicles, the thermal management of the batteries should be taken into account. Detachable batteries make swapping an equally practical option for e-2Ws. In the case of e-3Ws the weight of the batteries should be managed to facilitate swapping. To estimate charging power for swapping a thumb rule of half of battery capacity can be used. The total power demand at the swapping station will depend on the number of batteries.

Chandana Sasidharan, Shyamasis Das
Energy Storage—The New Era of Power Sector

The new era of the energy sector encircles around alternate sources of energy, the truth in the phrase has now been well understood and accepted by even the toughest critic of change. The revolution in the energy sector started way back in the last century but it was more dispersed in nature. Also, the need of an alternate source of energy was not felt then with the abundance of fuel sources like coal and gas. The world became conscious of the emissions from coal-based power generation but was quiet as it did not have a strong enough substitute to support their concern. With the invent of renewables the world for the first time found a voice to raise concern. For the first time there was someone who had the potential to reduce the dependency on coal for power generation. Renewables being agile, compatible and flexible in design brought about changes in the otherwise rigid power sector. The sector which was overtly a B2B industry started to open. Industry started to talk about decentralization of power, decarbonization of grid and concepts like open access, distributed generation to name a few. The period between 2008 to 2015 saw many new types of technologies coming up and giving more options of generating power commercially. The paper is an effort to describe the development of the power sector, its concerns, the enablers and the way forward.

Debmalya Sen
Preventing Water Pollution Using AMI and IoT

Reports say that 80% of India's surface water is polluted and the reason being, industrial sewage and residential sewage that gets into water bodies (lakes, rivers, sea) unchecked. Government has defined regulations for the Industrial sewage recycling; however, it is the major contributor to water pollution as there is no monitoring system in place or it is not capable enough. The paper discusses about mechanism where automated and continuous monitoring system can be put in place to keep track of pollutants discharged by various industries and municipal corporations which eventually would enter the water bodies. We discuss how various IoT based sensors could be strategically placed at sewage outlets of industries and connected to centralized servers which monitors the pollutants at the source of its creation. Identify the kind of pollutants that an industry discharges and setup IoT sensors to detect those. The system raises alarm when the pollutants go above a threshold and could automatically block the sewage outlet if goes above the defined norms. This could be also be used to reward or fine a company based on amount of water pollution created by them. The mechanism discussed can control the water pollution at the very source of pollution, i.e. where it is created, and automatically ensure that industries follow the government norms. This would help us bring down the recycling cost or water bodies cleansing cost drastically.

Dinkar Kumar Verma
Importance of Smart Grid Development in India

The purpose of this paper will explain the importance of Smart Grid Development in India The paper will throw the light on various problems and challenges related to electricity grids that are faced in India and the solution to manage those problems by adopting the vision of a “Smart Grid.” The essence of this vision is “a fully- automated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power grids and appliances and all points in between”. The paper also will provide the overview on the three key technological components of Smart Grid that includes Distribution Automation (DA), Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)). Focusing in on the role of the above three key components of Smart Grid, this paper will lay out the Introduction on the factors that are pulling and pushing the utilities to change the way they operate in order to improve the current services. The flow then involves the explanation on Moving beyond AMI to Adopt Smart Grid Vision which includes the overview of all the key components of Smart Grid and thus focusing on the requirement to make the electricity grid “Smart” and revolutionizing the electric power networks. The further explanation is on the Ongoing and Future Projects on Smart grid in India. Finally, the paper will conclude with the benefits and suggestions for the key stakeholders for Smart Grid Development that will explain the demand for Smart Grid capability in India.

Arup Sinha
Blockchain Based Peer-to-Peer Power Trading Platforms

This electronic document is about Peer to Peer Power Trading Platform built on top of Blockchain technology.

Gopal Bhageria
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): Towards Malicious SCADA Communications

Critical infrastructure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been designed to operate on closed, proprietary networks where a malicious insider posed the greatest threat potential. There is an emergence of new threat scenarios of command and data injection. Multiple machine learning methods have been used to predict instances of command and data injection attack scenarios. The models often lack transparency. The black-box nature of these systems allows powerful predictions, but it cannot be directly explained. Understanding the reasons behind predictions is, however, quite important in assessing machine decisions, predictions and justify their reliability. More an attack is threatening the more explainable it should be. We need to explain attacks on both a local and global scope to get complete transparency against the attack. We will apply global interpretability methods like Partial Dependence Plots(PDP), Individual Conditional Expectations (ICE), Decision Trees to explain the whole logic of a model. For more menacing attacks we use local interpretability methods like Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanation (LIME) to explain the reasons for specific decisions a model is taking.

Harditya Sarvaiya, Anay Loya, Chetan Warke, Siddhant Deshmukh, Shubham Jagnade, Abhishek Toshniwal, Faruk Kazi
Energy Optimization and Sharing in Smart Grid with Renewable Energy System Using Cyber Physical System

The recent development in Micro smart grid technology has improved energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization rate to serve local load with dispersed resources. We Propose a Hierarchical Household Load priority Load scheduling algorithm using cyber physical controller for Hybrid Energy Management in micro Smart Grids to maximize the utilization rate of the Renewable energy resources connected to the system. The Household appliances are connected to bundle with different priority according to the energy consumption pattern and the customer sophistications. The inclusion of energy storage systems in microgrids provides the energy management with additional degrees of freedom, and therefore, makes the microgrid more flexible to the changeable situations. This paper focuses on implementing adaptable energy management system for microgrids in order to coordinate generation, demand, and storage, as well as compensate the effects of the variability of renewable energy generators and load fluctuations, in view of the user necessities. The considered hybrid energy systems comprise of renewable sources (solar photovoltaic and wind turbine), conventional systems (utility grid connection), battery-based energy storage systems and loads. In this work, a modular structure of energy management system is introduced in order to conduct the function of optimizing the energy dispatch of distributed resources. The Scheduling of the appliance are done according the priority and the availability of the renewable resources such as Photovoltaic Cells and Wind energy added to the grid. The proposed scheduling algorithm used Minority Game Technique to improve the utilization factor of the renewable resources. The System further uses Non- Intrusive Load monitoring is essential to obtain specific power consumption by individual appliances which will be used to allocate priority during the load scheduling.

R. Karthikeyan, A. K. Parvathy, S. Priyadharshini
Quantum Computing and Grid Security

Utilities Power grid is a critical artery of everyone’s lives. It has an inherently complex design in that it encompasses several systems, devices, networks that are interconnected and the data of these power transmission and distribution systems is controlled in cyberspace. Like all systems, this one too is vulnerable to attacks—either manual or cyber. As a result, there is a need to know how Utility Companies would create a strategy to provide a response and thus recover from simulated coordinated cyber and physical security threats and incidents. In this paper, we have detailed out the following—Analysis of recent grid attacks—Nature and pattern of attacks. Reasons—Security Vulnerabilities, Advent of Quantum Cryptography. Threat Vectors—Cyber Attacks, Control System malfunctions. Impact of Threat Vectors—Outages, demand supply imbalance, leakage of sensitive information. Detailed Approach to Secure the Grid—Plan Ahead—Assess the Situation and Identify what is at stake. Get Support—Get the Software and Infrastructure Capability in place. Resolve—In Time and Appropriate response and restoration. Further, this details out how grid attacks can be prevented using application and network level security with possible use of Quantum cryptography. It explores options to prevent hacking of messages between 2 separate nodes of the grid using dynamic encryption. Finally, we conclude with how the market forces are far more vigilant now than in the past and how they are gearing up to be a resilient system in the face of grid cyber threats.

Kshama M. Joshi, Tanmay Dalal, Prakhar Chaudhary
Secured Automatic Meter Reading for Implementation of SAMAST Framework in India

The next level of the smart grid contains essential components like advanced Interface Energy Meters (IEMs), which play a major role in SAMAST (Scheduling, Accounting, Metering and Settlement of Transactions in Electricity) implementation in India. Automatic meter reading (AMR) is one of the very important modules considered in the implementation of the SAMAST Framework in India. As per SAMAST guidelines, all IEMs data should be available at corresponding State Load Dispatch Center (SLDC) in defined periodic intervals. Various communication mediums like PLCC, Fiber Optics, VSAT, and GSM/GPRS/3G/4G are used to transfer data from substation IEMs to the control center. Communication between the IEMs and Control center is vulnerable for various attacks like Meter spoofing attack, Authentication attacks, Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks, Reply attacks, De-pseudonymization attacks, etc. These attacks on communication have a cascading effect on other modules of SAMAST such as scheduling, forecasting, accounting, and deviation settlement of the transactions. The proposed solution helps to achieve high-secure data communication between IEMs and control center by retaining interoperability and also addresses various attacks by using various security suites of DLMS/COSEM High-Security mechanism without compromising the availability, integrity, and confidentiality of the data.

Dodla Sidhartha, Lagineni Mahendra, Katta Jagan Mohan, R. K. Senthil Kumar, B. S. Bindhumadhava
Enedis IoT Smart Grid Solutions for More Efficiency

Enedis has established a smart grid roadmap in France (also called Road 22) with two main objectives to achieve by 2022: Modernising network management processes and infrastructure, with predictive maintenance solutions such as big data, analytics, monitoring of primary substations, and the improvement of its quality of service using new sensors, more data and smart automation. Providing assistance to electric power system stakeholders and regional territories in French energy transition, with innovative grid connection solutions and processes/automations for facilitating the Renewable Energy Sources integration. This paper presents the impact of the IoT on Enedis Smart Grid Strategy, describes several IoT solutions developed by Enedis and gives some use cases based on IoT solutions. Due to smart metering (more than 23 million of Linky smart meters have been already deployed in mid-December 2019) and other connected objects, Enedis is now able to know what happens on its network in real-time.

Laurent Karsenti, Réda Khellou
Voice of the Customer—What the Digital Customers Wants?

This paper will give brief idea Companies which will target to adopt new digital ways will hold their position in the market based upon the adopting new digital tools like facebbok, twitter, you tube etc. These organisation has to train their workforce also to learn these new digital medium in this fast pace perfect competition market.

Manish Ahuja
Mobility Solutions for Redressal of Power Failure Complaint in Mumbai Distribution

AEML is a technology-driven organization and has incorporated modern-day technologies in its day to day processes to reinforce customer satisfaction. Communication technology like Mobile phones has evolved to be smart computers (smartphones) supporting a wide range of information services that can be accessed anytime and from anywhere. Smartphone has revolutionized the way we eat, shop and travel. As part of Digital transformation, AEML has introduced a GIS-based Android application for the field crew to minimize power outage duration and a new alternative to the traditional way of outage management. In this paper, we discuss the use of GIS-based mobile application for expeditious redressal of consumer’s power failure complaints. Complaints are auto-assigned to respective field crew as per their attending area and geographical location. Mobile Application facilitates field crew with the shortest possible route to reach the predicted abnormality location. After site investigation, real-time abnormality details are updated by the field crew. The Use of a mobile application increases the productivity of our crew by providing a holistic view of consumer power failure complaints. Also, real-time updation of complaints ensures the correctness of abnormality related details for further data analysis.

Mayank Kandpal, Mahesh Rajole
Blockchain Technology Application to DER-Implementation Strategy for India

Government of India (GoI) is encouraging development of Micro Grids with Distributed Energy Resources. Consumers are becoming ‘Prosumers’ by generating electricity locally with an option of feeding it back to the Grid. ICT & Automation Systems implementation in Power Distribution Sector is now moving fast. Conventional & RE players are performing numerous energy transactions (public, private & prosumers) which are cumbersome and complex. Under such scenarios, Blockchain based systems allow for parties to transact directly and instantaneously among themselves, with transactions secured by a cryptographic verification process making visible all energy transactions open to its members affording clear visibility & certification of each transaction at market rate. These transactions on “blockchain” ledger of each participant in the system holds and identical & immutable copy. Blockchain in Energy System is still at infancy and development of improved platforms is progressing. Blockchain enabled peer-to-peer (P2P) trading of Renewable Energy in the city allowing both Utilities and Consumers to produce and sell electricity is required in India. This paper intends discussion on induction of Blockchain in DER globally including Pilot projects with a Microgrid in Israel and a Grid operator in Cyprus with viewpoints of international experts. Strategy to introduce Blockchain Technology in DER, which is still at infancy stage in India, shall be discussed.

Madan Sachdeva, Narendra Singh Sodha
Vehicle to Grid Integration in Context of India

India uses fossil fuels to generate power. With advent of Electric Vehicles, more electricity will need to be produced to meet the demand. This will require more power generation. This will also mean more pollution if fossil fuels are used to generate the electricity. As per research, there are lot of cases where vehicles are not run for full day i.e. are idle for most of the time. Idle electric vehicles can be used to supply electricity to grid or even buildings or house effectively decreasing the demand from grid. However, the vehicle must have enough State of Charge (SoC) when needed. However, discharging and charging battery frequently can lead to lowering the useful life of battery (i.e. State of Health or SoH). This paper looks at the scenario of vehicle to grid integration. It gives the circumstances under which electric vehicles can supply electricity back. It proposes a system and associated protocols for such transfer. The proposed protocols attempt to ensure that the SoH of battery does not deplete much in percentage terms and SoC is always enough for at least one drive.

Moreshwar Salpekar
Smart Grid and Utility Challenges

Information environments have grown piecemeal in almost all utilities. Each system is implemented with a vertical view of its function. This includes the typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are the building blocks of smart grid. These systems which when integrated can provide real-time SCADA data on a geographic view of the electrical network, adding value to both. Both applications are geographically referenced database sets and have become the key operational tools of the electricity distribution business. KSEBL (Kerala State Electricity Board Ltd.) had developed a GIS system which was not able to act as a base for the SCADA integration as it is not compiled to meet the requirements of the integration. The challenge was to make it a structured model and design both in terms of database and electrical device design. The scope is for developing a middleware GIS solution for filling the gaps for integration with the existing system including network updates, to meet the requirements of the new system. The 11 kV networks and components are to be mapped into the Middleware application. The middleware application developed shall be in line with the IEC 61968 which is the international standard for SCADA Integration. Network Adapter makes use of this configuration and exports feeders in CIM XML format. Creating interoperability between the two systems will add value to both systems by extracting the optimum usage and availing the maximum benefits and there by technically creating the platform for smart grid implementation.

P. T. Seenath Beevi, R. Harikumar, M. L. Aravind
India Moving Towards Solar Energy

A milestone in India’s journey towards solar energy was the launching of India’s National Action Plan On Climate Change in 2008. The 12th five year plan recognized the necessity of moving to a low carbon growth and suitable strategies were covered for specific sectors of power, transport, industry, buildings and forestry. At present, the renewable share in total energy is about 2.2% only. The acceleration of the renewables in India and enhancing that share will bring India closer to the fulfilment of its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under the Paris Climate Change Agreement. At the UN climate action Summit, New York, held on 23rd September 2019, Prime Minister announced that India expects to increase the share of non-fossil fuel in its energy use. By 2022, India plans to increase renewable energy capacity beyond 175 GW and later to 450 GW. This paper argues in favor of a higher share of 5% of renewables in the total energy use in India and outlines measures to meet the challenges of making available solar energy at an affordable cost to the large masses. The cooperation of Indian enterprises must come forward. This will secure twin dividends of poverty reduction and clean energy usage.

Purnima M. Gupta
Hybrid Microgrid Set up in Laboratory for Practical Alimentation of Electrical Engineering Students

In recent years, renewable energy source based Microgrid are getting immense consideration due to its capabilities to overcome the Green House Gas (GHG) emission. Thus, in addition to the utilization of renewable energy sources and proper monitoring of Microgrid, we need such type trained engineers who have betters understanding about microgrid since their college days. Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) India is investing a huge amount of money and trying to produce good quality engineers by opening many training centres and also by offering reputed educational institution of India to come forward to assist. Research Question: How can we educate our electrical engineering students so that they can easily learn during their course work and have good technical skills as well as practical knowledge? Methodology: To nourish and have good practical knowledge about hybrid microgrid system for electrical engineering students, we set up a hybrid microgrid system in laboratory in which we took combination of Solar PV panel, solar emulator, wind emulator, battery bank, fuel cell, AC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters and grid power where our students can do different experiments based on hybrid microgrid system.

Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Furkan Ahmad, M. S. Jamil Asghar, Yasser Rafat
AGC in a Deregulated Interconnected Power System with STATCOM and Energy Storage System

This paper presents load following in a two area power market incorporating a STATCOM with a Battery Energy Storage (BES). The STATCOM with BES operates in parallel with the generating units in both the control areas. The bilateral contract violation has been defined using a DISCO participation matrix and Area Contract Error participation factors. The appropriate control action is taken by an integral controller to minimize the frequency error. The integral gain values are optimized by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The dynamic performances of the system with and without STATCOM and BES are obtained by using MATLAB/ SIMULINK simulations and are presented in this paper. The results show improvement in the dynamic performance of the system in terms of lesser overshoot and faster settling time.

Rachakonda Shri Rama Akshay, Rajesh Joseph Abraham
Critical Infrastructure Asset Discovery and Monitoring for Cyber Security

With ever growing cyber threats on critical infrastructures, need of deploying the security measures to protect these should be of utmost priority. However, without knowing about the assets in the network and what needs to be secured, all the threat modeling activities, strategies or mitigation/remediation activities will be incomplete or ineffective. Hence the critical infrastructure asset discovery and monitoring is a vital part for providing security. But unlike IT networks where asset discovery is automated, critical infrastructures often perform asset discovery and management manually which leads to incomplete and inefficient asset tracking and management over time and makes it ineffective in quick identification and response to potential threats. An automated approach for asset discovery and management is significant to secure critical infrastructures from cyber security incidents and other threats. This paper proposes an automation methodology for asset discovery, managing and monitoring. The solution is compliant to several NERC-CIP requirements and NCIIPC guidelines. It involves identification and real time monitoring of the critical assets connected to the network, baseline network behavior, maintain repository of asset details, compliance check adhering to policies and generates real time network map for visualization in the Purdue model for the better management of the assets. And it also generates incidents compatible with third party SOC/ SIEMs. The solution helps to reduce the risk of cyber security incidents in critical infrastructures.

Reddi Hareesh, R. K. Senthil Kumar, Rajesh Kalluri, B. S. Bindhumadhava
Transforming Campuses into Grid Interactive Buildings Using PEER Strategies

India is expected to deliver sustained, strong economic growth over the coming decade. Power sector can support this growth by accelerating the deployment of renewable energy (RE) and smart microgrids to replace the inefficient coal-based power plants and to address the rising peak demand of India. These measures need the present grid infrastructure to be modernized in order to manage grid flexibility & power reliability. Major infrastructures in India like Airports, IT Parks, Industries, etc., can help in this grid modernization by incorporating smart microgrids making them as Grid Interactive Buildings (GIBs). GIBs provide ancillary services to the grid in maintaining its frequency & creating a lower, flatter, more flexible load profile. These services can represent as an opportunity for grid operators in greater control of the power system by shaping the power demand. Additionally, GIBs with Time-of-Use (ToU) tariff results in cost savings for both grid operators and consumers. GBCI’s PEER (Performance Excellence in Electricity Renewal) is a comprehensive framework that assists campuses in evaluating their power system performance and also provides strategies to achieve further improvements. This paper talks on how PEER credits like Load Duration Curve Optimization, Distributed Energy Resources and Master Controller act as a roadmap for campuses, to become better interactive with the grid and to support grid services.

S. R. Sanjay Kumar, Ishaq Sulthan
Advanced Metering Infrastructure Rollout Strategies & Business Model Adoption: Tata Power-DDL Case Study
Case Study of Tata Power-DDL’s AMI Deployment Strategy Across License Area in North and North-West Part of Delhi

This Paper showcases different rollout strategies of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Business Models being experimented in India, with a detailed focus on Tata Power-DDL case study. It covers key features such as finalisation of Communication Technology for topology of Delhi, development of Smart Meter vendors for 3rd party communication network, development of business associated for mass deployment of Smart Meters, shortlisting of Meter Data Management System in line with Utility’s existing IT/OT system, and Deployment sequence of different element of AMI with probable benefits which can be accrued from this system. This paper also highlights major showstoppers encountered along with probable solutions. National Tariff Policy 2016, which mandate all meters with consumption more than 200 units to be Smart Meters, further reinforced by funding under UDAY scheme and by NSGM to utilities for deployment of Smart Meters as per IS16444, followed by CEA’s clarification to have 100% Smart Metering feeder-wise for loss calculation through AMI, and finally Government of India’s policy to convert all energy meters of India from Post-paid to Smart Prepaid / Conventional pre-paid, paved the way for the deployment of Smart Meters in India. Part A of this paper expounds the criteria for selections of deployment strategies with major focus on Tata Power-Delhi Distribution Limited Case study and Part B of Paper will elaborate; probable cost benefits which a utility can avail through AMI deployment.

Sanjeev Rana, Nitin Marjara, Amit Bansal
Power Quality Improvement and Performance Enhancement of Permanent Magnet Brush-Less DC Motor

Residential household appliance consumption is one of the highest electricity consumption sector, out of which ceiling fan is second largest power consumption device in the home. This paper provides description of proposed ceiling fan and Government policies to encourage manufacture and use of energy efficient ceiling fans This paper presents a new design development of the Permanent magnet Brushless DC Motor (PMBLDCM) to reduce the power consumption and reduce the harmonic distortions in the power supply, as compared to the market available PMBLDCM fans. Further this paper summarizes the future road map to enhance the use of the Energy efficient Fans for household application with improved power quality design concepts.

Saurabh Manglik, Anish Garg
Smart Meter Data Enabled Transition to Energy Efficient Cooling

In India, residential power consumption accounts for a quarter of the country’s total consumption. With increasing disposable income and living standards and indeed warming conditions, demand for cooling through the use of air conditioners, is expected to rise and with it the peak demand. There is a new opportunity to manage the growth of this demand by first identifying the contribution of various end-uses to peak demand and supporting uptake of energy efficient equipment and influencing behavior concerning the use of cooling equipment. The information that is currently available from conventional meters and the frequency of collection is not sufficient to enable such analyses. With the help of high-frequency data from smart meters, electricity utilities can identify customers driving the peak demand and respond suitably. We demonstrate this with the help of data from 93 smart meters deployed in a sample of urban households across two towns in Uttar Pradesh. We use k-means clustering to identify the customer segments driving peak demand; these are primarily AC users. We also demonstrate a simple technique to identify AC using households with demand data at 15-min interval. Thereafter, we demonstrate the use of the current signature, to estimate the hours of AC use, compressor activity rate and overall power consumption. We then estimate the potential annual energy and cost savings that could accrue by switching to a reference efficient appliance offering a similar service level. The analysis, when viewed in aggregate could inform the utility of the need for overall capacity augmentation, the room for peak shifting, in addition to a peak shaving with more efficient appliances.

Shalu Agrawal, Nipun Batra, Karthik Ganesan, Kavita Vaishanaw, Sunil Mani
Innovation Through Topmost Disruptive Trends in Smart Grid Industry and Indian Power Sector’s Stance on These Trends

With rapidly emerging trends in technology, the power sector is already experiencing the shift and growth at every level—from upstream generation to beyond the meter grid, network operations. Recent technology vogues like big data analytics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, blockchain combined with advancements in communication infrastructure like 5G have enabled transformative changes in numerous industries with smart grid being one of them. The sector has already been witnessing a major shift from scale-driven, centralized and standardized model, to a digital, distributed and personalized one. It becomes imperative to embrace innovation at all levels of the grid. This paper discusses the three topmost disruptive trends in power sector that could have a widespread impact on traditional elements of power infrastructure viz. DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), IoT (Internet of Things) and Analytics. It analyzes the current stance of Indian smart grid sector on each of these trends, market positions, challenges and open issues. The paper then also discusses roadmap for the utilities companies and partners to sustain growth among these disruptive trends by focusing on customer engagements, reducing administrative costs by moving towards managed services, improving product quality and more.

Shweta Agarwal
Cyber Physical Security for Last Mile in Smart Grid

The last mile in smart grid comprise of gateways and electricity meters. These further can be connected to households (Residential), industrial and commercial Units or grid itself. Utility through network management systems provides controls operation of these edge devices. The smart edge devices further with the available processing power have potential to offer edge computing and control of smart devices and sensors connected to them. The distributed computing paradigm introduces a shift in security schemes. These edge devices are resource constrained devices limiting the choice in terms of security methods and requires decentralized trust model. This paper elaborates the threats and advantages of smart end points and edge computing and control. This also highlights how with inclusion of security at application layer helps bridge the gap of traditional enterprise security which focuses only on layer 3 and 4 for network security. Further the paper will take a closer look at various threats and how industrial protocol extends the traditional cyber security to include domain know how and business logics to provide better security against such threats. We conclude with how to future proof these solutions from future attacks and how securing last mile results in a secure smart grid.

Sonali Srivastava, Piyush Gupta
Exploring Alternative Energy Sources to Supplement and Cover the Downtime of Wind and Solar to Improve the Resilience of Smart Grids

This technical paper, based on engineering application aiming to promote secure and cost effective energy solution to all whoever connected to Smart Grid in general and in particular to those who are in solar or wind powered communities. At present, the solar technology has some issues at implementation level. In order to gain more popularity and to increase the customer confidence, the main key points need to be addressed and fixed. Some of the key points that are degrading the performance are like (1) The inability of solar panel to deliver consistently at varying higher temperatures, (2) Accumulation of dust specifically in places like Rajastan (India) where it demands frequent cleaning, (3) Hard water issues for cleaning purpose and difficulties in maintaining soft water plants at solar powered communities, (4) Frequent clouds and rains. To overcome these lapses and compensate, at BEES we are exploring the possibilities to utilize other renewable sources. For instance, how the threats like rains / stored water will be put to use and convert to our advantage and compensate the solar losses and other lapses. As per the initial investigation into this, we understand that our integrated system can comfortably achieve 4 h lead in 8 h span of expected solar power having capacity of 5 KW. In this paper we are describing few methods to show how one can generate extra power which can either extend the number of energy available hours or compensate the circumstantial losses in Smart Grid because of environmental conditions.

Srinivasa Murthy Lolla, Harish Pulluri, Bharadwaj Nidamarti, Raghava Srinivasa Nallanthighal
Energy Storage System—Applications and Case Study

This paper presents the application and business case study of Compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. To achieve low carbon emission, India is moving towards renewable energy sources and constantly reducing the carbon footprints. Transport ministry is also intending for India to move towards 100% electric cars by 2030. As per energy generation report, in year 2009–10 the power generation of India was short by 10% of the required power and by year 2018–19, this figure has dropped to 0.6%. India is targeting for installation of 175GW of Solar, wind and hybrid power plants by year 2022. It’s expected that in the coming years, India will be generating surplus power. In such scenario, a technology to store the energy can play a major role for Indian grid. Energy storage system can provide flexibility needed to better integrate the unreliable power generated by various energy sources and meet the flexible power demand. Technology in storage system is continuously upgrading and various modes of energy storage systems have developed in the recent time. Many pilot energy storage projects are successfully executed in the world. Asia is being considered as the hub for investment in energy storage market. In this paper, application, case studies and environmental impacts of CAES technologies shall be covered.

Swajjal Rastogi
Forecasting of Power Demand for Distribution Utilities Using Machine Learning Models

In order to provide 24 × 7 affordable and quality power to its customers, it is essential for the power utilities to take the correct decisions while doing power purchase. Traditionally, utilities in India have been using variables such as calendar data (Season, hour, holidays, etc.), weather forecast data (temperature, humidity, rainfall, etc.) and demand data (historical consumption of electricity i.e. monthly data available through consumer meters and feeder meters) for predicting future demand towards deciding the quantum of power to be purchased. But, due to growing use of distributed generation techniques such as roof-top solar, wind, biomass etc., the power demand scenario for the distribution utilities are changing. Also, basing daily demand predictions on monthly consumption data may result in incorrect estimations in power demands. Under these circumstances, traditional demand forecasting methods may prove to be inadequate for the utilities trying to provide uninterrupted as well as affordable power. The objective of this paper is to propose robust machine learning models by using huge volume of consumption data, made available to the utilities after implementation of smart metering with AMI, along with historical weather information and calendar data to accurately predict power demand thereby helping the utilities to take scientifically accurate power purchase decisions.

Tanmoy Mitra, Abhijit Das
Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Planning for Indian Distribution Sector

Massive target for adoption of Electric vehicle (EV) in India aims to save an estimated $60 billion in energy bills by 2030 and is way forward not only for meeting decrease carbon emissions by 37%, but also having immense health benefits for the public. Preparedness of robust electric vehicle charging infrastructure and power sector is necessary to facilitate electric mobility for India. This paper looks at India’s ambitious policy plans and prospects for EVs and its likely implications for India’s distribution sector. Issues in the deployment of charging infrastructure and possible solutions for existing challenges are proposed.

Tripta Thakur, Tushar Kumar
Adoption and Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms in Security Operations Centre for Critical Infrastructure

Perception of establishing a Security Operations Centre (SOC) depends on the criticality of information assurance and security operations in response to the ever-changing security threat landscape and adoption of formal security standards. From a security perspective, both IT and OT systems are vulnerable to similar threats—botnets, script kiddies, viruses and other malware. The key difference between the two environments, however, has to do with human safety. Typically critical infrastructures are provided with security measures like firewall, demilitarized zones, Intrusion prevention systems (IPS), Intrusion detection systems (IDS), anti virus etc. However, with new threats always around the corner, it's important to have a dedicated infrastructure to deal with these problems, like the SOC. SOC is a centralized unit that deals with security issues on an organizational and technical level. It can be used by utilities which form a part of critical infrastructure like power systems for any threat detection and taking timely action. Typically, SOC is divided into four layers i.e. data collection source, data processing, technologies and display platform. This paper gives an in depth review and comparison of the machine learning models that can be used by the SOC at different layers. Different machine learning models are to be applied at different layers, so its required to evaluate which models give better accuracy in detecting threats. For evaluation of ML algorithms cases covered in this paper are event correlation, breach detection, rule based processing and anomaly detection.

M. V. Yeshwanth, Rajesh Kalluri, M. Siddharth Rao, R. K. Senthil Kumar, B. S. Bindhumadhava
Metadaten
Titel
ISUW 2020
herausgegeben von
Reji Kumar Pillai
Prof. Girish Ghatikar
Vijay L. Sonavane
B. P. Singh
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-16-9008-2
Print ISBN
978-981-16-9007-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-9008-2